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In Part I. Vr\ Xt . \ H" 

pp. 270-297. In addition to the arguments there adduced to shew that the 
ancient sound of long i was (u) or (ii), and not (ei, ai, ai), Mr. James A. 
H. Murray has communicated to me some striking proofs from the Gaelic 
forms of English words and names, and English forms of Gaelic names, 
which will be given in Part IV. 

p. 302, 1. 14, blue is erroneously treated as a French word, but in the Alpha- 
betical List on the same page it is correctly given as anglosaxon. The 
corrections which this oversight renders necessary will be given in Part IV., 
in the shape of a cancel for this page, which could not be prepared in time 
for this Part. 

In Part II. 

p. 442, Paternoster, col. 2, vv. 4 and 8, for don, miis-doon 1 read doon, mis^doon*. 

p. 443, Credo 1, col. 2, 11. 4 and 7, for laverd, ded, read laa-verd, deed; Credo 2, 
col. 2, line 4, for loverd read loowerd. 

p. 462, verses, 1. 2, for Riehard read Richard. 

pp. 464-5. On the use of f for 5, and the possibility of } having been occasion- 
ally confused with (s) in speech, Mr. W. W. Skeat calls attention to the 
remarks of Sir F. Madden, in his edition of Lajamon, 3, 437. 

p. 468, Translation, col. 2, 1. 4, for hil read hill. 

p. 473, note, col. 2,1. 1, for 446 read 447 ; 1. 17, for (mee, dee, swee, pee) read 
(mee, dee, swee, pee) ; 1. 18, for may read May ; 1. 24-5 for (eint-mynt) read 

p. 503, 1. 8, pronunciation, for dead-litshe read dead'liitshe. 

p. 540, 1. 6, for haf'Sdi read hafSi. 

p. 549, 1. 5 from bottom of text, for mansaugur (maan - sceoei - J9r), read man- 
saungur (maan - sceoeiq - g^r). 

p. 550, Mr. H. Sweet has communicated to me the sounds of Icelandic letters as 
noted by Mr. Melville Bell from the pronunciation of Mr. Hjaltalin, which 
will be given in Part IV. 

p. 553, verse 30, col. 1, 1. 4, for alikalfii read aftkalfi; col. 2, 1. 4, for aa-li- 
kaaul'vi read aa'Kkaaulwi. 

p. 559, in the Haustlong ; 1. I, for er read es, 1. 2, for er read es ; 1. 4, for bauge 
read baugi ; 1. 5, for HeHesbror . . . bau - ge read HeHesbror . . . bau - ge ; 
line 7, for isarnleiki read isarnleiki. 

p. 560, note 1, 1. 2, for longr read langr. 

p. 599, col. 2, 1. 14, for demesne read demesne. 

p. 600, col. 1, 1. 6, for Eugene read Hugene. 

p. 614, Glossotype as a system of writing is superseded by Glossic, explained in 
the appendix to the notice prefixed to Part III. 

p. 617, col. 2, under n, 1. 4, for lpand read pland. 

In Part III. 

p. 639, note 2 for (spii'ralt, spes-ch') read (spii-streK, spesh'ult). 

p. 651. The numbers in the Table on this page are corrected on p. 725. 

p. 653, note 1. The memoir on Pennsylvania German by Prof. S. S. Haldeman, 
was read before the Philological Society on 3 June, 1870, and will be pub- 
lished separately ; Dr. M ombert, having gone to Europe, has not furnished 
any additions to that memoir, which is rich in philological interest. 

p. 680 to p. 725. Some trifling errors in printing the Critical Text and Pronun- 
ciation of Chaucer's Prologue are corrected on p. 724, note. 

p. 754, note I, for (abitee'shun) read (ab*taa - s/un). 

p. 789, col. 1, the reference after famat should be 759 4 . 

p. 791, col. 2, under much good do it you, for mychyoditio read mychgoditio ; and 
to the references add, p. 938, note 1. 

pp. 919-996. All the references to the Globe Shaksperc relate to the issue of 
1864, with which text every one has been verified at press. For later issues, 
the number of Hie page (and page only) here given, when it exceeds 1000, 
must be diminished by 3, thus VA 8 (1003), must be read as VA 8 C1000), 
and PT 42 (1057'), must be read as PT 42 (1054'). The cause of this dif- 
ference is that pages 1000, 1001, 1002, in the issue of 1864, containing only 
the single word Poems, have been cancelled in subsequent issues. 


NOTICE, pp. v-xii. 
GLOSSIC, pp. xiii-xx. 

CHAPTER VII. Illustrations of the Pronunciation of English 
during the Fourteenth Century, pp. 633-742. 
§ 1. Chaucer, pp. 633-725. 

Critical Text of Prologue, pp. 633-634. 

Pronunciation of Long U and of AY, ET, as deduced from a com- 
parison of the Orthographies of Seven Manuscripts of the Can- 
terbury Tales, pp. 634-646. 
Treatment of Final E in the Critical Text, pp. 646-648. 
Metrical Peculiarities of Chaucer, pp. 648-649. 
Chaucer's Treatment of French "Words, pp. 650-651. 
Pennsylvania German the Analogue of Chaucer's English, 

pp. 652-663. 
F. TV. Gesenius on the Language of Chaucer, pp. 664-671. 
M. Eapp on the Pronunciation of Chaucer, pp. 672-677. 
Instructions for Reading the Phonetic Transcript of the Prologue, 

pp. 677-679. 
Critical Text of the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, from a 
collation of seven MSS., in a systematic orthography, pp. 680- 
724 (even numbers). 
Conjectured Pronunciation of the same, pp. 681-725 (odd numbers). 
§ 2. Gower, pp. 726-739. 

The Punishment of Nebuchadnezzar, from Gower's " Confessio 
Amantis," Lib. 1, texts of three MSS., and conjectured pronun- 
ciation, pp. 728-737. 
Message from Venus to Chaucer, sent through Gower after his 
Shrift, texts of two MSS., systematic orthography, and con- 
jectured pronunciation, pp. 738-739. 
§ 3. TVycliffe, pp. 740-742. 
CHAPTER VIII. Illustrations of the Pronunciation of English 
during the Sixteenth Century, pp. 743-996. 

§ 1. William Salesbury's Account of "Welsh Pronimciation, 1567, 

pp. 743-768. 
§ 2. "William Salesbury's Account of English Pronunciation, 1547, 
original "Welsh text, and translation by Mr. E. Jones, revised by 
Dr. B. Davis, pp. 768-788. 
Index to the English and Latin "Words of which the Pronunciation 
is given or indicated in Salesbury's two Tracts, pp. 788-794. 
§ 3. John Hart's Phonetic "Writing, 1569, and the Pronunciation of 
French in the xvi th Century, pp. 794-838. 
Account of Hart's original MS., 1551, pp. 794-797, notes. 


Alexander Barcley's French Pronunciation, 1521, pp. 803-814. 
The Lambeth Fragment on French Pronunciation, 1528, 

pp. 814-816. 
Palsgrave on French Pronunciation, 1530, pp. 816-819. 
French Pronunciation according to the French Orthoepists of the 

xvi th Century, pp. 819-835. 
French Orthographic Rules in the xv th Century, pp. 836-838. 
§ 4. William Bullokar's. Phonetic "Writing, 1580, etc., pp. 838-845. 

English Pronunciation of Latin in the xvith Century, pp. 843-845. 
§ 5. Alexander Gill's Phonetic Writing, 1621, with an examination of 

Spenser's and Sidney's Rhymes, pp. 845-874. 
Extracts from Spenser's Faerie Queen, with Gill's pronunciation, 

pp. 847-852. 
Extracts from Sir Philip Sidney, Sir John Harrington and other 

poets, with Gill's pronunciation, pp. 852-855. 
Extracts from the Authorized Version of the Psalms, with Gill's 

pronunciation, pp. 855-857. 
An Examination of Spenser's Rhymes, p. 858. 
Faulty Rhymes observed in Moore and Tennyson, pp. 858-862. 
Spenser's Rhymes, pp. 862-871. 
Sir Philip Sidney's Rhymes, pp. 872-874. 
§ 6. Charles Butler's Phonetic Writing, and List of Words Like and 

Unlike, 1633-4, pp. 874-877. 
§ 7. Pronouncing Vocabulary of the xvi th Century, collected from Pals- 
grave 1530, Salesbury 1547, Cheke 1550, Smith 1568, Hart 

1569, Bullokar 1580, Gill 1621, and Butler, 1633, pp. 877-910. 
Extracts from Richard Mulcaster's Elementarie, 1582, pp. 910-915. 
Remarks from an Anonymous Black-letter Book, probably of the 

xvi th Century, pp. 915-917. 
§ 8. On the Pronunciation of Shakspere, pp. 917-996. 
Shakspere's Puns, pp. 920-927. 
Shakspere's Metrical Peculiarities, pp. 927-929. 
Miscellaneous Notes, pp. 929-930. 
Unusual Position of Accents, pp. 930-931. 
Gill on Accent and Metre, pp. 932-939. 
Contracted Words, pp. 939-940. 
Trissyllabic Measures, pp. 940-943. 
Alexandrine Verses, pp. 943-946. 
Shaksperian " Resolutions," Dissyllables corresponding to Modern 

Monosyllables, pp. 947-953. 
Shakspere's Rhymes, pp. 953-966. 

Mr. Richard Grant White's Elizabethan Pronunciation, pp. 966-973. 
Summary of the Conjectured Pronunciation of Shakspere, pp. 973- 

Specimens of the Conjectured Pronunciation of Shakspere, being 
Extracts from his Plays, following the Words of the Folio 
Edition of 1623, with Modern Punctuation and Arrangement, 

pp. 986-996. 


Indisposition, arising from overwork, has greatly delayed the 
appearance of this third part of my work, and a recent relapse, 
rendering the revision of the last seventy pages and the preparation 
of this notice extremely difficult, has compelled me to postpone to 
the next part the illustrations for the xvn th and xvm th centuries, 
which were announced to he included in the present. Three years 
or more will probably elapse before the remainder of the book can 
be published. 

The fourth and concluding part of this treatise is intended to 
consist of four chapters, two of which, devoted to the xvnth and 
xvm th centuries respectively, are now completely ready for press, 
and will therefore certainly appear either under my own or some 
other superintendence. In chapter XL, I am desirous of giving 
some account of Existing Varieties of English Pronunciation, dia- 
lectic, antiquated, American, colonial, and vulgar, for the purpose 
of illustrating the results of the preceding investigation. This can- 
not be properly accomplished without the extensive co-operation of 
persons familiar with each individual dialect and fonn of speech. I 
invite all those into whose hands these pages may fall to give me 
their assistance, or procure me the assistance of others, in collecting 
materials for this novel and interesting research, which promises to 
be of great philological value, if properly executed. Many hundred 
communications are desirable. There cannot be too many, even 
from the same district, for the purpose of comparison and control. 
As I hope to commence this examination early in 1872, it will be 
an additional favour if the communications are sent as soon as 
possible, and not later than the close of 1871. They should be 
written on small-sized paper, not larger than one of these pages, 
and only on one side, leaving a margin of about an inch at the top 
for reference notes, with the lines wide apart for insertions, and all 
the phonetic part written in characters which cannot be misread. 
Correspondents would much add to the value of their communi- 
cations by giving their full names and addresses, and stating 
the opportunities they have had for collecting the information 
sent. Eor the purpose of writing all English dialects in one 
alphabet on an English basis, I have improved the Glossotype of 
Chapter YL, and append its new form under the name of Glossic, 
with specimens which will shew the reader how to employ it, 
(pp. xiii-xx.) For the sake of uniformity and general intelligibility, 
I should feel obliged if those who favour me with communications 
on this subject would represent all peculiarities of pronunciation 
in the Glossic characters only, without any addition or alteration 
whatever. The little arrangements here suggested will, if carried 



out, save an immense amount of labour in making use of any com- 

The following table will shew the kind of work wanted. All 
the varieties of sound there named are known to exist at present, 
and there are probably many more. It is wished to localize them 
accurately, for the purpose of understanding the unmixed dialectic 
English of the xn th and xin th centuries, and to find traces of the 
pronunciations prevalent in the more mixed forms of the xrvth, 
xvi th, and xvn th centuries. Many of the latter will be found in 
Ireland and America, and in the ' vulgar' English everywhere. No 
pronunciation should be recorded which has not been actually heard 
from some speaker who uses it naturally and habitually. The older 
peasantry and children who have not been at school preserve the 
dialectic sounds most purely. But the present facilities of com- 
munication are rapidly destroying all traces of our older dialectic 
English. Market women, who attend large towns, have generally 
a mixed style of speech. The daughters of peasants and small 
farmers, on becoming domestic servants, learn a new language, and 
corrupt the genuine Doric of their parents. Peasants do not speak 
naturally to strangers. The ear must also have been long familiar 
with a dialectic utterance to appreciate it thoroughly, and, in order 
to compare that utterance with the Southern, and render it correctly 
into Glossic, long familiarity with the educated London speech is 
also necessary. Resident Clergymen, Nonconformist Ministers, 
National and British Schoolmasters, and Country Gentlemen with 
literary tastes, are in the best position to give the required informa- 
tion, and to these, including all members of the three Societies for 
whom this work has been prepared, I especially appeal. But the 
number of persons more or less interested in our language, who 
have opportunities of observing, is so great, that scarcely any one 
who reads these lines will be unable to furnish at least a few obser- 
vations, and it should be borne in mind that even one or two casual 
remarks lose their isolated character and acquire a new value when 
forwarded for comparison with many others. It is very desirable 
to detennine the systems of pronunciation prevalent in the Northern, 
"West and East and Central Midland, South Western, South Eastern, 
and purely Eastern dialects. The Salopian, Lincolnshire, and Kent 
Dialects are peculiarly interesting. Mr. James A. H. Murray's 
learned and interesting work on Lowland Scotch (London, Asher, 
1871) will shew what is really wanted for each of our dialectic 

In the following, unfortunately veiy imperfect, Table a few sug- 
gestive words are added to each combination of letters, and the 
presumed varieties of pronunciation are indicated both in Glossic 
and Palaeotype, but only in reference to the particular combinations 
of letters which head the paragraph. The symbols placed after 
the sign =, shew the various sounds which that combination of 
letters is known to have in some one or other of the exemplificative 
words, in some locality or other where English is the native lan- 
guage of the speaker. In giving information, however, the whole 



•word should be written in Glossic, as considerable doubt may 
attach to local pronunciations of the other letters, and the name of 
the locality, and of the class of speakers, should be annexed. The 
quantity of the vowel and place of the accent should be given in 
eveiy word, according to one of the two systems explained in the 
Key to Universal Glossic, p. xvi, and exhibited on pp. xix and xx. 
In writing single words, the accentual system, used on p. xx, is 
preferable. Great attention should be paid to the analysis of diph- 
thongs, and the Glossic ei, oi, ou, eu, should only be employed where 
the writer, being unable to analyse the sound accurately, confines 
himself to marking vaguely the class to which it belongs. The 
trilled r when occurring without a vowel following should always 
be carefully marked, and the untrilled r should never be marked 
unless it is distinctly heard. Each new word, or item of infor- 
mation, should commence on a new line. Thus : 

cord kaa-d or kdad Bath, workmen, petty traders, etc. 

card ka'd or had Bath, as before. 

beacon bai-kn or bdikn Bath, as before. 

key kar or kdi Bath, as before. 

fair feir or fayer fdyer fayiC Bath, country farming man. 

Table of Presumed Varieties 
A short in : tap cap bad cat mad sack 

bag ; doubtful in : staff calf half calve 

halve aftermath path father pass 

cast fast mash wash hand land plant 

ant want hang = a<?, a, a, aa, ah, au, 

o, ao, oa = (e, ae, ah, a, a, a, o, oo, oo). 
A long in : gape grape babe gaby late 

skate trade made ache cake ague 

plague safe save swathe bathe pa- 
tience occasion ale pale rare name 

same lane wane=ee, ai, e, ae, a, a', 

aa ; aiy, aili , aiu, ey, eeh', eeu = (H, 

ee, ee, ee, aeae, aah, aa ; eei, ee' , eed, 

eei, ii', iia.) 
AI, AY in: way hay pay play bray 

day clay gray say lay may nay, bait 

wait aid maid waif waive ail pail 

trail fair hair chair pair stair =ee, ai, 

e, ae, aa ; aiy, aay, aa'y = (ii, ee, 

ee, ee, aa; eei, ai, aai.) 
AU, AW in ; paw daw thaw saw law 

raw maw gnaw, bawl maul maunder, 

aunt haunt gaunt daughter = aa, ah, 

au, ao, oa ; aaw, auw = (aa, aa, aa, 

oo, oo ; au. au). 
E short in : kept swept neb pretty wet 

wed feckless keg Seth mess guess 

very hell hem hen yes yet = i, e, 

ai, ae, « = («', e, e, e, ae.) 
E long in : glede complete decent 

extreme here there where me he she 

we \>e=ee, ai, e, ae, a? = (ii, ee, ee, 

EE, 0283 ?) 

of English Pronunciation. 

EA in : leap eat seat meat knead mead 
read speak squeak league leaf leave 
wreathe heath breathe crease ease 
leash weal ear, a tear, seam wean ; 
yea great break bear wear, to tear ; 
leapt sweat instead head thread 
spread heavy heaven weapon leather 
weather measure health wealth = ee, 
ai, e, ae ; eeh', aih' ; yaa = (ii, ee, 
ee e, ee e ; ii', ee', ja.) 

EE in : sheep weed heed seek beef 
beeves teeth seethe fleece trees heel 
seem seen = ee, ai ; aiy, ey = (ii,ee; 
ei, ei) 

EI, EY in : either neither height 
sleight Leigh Leighton conceive 
neive seize convey key prey hey grey 
=ee, ai ; aay, uuy, uy = (ii, ee ; ai, 
ai, oi). 

EO in : people leopard Leominster 
Leopold Theobald =ee, e, i, eeoa, 
eeu = (ii, e, i, iioo, iia). 

ETJ, EW in pew few hew yew ewe 
knew, to mew, the mews, chew Jew 
new shew shrew Shrewsburv stew 
threw sew grew brew=eeto, ito, aiw, 
ew, aeiv, aiv, ui, tie, new, eo, eow, oo, 
oa, oaw uwoj aa, ah, au ; yoc = (iu, 
m, eu, eu, eu. am, n, yv. yn, ", hi, 
uu, oo, oow, eu ; aa, aa. aa ; joo.) 

I short in : hip crib pit bid sick gig 
stiff, to live, smith smithy withy hiss 
his fish fill swin sin first possible 
charity furniture =ee, i, e, ce, a, u, 
u = (i, i, e, e, ae, a, «). 



I long in : wipe gibe kite hide strike 
knife knives wife wives scythe blithe 
ice twice thrice wise pile bile rime 
pine fire shire ; sight right might 
light night fright fight pight ; sight 
rye my lie nigh fry fye pie = «, ee, 
ai, au ; iy, aiy, ey, aay, ahy any, 
uy, uuy = {ii, ii, ee, aa ; ii, ei, ei, 
ai, ai, Ai, oi, ai). 

IE in : believe grieve sieve friend fiend 
field yield =ee, i, e, at = (ii, i, i, e, e). 

short, and doubtful, in : mop knob 
knot nod knock fog dog off office 
moth broth brother mother pother 
other moss cross frost pollard Tom 
ton son done gone morning song 
long=o, oa, ao, au, aa, u, uo = (o 09, 
o, o, a aa, a, 9, u). 

long, A, and OE in : hope rope soap 
note goat oats rode road oak stroke 
joke rogue oaf loaf loaves oath loth 
loathe goes foes shoes lose roll hold 
gold fold sold home roam hone groan 
= oo, oa, ao, au, ah, aa ; ee, ai ; 
eeh', aili ', oah', aoK , oau, aaw, uw, 
uuw ; ye, ya, yaa ; woa = (uu, o oo, 
oo, aa, aa, aa; ii, ee ; ii', ee- , oo', 
oo', 009, au, 9U, au, je, ja3, ja ; woo). 

01, OY in : join loin groin point joint 
joist hoist foist boil oil soil poison 
ointment ; joy hoy toy moil noise 
boisterous foison = oy, auy, aay, oay, 
aoy, uy, uuy, ooy, u ; waay, wuuy, 
woy = (oi, ai, ai, oi, oi, 9i, ai, ui, 9 ; 
wai, wai, woi). 

00 in : hoop hoot soot hood food aloof 
groove sooth soothe ooze tool groom 
room soon moon ; cook look shook 
brook; loose goose =oo, uo, ui, ue, 
eo ; eoK, oeh\ uuw = {\x\x u, u, ii, 
yy, 99; »f, oe', au). 

OU, OW in : down town now how 
flower sow cow, to bow Jlectere, 
a bow arcus, a bowl of soup 
cyathus, a bowling green ; plough 
round sound mound hound thou out 
house flour ; found bound ground ; 
our ; brought sought fought bought 
thought ought nought soul four; 
blow snow below, a low bough, the 
cow lows, a row of barrows, a great 
row tumultus, crow, know ; owe, 
own =oo, uo, uo', oa, oa', aa, ah, 
au, ai ; ctaiv, uw, uuw, oaw, aow, 
uiw, uew,eow, eo t tv, oe t w = {uu u, uu 
u, wh, oo o, oh, aa, aa, aa, ee ; au, 
9U, au, oou, oou, iu, yu, »u, <>y, coy). 

U short in : pup cub but put bud cud 
pudding much judge suck lug sugar 
stuff bluff busy business hush bush 
crush push rush blush bushel cushion 

bull pull hull hulk bulk bury burial 
church rum run punish sung = w, 
uu, uo, oa' , i, e, ue, eo = (a, a, «, 
oh, i, e, y, 9). 
TJ long and UI, UY in: mute fruit 
bruise cruise, the use, to use, the 
refuse, to refuse, mule true sue fury 
sure union =yoo, eew, ue, uew, uiw, 
eo, eow, eou = (ixm, iu, yy, yu, tju, 

99, 9VL, 99). 


B mute or = p, f, v, v', w = (p, f, v, 
bh, w). 

C hard and K in : cat card cart sky etc. 
= Je, ky', g, gy' =(k, kj, g, gj). 

C soft = s, sh = (s, sh). 

CH in : beseech church cheese such 
much etc. = ch, k, kh, kyh, sh = (tsh, 
k, kh, kh, sh). 

D =d, dh, t, th = (d, dh, t, th). 

F=/, v=(f, v). 

G hard in : guard garden, etc. =g, gy', 
y = (g, gj, j), ever heard before n as 
in : gnaw, gnat ? 

G soft, and J in : bridge ridge fidget 
fudge budge =/, # = (dzh, g). 

GH in : neigh weigh high thigh nigh 
burgh laugh daughter slaughter 
bough cough hiccough dough chough 
shough though lough clough plough 
furlough, slough of a snake, a deep 
slough, enough through borough 
thorough trough sough tough = mute 
or g, yh, gyh, kh, kyh, f, f, wh, 
w, oo, p = (g, gh, ^h, kh, kh, f, ph, 
wh, w, u, p). 

H regularly pronounced ? regularly 
mute ? often both, in the wrong 
places ? custom in : honest habita- 
tion humble habit honour exhibi- 
tion prohibition hour hospital host 
hostler hostage hostile shepherd 
cowherd Hebrew hedge herb hermit 
homage Hughes hue humility (h)it 
(h)us ab(h)ominably ? 

J see G soft. 

K see C hard ; ever heard before n in : 
know knit knave knob ? 

L mute in : talk walk balk falcon fault 
vault, alms P syllabic in : stabl-ing 
juggl-er ? sounded ml, ul, h'l = {u\, 
al, '1) after o long ? voiceless as Ih ? 

M any varieties ? syllabic in : el-m, 
whel-m, fil-ni, wor-m, war- m ? 

N nasalizing preceding vowel ? ever = 
vg ? not syllabic in : fall'n, stol'n, 
swoll'n ? 

NG in : long longer hanger danger 
stranger linger linger singer, strength 



length =ng, ngg, nj, n — (q, qg, ndzh, 
n) ; ever ngg or ngk=(qg, qk) when 
final in : sing thing nothing ? 

P ever confused with b ? ever post- 
aspirated as p^h = (pH) ? 

QU = kw\ Jew, kwh ?=(kw, kw, kwh. ?). 

K not preceding a vowel ; vocal =r= 
(j), or trilled = r'=(r), or guttural 
= ';•, i rh = (r, rh), or mute ? How 
does it affect the preceding vowel 
in : far cart wart pert dirt shirt 
short hnrt fair care fear shore oar 
court poor ? ever transposed in : 
grass bird etc. ? trilled, and develop- 
ing an additional vowel in : wor-ld 
cur-1 wor-m wor-k ar-m ? 

R preceding a vowel ; always trilled = 
r = (r), or guttural = ';• = (>•) 
ever labial = l w, 'br = (in, brh) P 
Inserted in : draw(r)ing, saw(r)ing, 
law(r) of land, etc. ? 

R between vowels : a single trilled r', 
or a vocal r followed by a trilled r' = 
rr', AV = (ir, 'r) ? 

S = s, z, sh, zh ? = (s, z, sh, zh ?) ; regu- 
larly z? regularly lisped = fh ? = 

SH = s, sh, zh = (s, sh, zh) , or, regularly 
zh = (zh)? 

T=t, d, th, s, sh, tji = (t, d, th, s, 
sh, tH). 

TB.=t, d, th, tth, dh,f=(t, d, th, tth, 
dh, f ) in : fifth sixth eighth with 
though whether other nothing etc. 

V =v, v', w = (bh, w), or regularly w ? 
W = w, v', v = (w, bh, v). Is there a 

regular interchange of v, to ? inserted 
before and 01 in : home hot coat 
point etc. ? regularly omitted in : 
wood wooed would woo wool woman 
womb, etc. ? pronounced at all in : 
write, wring, wrong, wreak, wrought, 
wrap, etc. ? any instances of ivl pro- 
nounced as in : lisp wlonk lukewarm 
wlating loathing wlappe wlite ? 

WH =w, wh, f, f, kwh =(w, wh, f, 
ph, kwh). 

X=A, ks,gz? 

Y inserted in : ale head, etc ; regu- 
larly omitted in ye, yield, yes, yet, 
etc. ? 

7i=z, zh = (z, zh). 

Unaccented Syllables. 
Mark, if possible, the obscure sounds 
which actually replace unaccented 
vowels before and after the accented 
syllable, and especially in the unaccent- 
ed terminations, of which the following 
words are specimens, and in any other 
found noteworthy or peculiar. 

1) -and, husband brigand headland 
midland, 2) -end, dividend legend, 3) 
-ond, diamond almond, 4) -und, rubi- 
cund jocund, 5) -ard, haggard niggard 
sluggard renard leopard, 6) -erd, hal- 
berd shepherd, 7) -ance, guidance de- 
pendance abundance clearance temper- 
ance ignorance resistance, 8) -ence, 
licence confidence dependence patience, 
9) -age, village image manage cabbage 
marriage, 10) -ege, privilege college, 
1 1) -some, meddlesome irksome quarrel- 
some, 12) -sure, pleasure measure lei- 
sure closure fissure, 13) -tare, creature 
furniture vulture venture, 14) -ate, [in 
nouns] laureate frigate figurate, 15) al, 
cymbal radical logical cynical metrical 
poetical local medial lineal, 16) -el, 
camel pannel apparel, 17) -ol, carol 
wittol, 1 8) -am, madam quondam Clap- 
ham, 19) -om, freedom seldom fathom 
venom, 20) -an, suburban logician his- 
torian Christian metropolitan, and the 
compounds of man, as : woman, etc. , 
21) -en, garden children linen 
woollen, 22) -on, deacon pardon 
fashion legion minion occasion pas- 
sion vocation mention question felon, 
23) -em, eastern cavern, 24) -ar, vicar 
cedar vinegar scholar secular, 25) -er, 
robber chamber member render, 26) 
-or, splendor superior tenor error actor 
victor, 27) -our, labour neighbour 
colour favour, 28) -ant, pendant ser- 
geant infant quadrant assistant truant, 

29) -ent, innocent quieseent president, 

30) -acy, fallacy primacy obstinacy, 31) 
-ancy, infancy tenaney constancy, 32) 
-ency, decency tendency currency, 33) 
-ary, beggary summary granary lite- 
rary notary, 34) -ery, robbery bribery 
gunnery, 35) -ory, priory cursory ora- 
tory victory history, 36) -ury, usury 

Also the terminations separated by a 
hyphen, in the following words : sof-a 
ide-a, sirr-ah, her-o stucc-o potat-o 
tobacc-o, wid-ow yell-ow fell-ow shad- 
-ow sorr-ow sparr-ow, val-ue neph-ew 
sher-iff, bann-ock hadd-ock padd-ock 
= frog, poss-ible poss-ibility, stom-ach 
lil-ach, no-tice poul-tice, prel-acy pol- 
-icy, cer-tain, Lat-in, a sing-ing, a 
be-ing, pulp-it vom-it rabb-it, mouth- 
-ful sorrow-ful, terri-fy signi-fy, child- 
-hood, maiden-bead, rap-id viv-id 
tep-id, un-ion comnnm-ion, par-ish 
per-ish, ol-ive rest-ive, bapt-ize civil- 
-ize, ev-il dev-il, tru-ly sure-ly, har- 
-mony matri-mony, hind -most ut- 
-most better-most fore-most, sweet- 


-ness, right-eous pit-eous plent-eous, 
friend-ship, tire-some whole-some, na- 
-tion na-tional, pre-cious procli-gious, 
offi-cial par-tial par-tiality, spe-cial 
spe-ciality spe-cialty, ver-dure or-dure, 
fi-gure, in-jure con-jure per-jure, plea- 
-sure mea-sure trea-sure lei-sure cock- 
-sure cen-sure pres-sure fis-sure, fea- 
ture crea-ture minia-ture na-ture 
na-tural litera-ture sta-ture frac-ture 
conjcc-ture lec-ture architec-ture pic- 
-ture stric-ture junc-ture pune-ture 
strue-ture cul-tiire vul-ture ven-ture 
cap-ture rap-ture scrip-ture depar-ture 
tor-ture pas-ture ves-ture fu-ture fix- 
-ture seiz-ure, for-ward back-ward 
up-ward down-ward, like-wise side- 
wise, mid-wife house-wife good-wife. 

All inflexional terminations, as in : 
speak-eth speak-sadd-s spok-enpierc-ed 
breatk-ed princ-es prince-'s church-es 
church-'s path-s path-'s wolv-es ox-en 
vix-en, etc. Forms of participle and 
verbal noun in -ing. 

Note also the vowel in unaccented 
prefixes, such as those separated by 
a hyphen in the following words : 
a-mong a-stride a-las, ab-use, a-vert, 
ad-vance, ad-apt ad-mire ac-cept af-frx' 
an-nounce ap-pend, a-l-ert', al-cove 
a-byss, auth-entie, be-set be-gin, bin- 
-ocular, con-ceal con-cur con-trast' 
con-trol, de-pend de-spite de-bate de- 
-stroy de-feat, de-fer', (Ua-meter, di- 
-rect dis-cuss, e-lope, en-close in-close, 
ex-cept e-vent e-mit ec-lipse, for-bid, 
fore-tell, gain-say, mis-deed mis-guide, 
ob-ject' ob-lige oc-casion op-pose, per- 
-vert, pre-cede pre-fer', pro-mote pro- 
-duce' pro-pose, pur-sue, re-pose, sub- 
-jectf suf-fice, sur-vey sur-pass, sus- 
-pend, to-morrow to-gether, trans-fer 
trans-scribe, un-fit, un-til. 

Position of Accent. 
Mark any words in which unusual, 
peculiar, or variable positions of accent 
have been observed, as : illus'trate 
illustrate, demonstrate demonstrate, 
ap'plicable applicable, despicable de- 
spic'able, aspect aspect', or'deal (two 
syllables) orde'al (three syllables), etc. 

Names of numerals 1, 2, by units to 
20, and by tens to 100, with thousand 
and million. Peculiar names of num- 
bers as: pair, eouple, Leash, half dozen, 
dozen, long dozen, gross, long gross, 
half score, score, long score, long hun- 
dred, etc., with interpretation. Pecu- 

liar methods of counting peculiar 
classes of objects. Ordinals, first, se- 
cond, etc., to twentieth, thirtieth, etc., 
to hundredth, then thousandth and 
millionth. Numeral adverbs : once, 
twice, thrice, four times, some times, 
many times, often, seldom, never, etc., 
Single, simple, double, treble, quadru- 
ple, etc., fourfold, mani-fold, etc., three- 
some, etc. Each, either, neither, both, 
some, several, any, many, enough, enow, 
every. Names of peculiar weights and 
measures or quantities of any kind by 
which particular kinds of goods are 
bought and sold or hired, with their 
equivalents in imperial weights and 
measures. Names of division of time : 
minute, hour, day, night, week, days 
of week, sevennight, fortnight, month, 
names of months, quarter, half-quarter, 
half, twelvemonth, year, century, age, 
etc., Christmas, Michaelmas, Martin- 
mas, Candlemas, Lammas, Lady Day, 
Midsummer, yule, any special festivals 
or days of settlement. Any Church 
ceremonies, as christening, burying, etc. 

Articles ; the, th', t', e', a, an, etc. 
Demonstratives : this, that, 'at, thick, 
thack, thuck, they = J;e, them = ham, 
thir thor thors these. Personal pro- 
nouns in all cases, especially peculiar 
forms and remnants of old forms, as : 
I me ich 'ch, we us, bus buz, thou thee, 
ye you, he him 'en=hine, shehoo = 
heo her, it hit, its his, they them 
'em=hem, etc. 

Auxiliary verbs : to be, to have, in 
all their forms. Use of shall and will, 
should and would. All irregular or 
peculiar forms of verbs. 

Adverbs and conjunctions : no, yes, 
and, but, yet, how, perhaps, etc. Pre- 
positions : in, to, at, till, from, etc. 

Peculiar syntax and idioms : I arc, 
we is, thee loves, thou beest, thou ist, 
he do, they does, I see it = saw it, etc. 

Negative and other contracted forms : 
don't doesn't aint aren't ha'nt isn't 
wouldn't couldn't shouldn't musn't 
can't canna won't wunna dinna didn't, 
etc., I'm thou'rt he's w T c're you're I've 
I'ld I'd I'll, etc. 


The above illustrated in connected 
forms, accent cd and unaccented, by short 
sentences, introducing the commonest 
verbs : take, do, pray, beg, stand, lie 
down, come, think, find, love, believe, 
shew, stop, sew, sow, must, ought, to 



use, need, lay, please, suffer, live, to 
lead, doubt, eat, drink, taste, mean, 
care, etc., and the nouns and verbs re- 
lating to : bodily parts, food, clothing, 
shelter, family and social relations, 
agriculture and manufacture, processes 
and implements, domestic animals, birds, 
fish, house vermin, heavenly bodies, 
weather, etc. 

Sentences constructed like those of 
French, German, and Teviotdale in 
Glossic, p. xix, to accumulate all the 
peculiarities of dialectic utterances in a 

Every peculiar sentence and word 
should be written fully in Glossic, and 
have its interpretation in ordinary 
language and spelling, as literal as 
possible, and peculiar constructions 
should be explained. 

Comparative Specimen. 

In order to compare different dialects, 
it is advisable to have one passage writ- 
ten in the idiom and pronunciation of 
all. Passages from the Bible are highly 
objectionable. Our next most familiar 
book is, perhaps, Shakspere. The fol- 
lowing extracts from the Two Gentle- 
men of Verona, act 3, sc. 1, sp. 69-133, 
have been selected for their rustic tone, 
several portions having been omitted as 
inappropriate or for brevity. Transla- 
tions into the proper words, idiom, and 
pronunciation of every English dialect 
would be very valuable. 

The Milkmaid, her Virtues and, Vices. 

Launce. He lives not now that 
knows me to be in love. Yet I am in 
love. But a team of horse shall not 
pluck that from me, nor who 'tis I 
love — and yet 'tis a woman. But 
what woman, I will not tell myself — 
and yet 'tis a milkmaid. Here is a 
cate-log of her condition. ' Imprimis : 
She can fetch and carry.' Why a 
horse can do no more ; nay, a horse 
cannot fetch, but only carry ; there- 
fore is she better than a jade. ' Item : 
She can milk;' look you, a sweet 
virtue in a maid with clean hands. 

[Enter Speed. 

Speed. How now ! what news in 
your paper ? 

Launce. The blackest news that 
ever thou heardest. 

Speed. Why, man, how black ? 

Launce. Why, as black as ink. 

Speed. Let me read them. 

Launce. Fie on thee, jolt-head ! 
thou canst not read. 

Speed. Thou liest; I can. Come, 
fool, come ; try me in thy paper. 

Launce. There; and Saint Nicholas 
be thy speed ! 

Speed, [reads'] ' Imprimis : she can 

Launce. Ay, that she can. 

Speed. ' Item : she brews good ale.' 

Launce. And thereof comes the pro- 
verb : ' Blessing of your heart, you 
brew good ale.' 

Speed. ' Item : she can sew.' 

Launce. That's as much as to say, 
Can she so ? 

Speed. ' Item : She can wash and 

Launce. A special virtue ; for then 
she need not be washed and scoured. 

Speed. ' Item : she can spin.' 

Launce. Then may I set the world 
on wheels, when she can spin for her 

Speed. ' Here follow her vices.' 

Launce. Close at the heels of her 

Speed. ' Item : she doth talk in her 

Launce. It's no matter for that, so 
she sleep not in her talk. 

Speed. ' Item : she is slow in words.' 

Launce. villain, that set down 
among her vices ! To be slow in words 
is a woman's only virtue : I pray thee, 
out with't, and place it for her chief 

Speed. ' Item : she is proud.' 

Lawnce. Out with that too ; it was 
Eve's legacy, and cannot be ta'en from 

Speed. ' Item : she will often praise 
her liquor.' 

Launce. If her liquor be good, she 
shall ; if she will not, I will ; for good 
things should be praised. 

Speed. ' Item : she hath more hair 
than wit, and more faults than hairs, 
and more wealth than faults.' 

Launce. Stop there ; I'll have her ; 
she was mine, and not mine, twice or 
thrice in that last article. Rehearse 
that once more. 

Speed. ' Item : She hath more hair 
than wit.' 

Launce. More hair than wit ? It 
may be ; I'll prove it. The cover of 
the salt hides the salt, and therefore it 
is more than the salt : the hair that 
covers the wit is more than the wit, for 
the greater hides the less. What's next ? 


Speed. 'And more faults than hairs.' he hath stayed for a hetter man than 

Launce. That's monstrous : 0, that thee, 

that were out ! Speed. And must I go to him ? 

Speed. 'And more wealth than faults.' Launce. Thou must run to him, for 

Lauuce. Why, that word makes the thou hast stayed so long, that going will 

faults gracious. Well, I'll have her : scarce serve the turn, 

and if it be a match, as nothing is im- Speed. Why didst thou not tell me 

possible, — sooner ? pox of your love-letters ! 

Speed. What then ? [Exit. 

Launce. Why, then will I tell thee Launce. Now will he be swinged 

— that thy master stays for thee at the for reading my letter — an unmannerly 

North-gate. slave, that will thrust himself into 

Speed. For me ? secrets ! I'll after, to rejoice in the 

Launce. For thee ! ay, who art thou ? boy's correction. [Exit. 

Of course it would be impossible to enter upon the subject at 
great length in Chapter XI. The results will have to be given 
almost in a tabular form. But it is highly desirable that a complete 
account of our existing English language should occupy the atten- 
tion of an ENGLISH DIALECT SOCIETY, and I solicit all cor- 
respondents to favour me with their views on this subject, and to 
state whether they would be willing to join such a body. At the 
same time I must request permission, owing to the necessity of 
mental repose on this subject, to abstain from more than simply 
acknowledging the receipt of their communications during 1871. 

In Chap. XII. I hope to consider the various important papers 
which have recently appeared, bearing upon the present investiga- 
tions, especially those by Dr. "Weymouth, Mr. Payne, Mr. Murray, 
Mr. Eurnivall, and Herr Ten Brink, together with such criticisms 
on my work as may have appeared before that chapter is printed. 
Any reader who can point out apparent errors and doubtful con- 
clusions, or who can draw my attention to any points requiring 
revision, or supply omissions, or indicate sources of information 
which have been overlooked, will confer a great favour upon me by 
communicating their observations or criticisms within the year 
1871, written in the manner already suggested. The object of 
these considerations, as of my whole work, is, not to establish a 
theory, but to approximate as closely as possible to a recoveiy of 
Early English Pronunciation. 

Those who have read any portion of my book will feel assured 
that no kind assistance that may thus be given to me will be left 
unacknowledged when published. And as the work is not one for 
private profit, but an entirely gratuitous contribution to the histoiy 
of our language, produced at great cost to the three Societies which 
have honoured me by undertaking its publication, I feel no hesita- 
tion in thus publicly requesting aid to make it more worthy of the 
generosity which has rendered its existence possible. 

Alexander J. Ellis. 

25, Argyll Road, Kensington, London, W. 
13 February, 1871. 

Appendix to the Notice prefixed to Part III. 




Read the large capital letters always in the senses they have in the 
following words, tvhich are all in the usual spelling except the three 
underlined, meant for foot, then, rouge. 

bEEt bAIt bAA cATTl cOAl cOOl 
knIt nEt gnAt nOt nUt fIJOt 

hEIght fOIl fOUl fEUd " 

Yea Wat WHey Hay 

Pea Bee Toe Doe CHest Jest Keep Gape 

Fee Vie THik PHex Seal Zeal buSH bottZHe 
eaR R'eng eaRR'eng Lay May Nay siNG 

R is vocal when no vowel follows, and Mark emphasis hy (•) before a word. 

modifies the preceding vowel form- Pronounce el, em, en, er, ej, a, ob- 

ing diphthongs, as in pEER, pAIR, scurely, after the stress syllable. 

bOAR, bOOR, hERb. When three or more letters come to- 
Use R for R' and RR for RR', when gether of which the two first may 

a vowel follows, except in elemen- form a digraph, read them as such. 

tary books, where r' is retained. Letters retain their usual names, and 
Separate th, dh, sk, zh, ng by a alphabetical arrangement. 

hyphen (-) when necessary. Words in customary or NOMIC spell- 
Read a stress on the first syllable ing occurring among GLOSSIC, 

when not otherwise directed. and conversely, should be underlined 

Mark stress by (•) after a long vowel with a wavy line ^^^, and printed 

or ei, oi, ou, eu, and after the first with spaist letters, or else in 

consonant following a short vowel. a different type. 

Spesimen ov Ingglish Glosik. 

Noiitk, (dhat iz, kustemeri Ingglish speling, soa kauld from 
dhi Greek nom'os, kustem,) konvarz noa intimai'shen ov dhi 
risee'vd proanunsiarshen ov eni werd. It iz konsikwentli veri 
dinkelt too lem too reed, and stil moar difikelt too lem too reit. 

Ingglish Glosik (soa kauld from dhi Greek gloas'sa, tung) 
konvai - z whotever proanunsiarshen iz intended bei dhi reiter. 
Glosik buoks kan dhairfoar bee maid too inrpaart risee - vd 
aurthoa - ipi too aul reederz. 

Ingglish Glosik iz veri eezi too reed. Widh proper training, a 
cheild ov foar yeerz oald kan bee redili taut too giv dhi egzak-t 
sound ov eni glosik werd prizemted too him. Aaftcr hee haz 
akwei-rd familiariti widh glosik reeding hee kan lern nomik 
reeding aulmoast widhou't instruk'shen. Dhi hoal tcim rikweiTd 
faur lerning loath glosik and nomik, iz not haaf dhat rikwei*rd 
faur lerning nomik aloam. Dhis iz impoa'rtent, az nomik buoks 
and paiperz aar dhi oanli egzis - ting soarsez ov infermai'shen. 



Glosik reiting iz akwerrd in dhi proases ov glosik reeding. Eni 
wun hoo kan reed glosik, kan reit eni werd az wel az hee kan 
speek it, and dhi proper moad ov speeking iz lemt bei reeding 
glosik buoks. But oaing too its pikeu'lier konstruk"sben, glosik 
speling iz imee - dietli inteHjibl, widhou't a kee, too eni nomik 
reeder. Hens, a glosik reiter kan komeu-nikait widb aul reederz, 
wheclher glosik aur nomik, and baz dbairfoar noa need too bikum" 
a nomik reiter. But bee *kan bikunr wun, if serkemstensez render 
it dizerrrabl, widh les trubl dhan dboaz hoo bav not lernt glosik. 

Dhi novelti ov dhi prczent skeem faur deeling widh dhi Speling 
Diiikelti iz, that, wheil it maiks noa chainj in dhi habits ov egzis - - 
ting reederz and reiterz, and graitli fasiHtaits lerning too reed our 
prezent buoks, it enterrli obviaits dhi nisesiti ov leming too reit 
in dhi euzbeuel komplikaited fashen. 

Dhi abuv aar edeukarshenel and soashel eusez ov Glosic. It 
iz beer introadeirst soalli az a meenz ov reiting Aul Egzisting 
Varei'itiz ov Ingglish Proanunsiarshen l bei meenz ov "Wun Alfa- 
bet on a wel noan Ingglish baisis. 

1 Eevn aiming - heili edeukaited Ing- 
glishmen, maarkt vareritis ov proa- 
nunsiai - shen egzis-t. If wee inklood 
proaviirshel deialekts and vulgaritiz, 
dhi number ov dheez varei'itiz wil bee 
inauTmusli inkree - st. Dhi eer ri- 
kwei'rz much training, bifoar it iz 
aibl too apree'skiait mineirt shaidz ov 
sound, dhoa it redili diskrinrinaits 
braud diferensez. Too meet dhis difl- 
kelti dbis skeem haz been diveidedmtoo 
•too. Dhi ferst, aur Ingglish Glosik, 
iz adap - ted faur reiting Ingglish az wel 
az dhi autherz ov proanounsing dik- 
sheneriz euzheueli koutemplait. Dhi 
sekend aur Euniversel Glosik, aimz at 
giving simbelz faur dhi moast mineu't 
f'oanetik anaWsis yet achee-vd. Dhus, 
in dhi ferst, dhi foar difthongz ei, oi, 
ou, etc, aar striktli konven-shenel seinz, 
and pai noa heed too dhi grait varei'iti 
ov waiz in which at leest sum ov dhem 
aar habit'eucli proanou-nst. Agai'n, 
eer, air, oar, oor, aar stil ritn widh ee, 
a i, on, on, auldhoa - an ateivtiv lisner 
\n\ redili rekogneiz a mineu t aulte- 
rai-shen in dheir soimdz. Too fasikitait 
reiting wee mai euz el, em, en, ej, a, 
when not under dhi stres, faur dhoaz 
obskcirr soundz which aar soa preva- 
lent in speech, dhoa reprobaittd bei 
aurthoiripists, and sin gk dhi disting-k- 
shen bitwee-n i, and ee, under dhi saim 
Berkemstensez. Aulsoa dhi sounds in 
defer, occur, deferring, occur- 
ring may bee aulwaiz ritn with er, 
dims difer', oker', difer'ring, okarring, 
dhi dublinK ov dhi r in dhi 'too laast 

werdz sikeirrring dhi voakel karakter 
ov dhi ferst r, and dhi tril ov dhi 
sekend, and dhus disting-gwishing 
dheez soundz from dhoaz herd in her'- 
iiiff, ok/irens. Konsid-erabl ekspee - r- 
riens sujes - ts dhiz az a konvee - nient 
praktikel aurthoa - ipi. But faur dhi 
reprizentai-shen ov deialekts, wee re- 
kwei - r jenereli a much strikter noatai - - 
shen, and faur aurthoaep - ikel diskrip 1 - 
shen, aur seientifik foanet-ik dis- 
kuslren, sumthing stil moar painfuoli 
mineut. A feu sentensez aar anek - st, 
az dhai aar reuderd bei Wauker and 
Melvil Bel, ading dhi Autherz oan 
koloa - kwiel uterens, az wel az hee kan 
estimait it. 

Praktikel. Endevcr faur dhi best, 
and proavei'd agcn-st dhi werst. Ni- 
ses'iti iz dhi mudher ov inven'shen. 
Hee - hoo wonts konteirt kanot feind 
an eezi chair. 

Wauker. Endevur faur dhe best, 
and pr'oavaay-d agen - st dhe wurst. 
Neeses'cetee iz dhe mudlrur ov inven'- 
shun. Hee - hoo wonts konten - t kair- 
not faaynd an ee'zee chair. 

Melvil Bel. Endaevu'r fo'r dhi' 
baest, a'nd pr'aovaayd a'gaeulrst dhi' 
wuurst. Neesacs - iti iz dhi' muudhu'r 
o'v iiivaenh - shu'n. Hee - hoo waunlrts 
ko'ntaenh't kano't faaynd a'n ee # zi 

Elis. Endevu' fu')dhi)bes-t u'n)- 
pr'oa'vuyd u'geu - st dhi)wu - st. Ni- 
ses-iti)z dlii)mudlru'r' u'v)inven - shu'n. 
Hee- hoo) woirts ku'nten-t kau - ut fuynd 
u'u)eezi che - u'. 




Small Capitals throughout indicate 
English Glossic Characters as on p. xiii. 
Large capitals point out the most im- 
portant additional vowel signs. 

The Thirty-six Vowels of Mr. A. 
Melville Bell's "Visible Speech." 

T3 ^ 


M £ a 

M S 


PQ & fa 





uu' ea ee 

u' r 




AA A' 



ua ua' AE 

AH E' 



Wide Bound. 


oo ui' ui 

uo uo' 



oa oa' EO 

AO ao' 



au au' eo' 

o o' 


Brief Key to the Vowels. 

a as in English gnat. 

A' (read ai-huok) fine southern Eng- 
lish ask, between aa and e. 

aa as in English baa. 

AE usual provincial English e, French 
e, German a. 

AH broad German ah, between aa & au. 

ai as in English bait, with no after- 
sound of ee. 

AO open Italian o, between o and oa. 

ao' closer sound of ao, not quite oa. 

au as in English caul. 

aii closer sound of au, as ^in Irish sir. 

e as in southern English net. 

E' modification of e by vocal r in AerS. 

m Russian ti, Polish y, variety of ee. 

ee as in English beet. 

EO close French etc in peu, feu. 

eo' opener sound of eo, not quite oe. 

i as in English kmt. 

I' opener sound of i, not quite e, 
as e in English houses, Welsh u. 

o as in English not, opener than au. 

o' a closer sound of o. 

oa as in English coal, with no after- 
sound of oo. 

oa' closer sound of oa; u with lips 

OE open French e u in veuf German o. 

oe opener sound of oe. 

oo as in English cool. 

u as in English nut. 

U' obscure u, as o in English mention. 

ua open provincial variety of u. 

ua' slightly closer ua. 

UE French u, German ii. 

ui provincial Ger. ii, nearly ee, Swed. y. 

ui' Swedish long u. 

po as in English full, woman, booh, 
uo' Swedish long o. 
UU usual provincial variety of u. 
uu' Gaelic sound of ao in laogh ; try 
to pronounce oo with open lips. 

Special Rules for Vowels. 

Ascertain carefully the received pro- 
nunciation of the first 12 key words on 
p. xiii, (avoiding the after-sounds of ee 
and oo, very commonly perceptible after 
ai and oa). Observe that the tip of the 
tongue is depressed and the middle or 
front of the tongue raised for all of 
them, except u ; and that the lips are 
more or less rounded for oo, uo, oa, 
au, o. Observe that for i, e, uo, the 
parts of the mouth and throat be- 
hind the narrowest passage between 
the tongue and palate, are more widely 
opened than for ee, ai, oo. 

Having ee quite clear and distinct, 
like the Italian, Spanish, French, and 
German i long, practise it before all 
the English consonants, making it as 
long and as short as possible, and when 
short remark the difference between 
ee and i, the French fini, and English 
Jinny. Then lengthen i, noticing the 
distinction between leap lip, steal still, 
feet ft, when the latter words are sung 
to a long note. Sustaining the sound 
first of ee and then of i, bring the lips 
together and open them alternately, 
observing the new sounds generated, 
which will be ui and us. A proper 
appreciation of the vowels, primary ee, 
wide i, round ui, wide round ue, will 
render all the others easy. 

Obtain oo quite clear and distinct, 
like Italian and German u long, French 
ou long. Pronounce it long and short 
before all the English consonants. Ob- 
serve the distinction between pool and 
pull, the former having oo, the latter uo. 
The true short oo is heard in French 
poule. English pull and French poule, 
differ as English finny and French 
fini, by widening. Observe that the 
back of the tongue is decidedly raised 
as near to the soft palate for oo, uo, as 
the front was to the hard palate for 
ee, i ; and that the lips are rounded. 
"While continuing to pronounce oo or 
uo, open the lips without moving the 
tongue. This will be difficult to do 
voluntarily at first, and the lips should 
be mechanically opened by the fingers 
till the habit is obtained. The results 
are the peculiar indistinct sounds uu 



and «', of which u' is one of our com- 
monest obscure and unaccented sounds. 
In uttering ee, ai, ae, the narrowing 
of the passage between the tongue and 
hard palate is made by the middle or 
front of the tongue, which is gradually 
more retracted. The ai, ae, are the 
French e, e, Italian e ehiuso and 
e aperto. The last ae is very common, 
when short, in many English mouths. 
The widening of the opening at the 
back, converts ee, ai, ae, into i, e, a. 
Now e is much finer than ae, and re- 
places it in the South of England. 
Care must be taken not to confuse 
English a with aa. The true a seems 
almost peculiar to the Southern and 
"Western, the refined Northern, and 
the Irish pronunciation of English. 
The exact boundaries of the illiterate 
a and aa have to be ascertained. 
Rounding the lips changes ee, ai, ae, 
into ui, eo, eo', of which eo is very 
common. Rounding the lips also 
changes i, e, a, into ue, oe, oe', of which 
oe is very common. 

On uttering oo, oa, au, the back of 
the tongue descends lower and lower, 
till for au the tongue lies almost en- 
tirely in the lower jaw. The widening 
of these gives uo, ao, o. The distinction 
between au, o, is necessarily very slight ; 
as is also that between ao and o. But 
ao is very common in our dialects, and 
is known as o aperto in Italy. The 
primary forms of oo, oa, au, produced 
by opening the lips, are the obscure 
uu', uu, ua, of which uu is very common 
in the provinces, being a deeper, thicker, 
broader sound of u. But the wide 
sounds uo, ao, o, on opening the lips, 
produce u', aa, ah. Here aa is the 
true Italian and Spanish a, and ah is 
the deeper sound, heard for long a in 
Scotland and Germany, often confused 
with the rounded form au. 

Of the mixed vowels, the only im- 
portant primary vowel is u, for which 
the tongue lies flat, half way between 
the upper and lower jaw. It is as 
colourless as possible. It usually re- 
places uu in unaccented syllables, and 
altogether replaces it in refined South- 
ern speech. Its wide form a' is the 
modern French fine a, much used also 
for aa in the South of England. The 
rounded form oa' seems to replace u or 
uu in some dialects. The mixed sound 
resulting from attempting to utter ah 
and a together is e', which Mr. Bell 
considers to be the true vowel in herd. 

Distinctions to be carefully drawn in 

writing dialects. EE and I, AI and 
E. AE and E. AA, AH and A. 
OA and AO. AO, AU and AH. OO 
and UO. UU and U. UI, UE and 
EEW, IW, TOO. UE and EO. 
OE and U. 

Quantity of Vowels. 

All vowels are to be read short, or 
medial, except otherwise marked. 

The Stress (■) placed immediately after 
a vowel shews it to be long and ac- 
cented, as au-gust; placed immedi- 
ately after a consonant, hyphen (-). 
gap* (:), or stop (..), it shews that 
the preceding vowel is short and ac- 
cented, as augus't, aamaor ; pa 'pa' '..• 

The Holder (••) placed immediately 
after a vowel or consonant shews it 
to be long, as awgus't, needl" ; the 
Stress Holder (•••) shews that the 
consonant it follows, is held, the pre- 
ceding vowel being short and accent- 
ed, compare hap'i, hap m "i, ha'pi, 
ha-p-i ; in theoretical writing only. 
Practically it is more convenient to 
double a held consonant, as hap-i, 
hap-pi, ha-ppi. 

Stop (..) subjoined to any letter indi- 
cates a caught-up, imperfect utter- 
ance, as ha.., hat., for hat ; great 
abruptness is marked by (...) 

Accent marks may also be used when 
preferred, being placed over the first 
letter of a combination, thus : 

&* 5? "3 1 ti 

>£ .J S £ !>-S 

with stress — da-' ua da da 

without stress — aa" da da aa aa 

If the first letter is a capital the accent 

marks may be placed on the second, 

as August, august, hdazda. 

Systematic Diphthongs. 

The stressless element of a diph- 
thong is systematically indicated by a 
preceding turned comma (') called 
hook, as m'eeai'ee It. miei, Zaa'ooraa 
It. Laura, p'aaoo-raa It paura, I'ueee 
Fr. lui. But when, as is almost always 
the case, this element is l ee 'oo, or 'ue, 
it may be replaced by its related con- 
sonant y, w or ,«», as myaiy, Laawraa, 
l t wee. Any obscure final element as 
'u, % V, is sufficiently expressed by 
the sign of simple voice h\ as provin- 
cial neeh't night, streeh'm stream 
wih'kn waken. In applying the rule 
for marking stress and quantity, treat 
the stressless element as a consonant. 



The four English Glossic diphthongs 
ei, 01, ou, eu are unsystematic, and 
are variously pronounced, thus : 
ei is uy in the South, sometimes dy, 
aay ; and is often broadened to uuy, 
ahy, au'y, in the provinces. 
01 is oy in the South, and becomes any, 

ou is uw in the South, sometimes a'w, 
aaiv, and is often broadened to uuw 
ahw, oaw, aow ; it becomes oe t w in 
Devonshire, and aew in Norfolk. 
eu varies as iw, eeto, yoo, yiw, yeew. 

The Londoners often mispronounce 
ai as ary, aiy, ey or nearly uy, and oa 
as oa-w, oaw, ow or nearly uw. 

English vocal u, is essentially the 
same as H', forming a diphthong with 
the preceding vowel. Thus English 
glossic peer, pair, boar, boor, far, dif er- 
ring, are systematic pi m ti , pe'h', bao'h', 
buo-K ', fe'h' or fa', dife'K'ring or 
difwring. But r is used where r', or 
rr', or h'r' may be occasionally heard. 


Differences from English Glossic con- 
sonants are marked by adding an h in 
the usual way, with y for palatals, 
and w' for labials, by subjoining an 
apostrophe ( ' ) or by prefixing a turned 
comma ( ' ), a turned apostrophe ( , ), 
or a simple comma (,). 

Simple consonants, and added G. 

Y, W, H ; P B, T D, J, K G, F V, S Z, 
VOCal E, L M N, NG. 

Added H. 


KH, GH German eh, g in Bach, Tage ; 

are the hissed voiceless forms of 
y, r', I, m, n, ng. 

Added T' and TM. 

TY', DY', KY;,GY', LY', NY', NGY', 
are palatalised or mouille varieties 
of t, d, k, g, I, n, ng, as in virtue, 
verdure, old cart, old guard, Italian 
gl, gn, vulgar French, il n'y a 
pas=ngy'aa pah. LYH is the 
hissed voiceless form of LY'. 

KYH, GYH are palatal varieties of 
KH, GH as in German ich, fliege. 

Added W and WE. 

TW, DW\ KF, GW\ RW, R'W, 
LW, NW', &c, are labial varieties 

of t, d, Jc, g, r, r\ I, n, &c, pro- 
duced by rounding the lips at or 
during their utterance, French toi, 
dots, English quiet, guano, our, 
French roi, lot, noix, &c. 
KWH, GWH are labial varieties of 
KH, GH as in German auch,saugen, 
and Scotch quh. HWH is a whistle. 

Added apostrophe (') called " Hook." 

H' called aich-huok,is the simplestemis- 
sion of voice: H'W is K with round- 
ed lips ; H'WH a voiced whistle. 

T', D', called tee-huok, dee-huok, dental 
t, d, with tip of tongue nearly 
between teeth as for th, dh. 

F', V, called ef-huok, vee-huok, tooth- 
less /, v, the lip not touching the 
teeth ; v' is true German w. 

b.', or b. before vowels, is trilled r. 

N' read en-huok, French nasal n, which 
nasalizes the preceding vowel. To 
Englishmen the four French words 
vent, vont, vin, im sound von\ voan', 
van', un' ; but Frenchmen take 
them as vahn', voan', vaen', oen . 
Sanscrit unuosvaapu. 

K', G' peculiar Picard varieties of 
ky', gy\ nearly approaching ch, j. 

CH', J', TS', DZ' monophthongal 
Roman varieties of ch, j, ts, dz. 

T'H, D'H lisped varieties of s, z, imi- 
tating th, dh ; occasional Spanish 
z, d. 

S' not after t, Sanscrit visu t rgu. 

Prefixed comma (,), called " Comma." 

,H read konia-aich, lax utterance, op- 
posed to ,H. 

,T ,D read koma-tee, koma-dee peculiar 
Sardinian varieties of t, d, the 
tongue being much retracted. 

,L Polish barred /, with ,LH its voice- 
less, ,LW its labial, and ,LWH 
its voiceless labial forms. 
; read hamza, check of the glottis. 

Prefixed turned comma ('), called 

i read ei», the Arabic iaayn or bleat. 

'H, 'T <D, 'S 'Z, 'K, read huok-aich, 
hunk-tee, &c. ; peculiar Arabic 
varieties of h, t, d, s, z, k; 'G the 
voiced form of 'K. 

'KH, 'GH, called httok-kai-aich, huok- 
Jee-aich ; the Arabic /.7(, gh pro- 
nounced with a rattle of the uvula. 



'"W, 'PR, 'BR, read hnok-dubl-eu, &c; 
lip trills, the first with tight and 
the others with loose lips ; the first 
is the common English defective w 
for »•', as ve'wi tHvoo, the last is 
used for stopping horses in Germany. 

'R read huok-aar, the French r grasseye, 
and Northumberland burr or k'ruop 
= 'ffh± ; 'RH its voiceless form. 

'LH, 'L, read huok-el-aich, huok-el, 
Welsh 11, and its voiced Manx form. 

'F, 'V, read huok-ef &c. ; /, v with back 
of tongue raised as for oo. 

Prefixed turned apostrophe ( 4 ), called 
" Curve'' 

,AA, read kerv-aa, an aa pronounced 
through the nose, as in many parts 
of Germany and America, different 
from aan', and so for any vowel, 
°h, or h'. 

,T X), ,SH, ,R, ,L, ,N read kerv-tee &e., 
Sanscrit "cerebral" t, d, sh, r', l,n; 
produced by turning the under part 
of the tongue to the roof of the 
mouth and attempting to utter t, d, 
sh, r', I, n. 

,H read kerv-aich, a post aspiration, 
consisting of the emphatic utter- 
ance of the following vowel, in one 
syllable with the consonant, or an 
emphatically added final aspirate 
after a consonant. Common in 
Irish-English, and Hindoostaanee. 

^"W is the consonant related to ue, as 
w is to oo. 

Clicks, — spoken with suction stopped. 

C, tongue in t position, English tut ! 

Q, tongue in f. position. 

X, tongue in ty position, but unilateral, 
that is, with the left edge clinging 
to the palate, and the right free, as 
in English clicking to a horse. C, 
q, x, are used in Appleyard's Caff re. 

QC, tongue in ty position, but not 
unilateral ; from Boyce's Hottentot. 

KC, tongue retracted to the l Js position 
and clinging to the soft palate. 

Whispers or Flats. 

e H, called serkl-aich, simple whisper; 
°H' whisper and voice together 
'°H' diphthongal form of °A'. 

°AA, read serkl -aa, whispered aa, and 
so for all vowels. 

°B, °D, read serkl-bee etc., the sound of 
b, d, heard when whispering, as dis- 
tinct from p, t, common in Saxony 
when initial, and sounding to 

Englishmen like p, t when stand- 
ing for b, d, and like b, d when 
standing for p, t. °G, whispered g, 
does not occur in Saxony. 
°V, °DH, °Z, °ZH, °L, °M, °N read 
serkl-vee etc., similar theoretical 
English varieties, final, or interposed 
between voiced and voiceless letters. 


The tones should be placed after the 
Chinese word or the English syllable 
to which they refer. They are here, 
for convenience, printed over or un- 
der the vowel o, but in writing and 
printing the vowel should be cut out. 
o, o, high or low level tone, piling'. 
6, o, tone rising from high or low pitch, 

6, o rise and fall, (that is, foo-kyen 

shaang',) or fall and rise. 
6, o falling tone to high or low pitch, 

kyod' or kjwc. 
o, n sudden catch of the voice at a 
high or low pitch, shoo", zhee", 
nyip', or gaap" '. 


Hyphen (-), used to separate combina- 
tions, as in mis-hap, in-got. In 
ichair-ever, r is vocal ; elm fauln 
are monosyllables, el-m, faul-n are 
dissyllables ; Jidler has two syllables, 
fidl-er three syllables. 

Divider ), occasionally used to assist 
the reader by separating to the eye, 
words not separated to the ear, as 
ttl)cr dhat)l doo. 

Omission (J, occasionally used to assist 
the reader by indicating the omission 
of some letters usually pronounced, 
as hee)J doo)Jt. 

Gap (:) indicates an hiatus. 

Closure (.) prefixed to any letter indi- 
cates a very emphatic utterance as 
met .hei for my eye. 

Emphasis (•) prefixed to a word, shews 
that the whole word is more em- 
phatically uttered, as ei 'neu dhat 
•dJtat dhat -dhat man sed woz rang; 
'ei gaiv 'too thingz too 'too men, and 
•hee gaiv 'too, 'too, too 'too, 'too. 

The following are subjoined to indicate, 
I emission, ; suction, ,; trill of the 
organs implicated, f inner and + 
outer position of the organs impli- 
cated, | tongue protruded, § unilate- 
rality, * linking of the two letters 
between which it stands to form a 
third sound, ( extreme faintness. 



%* The Reader should pay particular attention to the Rules for marking vowel 

quantity laid down in the Key, p. xvi. 

Foreign Languages. 

French. — Ai p { wee uen vyaiy ka'raony' ai un'n)on'fon' bao'rny' 

oan' von' due deo moavae van' oa poeplh bae"t. Ee aet voo ? 

German. — Ahkh ! aaynu' aayntseegyhu' ue - blu' foyreegyhu' 
mueku' koentn' v'oal ahwkwh meekyh boe'zu' mahkbu'n ! Yhah - 
szoa - ! Es too - t meer' oon:en-dleekyn laayt ! 
Old English. 
Conjectured Pronunciation of Chaucer, transliterated from "Early 
English Pronunciation" p. 681 : 

AYhaan dhaat Aa-prrl with)is shoo -res swao*te 
Dhe droo - kwht aof Maarch haath per'sed tao dhe rao - te, 
Aand baa'dhed evrr vaayn in swich lrkoo-r 
Aof which vertue - enjen'dred is dhe fuxrr; 
"Wbaan Zefiroos, e - k, with)is swe'te bre - the 
Inspi-red haath in evrr haolt aand he -the 
Dhe tendre kropes, aand dhe yoonge soone 
Haath in dhe Raani is)haalfe kocr's iroon'e, 
Aand sniaade foodes maa - ken melaodre, 
Dhaat sle-pen aal dhe nikyht with ao-pen re, — 
Sao priketh hem naa - tue - r in her' kao-raa*jes ; 
Dhaan laongen faolk tao gaom aon piTgrrmaa - jes, 
Aand paahnerz faor' tao se-ken straawnje straondes, 
Tao fer'ne haalwes koo'th in soon'drr laondes ; 
Aand spesdaalr fraom evrr shrres ende 
Aof Engelaond, tao Kaawirter'ber'r dhaay wende, 
Dhe haodr blisfool maar'drr faor tao se - ke, 
Dhaat hem haath haolpen, whaan dhaat dhaay we - r se # ke. 
Dialectic English and Scotch. 
Received Pronunciation. — Whot d)yoo wont? Vulgar Cockney. — 
"Wau'chi waumt? Devonshire. — Wat d)yue want? Fifeshire. — 
"Whuu't u'r' yi' waan;n ? Teviotdale. — Kwhaht er' ee wahntun ? 
Teviotdale, from the dictation of Mr. Murray of Hawick. — Dhe)r' 
ti'wkwh sahkwhs graowun e dhe Ei'wkwh Hi'wkwh Hahkwh. 
— Kwhaht er' ee ahmd um ? U')m ahmdum naokwht. — Tuuw un 
•mey el gu'ng aowr' dhe deyk un puuw e pey e dhe muunth e 
Mary. — Hey)l bey aowr' dhe maow nuuw. 

Aberdeen. — Eaat foaT' di'd dhe peer' si'n vreet tl)z mi'dher' ? 
Glasgow. — AYu)l ait wur' bred n buu;ur' doon dhu waa;ur'. 
Lothian. — Mahh' koanshuns ! hahng u' Be - yli ! — Gaang u'wah - , 
laadi ! gai tu dhu hoar's, sai xx ! un shoo em •baak ugi'n - ! 

Norfolk. — Wuuy daomt yu' paa*)mi dhaat dhur "tue paewnd yu' 
ao - )mi, bo ? TTuy daomt ao - )yu' nao "tue paewnd. Tuuw "due ! 

Scoring Sheep in the Yorkshire Dales. — 1. yaan, 2 taih'n, 3 tedh- 
uru, 4 medhuru (edhuru), 5 pimp (pip), 6 saa-jis (see-zu), 7 laa-jis 
(re-ru), 8 saowa (koturu), 9 daovu (haumu), 10 dik, 11 yaan 
uboom, 12 tain uboom, 13 tedhur' uboom, 14 medhur' uboon, 
15 jigit, 16 yaan ugeeh'-n, 17 tain ugeeh'-n, 18 tedhur' ugeeh'-n, 
19 medhur' ugeeh'-n, 20 gin ageeh'n (bumfit). 



dlalects of the peak of derbyshire from the dictation of 
Mr. Thomas Hallam, of Manchester, a native of the Peak. 

* # * Mr. Hallam considers that he said «', wo. now, vdeys, where I seemed to hear 
and wrote aa, oa\ uiw, vays. Mr. Hallam dictated the quantities. 

Chapel-en-le-frith Variety. 

Th)Soangg u) Solumun, Chdapt'ur th)- 


1. Au)m th)roaz u)Shaerun un)th)- 
lilli u)th vaalliz. 

2. Lahyk th)lilli umoa'ng thaurnz, 
sui'w iz mahy luuv umoa'ng th)- 

3. Lahyk th)aappl t'riy umoa'ng 
th)t'riyz u)th woa'd, sui'w iz mahy 
hiluuvd umoa'ng th)soa'nz. Au sit)mi 
daawn wi graet dliy 6a'nd'ur')iz 
shaadu, un)iz)frui'wt wur)swiyt tu)mi 

4. Iy bruuwt)mi tu)th)feeh'stin 
aaws, un)iz)fla'g oar mi wur luuv. 

5. St'raengthu)mi wi)soa'mut -- 
d'ringk, kuumfurt)nii wi)aapplz : fur 
au)m luuv-sik. 

6. Iz lift 6nt)s oa'nd'ur mi)yaed, 
nn)iz riyt ont tlips)mi. 

7. Au chaarj)yu, oaduuwt't'rz u)Ji- 
Tui'wsluin, bi)th)roaz, un)bi)tn)sta'gz 
u)th)fiylt, uz yoa mun noadhur stuur, 
nur wakn mi)luuv, til)iy)pleeh'zuz. 

8. Th)va'ys u)mi)biluuvd ! Liii'wk, 
iykuumz leeh'pin oa'pu)th)niaawntinz, 
sky'ippin 6a'pu)th ilz. 

9. Mi) hiluuvd) z lahyk u)roa, ur')u)- 
yoa'ng sta'g : lui'wk, iy stondz ut)- 
Da'k)u aar)wau, iy lui'wks aawt ut)- 
th)windus, uu)shoaz issael thrhi'w)- 

10. Mi)biluuvd, un)saed 
tui'w)mi, Gy'aet oa'p, mi)l(iuv, mi)- 
faer')un, un)kuum uwai. 

11. Fur, lui'wk, th)wint'ur)z paast, 
un)th)rain)z oar un)gaun. 

12. Th)f!anwurz ur)kuumin oa'pu)- 
th) graawnd, th)tahym)z kuumn us)th)- 
hridz singn, un)th)va'ys u)th)tuurtl)z 
eerd i)aar)k6a'nt'ri. 

13. Th)fig t'riyz ur) gy'aetin griyn 
figz on, un)th)vahynz gy'in u)nahys 
smael wi)th)yoa'ng graips. Gy'aet 
oa'p, mi)liiuv, mi)faer')un, un)kuum 

14. Oil mahy doav, uz)urt)i)th)tlifs 
u)th)rok, i)th)saikrit spots u)th) staerz, 
lae'lmi sly dhi)fuis, lae)mi eer dhi)- 
va'ys; fiir)dhi) va'ys is swiyt, un)dhi)- 
fais iz vaerri praati. 

Taddington Variety. 

Th)Sbdngg u) Solumun, Chdaptur th)- 


1. Au)m th)roaz u)Shaerun un)th)- 
lilli u)th vaalliz. 

2. Us th)hlli umoa'ng thaurnz, soo 
iz mau luuv umoa'ng th)duuwtturz. 

3. Us th)aappl traey umoa'ng th)- 
traeyz u)th woa'd, soo)z miu hiluuvd 
umoa'ng th)sda'nz. Au sit daawn wi 
greet dlaey 6a'ndur')iz shaadu, un)iz)- 
frl'wt wur)swaeyt tu) mi) taist. 

4. Aey bruuwt)mitu)th)feestin aaws, 
un)iz)fla'g 6ar)mi wur luuv. 

5. Ky'aeyp mi oa'p wi' soa'mut" 
dringk, kuumfurt)mi wi)aapplz ; fur 
au)m luuv-sik. 

6 Iz lift 6nd)z oa'ndur mi)yaed, un)- 
iz raeyt oud tlips)mi. 

7. Aij tae!)yu, 6a duuwtturz u)Ji- 
ruuwslum, bi)th roaz, un)bi)th)sta'gz 
u)th faeylfc, dhut yda mun noadhur stuur 
nur waakn mau luuv, til aey lakyks. 

8. Th)vaiiys u;mi) hiluuvd! Liiuwk, 
aey kuumx ieeppm 6a pu)th)maawn- 
tinz, sky'ippin 6a'pu)th ilz. 

9. Mi)biluuvd)z lahyk u)roa, ur')u)- 
yoa'ng sta'g : luuwk, aey stondz ut)- 
th)baak)u aar)wau, aey luuwks aawt 
ut)th)windus, un)bhoaz issael thriiuw)- 

10. Mi)biliiuvd, un)saed 
tuuw)mi, Gy'aer')6a'p, mi)luuv, mi)- 
faer')un, un)kuum uwee. 

11. Fur, liiuwk, th)wintur)z paast, 
un)th)reen)z 6,tr un)gaun. 

12. Th)liaawurz ur)kiiumin oa'pu)- 
th)graawnd, th)tuhym)z kiiumn us)th)- 
hridz singn, un)th)vahys ujth)tiiurtl)z 
eerd i)aar)koa'ntri. 

1 3. Th)f ig rraeyz ur)gy'aetin gracMi 
figz on, un)th)vahynz gy'in u)nah'ys 
smael wi)th)yoa'ng graips. Gy'aer')- 
6a'p, mi)luuv, mi)faer')un, un)kuum 

14. Oa mau doav, uz)urt)i)th)niks 
u)th)rok, i)th)seekrit spots u)th)stacrz, 
lae)mi saey dhi)fais, lae)mi eer dhi)- 
vahys; fur)dhi)vahys is swaeyt, un). 
dhi)fais iz vaerri praati. 

Separate Copies of this Notice and Appendix on Glossic will be 
sent on application to the Author. 



Illustrations of the Pronunciation of English during 
the Fourteenth Century. 

§ 1. Chaucer. 

Critical Text of Prologue. 

In accordance with the intimation on p. 398, the Prologue 
to the Canterbury Tales is here given as an illustration of 
the conclusions arrived at in Chap. IV., for the pronuncia- 
tion of English in the xiv th century. But it has been 
necessary to abandon the intention there expressed, of follow- 
ing the Harl. MS. 7334 as closely as possible, for since the 
passage referred to was printed, the Chaucer Society has 
issued its magnificent Six-Text Edition of the Prologue and 
Knight's Tale, and it was therefore necessary to study those 
MSS. with a view to arriving at a satisfactory text to pro- 
nounce, that is, one which satisfied the laws of grammar and 
the laws of metre better than the reading of any one single 
MS. which we possess. For this purpose the systematic 
orthography proposed on p. 401, became of importance. The 
value of exact diplomatic reprints of the MSS. on which we 
rely, cannot be overrated. But when we possess these, and 
endeavour to divine an original text whence they may have 
all arisen, we ought not to attempt to do so by the patch- 
work process of fitting together words taken from different 
MSS., each retaining the peculiar and often provincial or- 
thography of the originals. The result of such a process 
could not but be more unlike what Chaucer wrote than any 
systematic orthography. Chaucer no doubt did not spell 
uniformly. It is very difficult to do so, as I can attest, after 
making the following attempt, and probably not succeeding. 
But a modern should not venture to vary his orthography 
according to his own feelings at the moment, as they would 
be almost sure to lead him astray. Whenever, therefore, a 
text is made out of other texts some sort of systematic ortho- 
graphy is inevitable, and hence, notwithstanding the vehe- 


634 LONG U IN SEVEN MSS. Chap. VII. § 1. 

ment denunciation of the editor of the Six-Text Edition, 1 
I have made trial of that one proposed on p. 401, in all its 
strictness. The result is on the whole, better than could 
have been expected. Notwithstanding the substantial agree- 
ment of the Harleian 7334, and the Six New Texts, there is 
just sufficient discrepancy to assist in removing almost every 
difficulty of language and metre, so far as the prologue is 
concerned, and to render conjecture almost unnecessary. 
The details are briefly given in the footnotes to the following 
composite text. 

Pronunciation of Long U and of AT, ET as deduced from a comparison 
of the Orthographies of Seven Manuscripts of the Canterbury 

The investigations in Chap. IV. for the determination of the pro- 
nunciation of the xrv th century, were avowedly founded upon the 
single MS. Harl. 7334 (supra p. 244). Now that large portions 
of six other MSS. have heen diplomatically printed, it is satisfactory 
to see that this determination is practically unaffected by the new 
orthographies introduced. The Cambridge and the Lansdowne 
MSS., indeed, present us at first sight with what appears to be 
great vagaries, but when we have once recognized these as being, 
not indeterminate spellings of southern sounds, but sufficiently 
determinate representations of provincial, northern, or west midland, 
utterances, mixed with some attempts to give southern pronuncia- 
tion, they at once corroborate, instead of invalidating, the conclu- 
sions already obtained. That tbis is the proper view has been 
sufficiently shewn in the Temporary Preface to the Six-Text 
Edition, p. 51 and p. 62, and there is no need to discuss it further. 

1 Temporary Preface to the Six- the editor's track, and often stand in 
Text Edition of Chaucer's Canterbury the way of an independent conjecture. 
Tales, Part L, by F. J. FwnvoaU, pp. At the same time they do not present 
113-115. A uniform, system of spell- the text as the editor would shew it, 
ing did not prevail in the xiv th cen- for the attention is distracted by the 
tury, and as we have seen, can scarcely brackets. The plan pursued for the 
be said to prevail in the xixth, but Prisoner's Prayer, supra pp. 434-437, 
variations were not intentional, and the of giving the original and amended 
plan I advocate is, from the varied texts in parallel columns, is the only 
spellings which prevail, to discover the one which fully answers both pur- 
system aimed at, but missed, by the old poses. Where this is not possible, it 
writer, and adopt it. All varieties of it appears to me that the best course 
grammar, dialect, and pronunciation, to pursue is to leave the text pure, and 
when belonging to the author, and not submit the correction in a note. This 
his scribe, who was often ignorant, and serves the purpose of the [ ] or sic, 
still oftcner careless (p. 249), should be much more effectually than such dis- 
preserved, and autographs, such as turbances of the text, which are only 
Orrmin's and Dan Michel's, must be indispensable when notes are incon- 
followed implicitly and literatim. In venient. The division of words and 
such diplomatic printing, I even object capitals of the original should for the 
to insertions between brackets. They same reason be retained. See the 
destroy the appearance of the original, Temp. Pref. p. 88. 
and hence throw the investigator into 

Chap. VII. § 1. 



These MSS. may be looked upon as authorities for the words, but 
not for the southern pronunciation of the words, and they shew their 
writers' own pronunciation by using letters in precisely the same 
sense as was assigned from the Harl. MS. on p. 398 above. Two 
points may be particularly noticed because they are both points of 
difference between Mr. Payne and myself, (supra pp. 582, 583) 
and in one of them I seem to differ from many of those who have 
formed an opinion on the subject. 

Long u after an examination of all the authorities I could find, 
was stated on p. 171 to have been (yy) during the xvith century. 
There did not appear to be any ground for supposing it to be 
different in the xrvth century, and hence it was assumed on 
p. 298 to have had that value at that time. This was strengthened 
by the proof that (uu), the only other sound which it could 
have represented, was written ou, p. 305. A further though a 
negative proof seems to be furnished by the fact that I have 
not observed any case of long u and ou rhyming together, or 
being substituted one for the other in the old or any one of the 
six newly published texts. 1 I cannot pretend to have carefully 
examined them for that purpose, but it is not likely that in my 
frequent references to them for other purposes, such a marked 
peculiarity should have escaped me. It has however been already 
pointed out that in the first half of the xru th century (uu) was 
represented by ti, and not by ou, and for about thirty years, includ- 
ing the end of the xm th and beginning of the xrv th century, both 
signs were employed indiscriminately for (uu), and that this use of 
ou seemed to have arisen from a growing use of u as (yy), pp. 424, 
470, 471 note 2, etc. 2 Hence the predominance of ou in the be- 

1 Compare fortone, buke in Hampole 
(supra p. 410, n. 2). The two ortho- 
graphies boke, buke, struggle with each 
other in Hampole. In the Towneley 
Mysteries, I have also observed the 
rhyme, goode infude, which however, 
may be simply a bad rhyme, the spell- 
ing is Northern and of the latter part 
of the xv th century. On examining 
the Harl. MS. 2253 for the rhymes : 
bur mesaventur, bure coverture, quoted 
from the Cam. MS. of King Horn on 
p. 480, I find that the first rhyme dis- 
appears. Thus v. 325, Lumby's edition 
of the Cam. MSS. has 

"Went ut of my bur 

Wi}> muchel mefaventur 
and the Harl. reads fo. 85, 

"Went out of my boure, 

fhame ]<e mott byfhoure ; 
and v. 649, the Cam. "MS. has 

heo ferde in to bure 

to fen aue/dure, 
and the Harl. has, fo. 87, 

Horn ne J^ohte nout him on 

ant to boure wes ygon. 

Judging however by the collation in 
F. Michel's edn. the Oxf. MS. agrees 
with the Cam. The text is clearly 

But v. 691, which in the Cam. MS. 

he li}> in bure 

under coiurture 
becomes in the Harl. fo. 87, 

he byht nou in boure, 

vnder couertoure, 
where the scribe by adopting the or- 
thography ou has clearly committed 
himself to the pronunciation (uu) aud 
not (yy) . It would, however, not be 
safe to draw a general conclusion from 
these examples in evidently very un- 
trustworthy texts, which have yet to 
be properly studied in connection with 
dialectic and individual pronunciation, 
supra p. 481. 

2 On p. 301, note, col. 1, a few in- 
stances of the Devonshire substitutes 
for (uu) are given, on the authority of 
Mr. Shelly' s pronunciation of Nathan 
Hogg's Letters. The new series of 



Chap. VII. § 1. 

ginning of the xrv th century and the subsequent strict severance of 
long u and ou, which seem so far as I have observed, to have been 
never confused, as short u and ou certainly were (p. 304). The 
conclusion seems to be inevitable, that long u and ou represented 
different sounds, and that the long u must have had in the xrv th, 
whatBullokar in the xvith century called its " olde and continued" 
sound, namely (yy). This, however, is directly opposed to Mr. 
Payne's opinions given on p. 583. 

those letters there named, having an 
improved orthography, using u, a, for 
(y, ae), — not (a), as there misprinted, — 
has allowed me to make some collec- 
tions of words, which are curious in 
connection with the very ancient west- 
ern confusion of u, e, i, and the pro- 
nunciation of long u as (yy). It may 
he stated that the sound is not always 
exactly (yy) . In various mouths, and 
even in the same mouth, it varies 
considerably, inclining towards (uu), 
through (tju ?) , or towards (99) the labi- 
alised (ee). The short sound in did 
seemed truly (dad). But in could, good, 
I heard very distinctly (kyd, gyd) with 
a clear, but extremely short (y), from 
South Devon peasants in the neigh- 
bourhood of Totnes. Nor is the use of 
(yy) or (uu, 99) for (uu) due to any in- 
capacity on the part of the speaker to 
say (uu). The same peasant who 
called Combs, (Kyyniz) or (Kaarnz), 
[it is difficult to say which, and appa- 
rently the sound was not determinate], 
and even echoed the name thus when 
put to him as (Kuumz), and called brook 
(bryk), with a very short (y), talked 
of (niuur, stminz, ruud) for more, stones, 
road. Mr. Murray, in his paper on 
the Scotch dialect in the Philological 
Transactions, has some interesting spe- 
culations on similar confusions in 
Scotch, and on the transition of (u) or 
(u) through (9) into (a) and finally (a). 
On referring to pp. 160-3, supra, the 
close connection of (uu, yy) will be seen 
to be due to the fact that both are 
labial, and that in both the tongue is 
raised, the back for (uu) and front 
for (yy). The passage from (uu) 
to (yy) may therefore be made almost 
imperceptibly, and if the front is 
slightly lowered, the result becomes 
(w). The two sounds (yy, ■>■>) are 
consequently greatly confused by 
speakers in Scotland, Norfolk, and 
Devonshire. Mr. Murray notes the 
resemblance between (s, a), — which in- 
deed led to the s imil arity of their nota- 

tion in palaeotype — as shewn by Mr. 
M. Bell's assigning (a) and my giving 
(9) to tbe French mute e, which others 
again make (ah). If then (u) travels 
through (y, 9) to (9), its change to (a) 
is almost imperceptible, and the slight- 
est labialisation of the latter sound 
gives (0). Whatever be the reason, 
there can be no doubt of the fact that 
(u, y, 9, a, a, 0) do interchange pro- 
vincially now, and hence we must not 
be surprised at finding that they did 
so in ancient times, when the circum- 
stances were only more favourable to 
varieties of speech. These observations 
will serve in some degree to explain 
the phenomena alluded to in the text, 
and also the following lists from Nathan 
Hogg's second series, in which I re- 
tain the orthography of the author 
(Mr. H. Baird), where we should read 
u, a as (y, ?e) short or long, and other 
letters nearly as in glossotype. 

EW and long U become (yy) , as : 
hlu, btfty, cruel, cmyiss curious, cut, 
acute, duce deuce, duty, \vu hue yew, 
h;<min human, kinkl«d conclude, mwzic, 
nu new, p«r pure, r«in'd, stw stew, 
st?<pid, tr«, trwth, twn, \lut flute, vu 
view few, vum fume, v«tur future, 
ywz'd used, z«ant suaut. 

Long and short 00, OU, 0, U, 
usually called (uu, u) become (yy, y) or 
(99,9), as: bal« hu/lahbaloo,h\um bloom, 
hriik brook, hi/k book, chuz choose, cvuk 
crook, cud could, curt court, cms course 
coarse, dxu through, drwpin drooping, 
du do, gud good, gulden golden, intu, 
kwshin cushion, lwk look, ]us'nd loosened, 
min«ver manoeuvre, muv move, nwn 
noon, pwl'd pulled, pr«v prove, pwk 
pook, r«m room, sh« shoe, sh«d should, 
sk/de school, stud stood, tropin trooping, 
tu too two to [emphatic, unemphatic 
ta = (ta)], twk took, turn, tomb, u who, 
v«l full fool, vwt foot, ju you, zni?<the 
smooth, z/ai soon. 

Short U, 00, usually called (a) 
become (*'), as : blid blood, dist do'st, 
honjist, unjust, jist just adv., rin run 

Chap. VII. § 1. AI AY, EI EY, TN SEVEN MSS. 637 

The second point is extremely difficult, and cannot be so cursorily 
dismissed. "What was the sound attributed to ai ay, ei ey in 
Chaucer ? The constant confusion of all four spellings shews that 
it was one and the same. 1 Here again the voice of the xvrth 
century was all but unanimous for (ai), but there is one remarkable 
exception, Hart, who as early as 1551 (in his MS. cited below 
Chap. Till, § 3, note 1), distinctly asserts the identity of the 
sounds of these combinations with that of e, ea, that is (ee). For 
printing this assertion in 1569 he was strictly called to order by 
Gill in 1621, supra p. 122. All the other writers of the xvith 
century, especially Salesbury and Smith distinctly assert that (ai) 
was the sound. Hence on p. 263, (ai) was taken without hesitation 
to be the sound of ay, ey, in Chaucer. "We are familiar with the 
change of (ai) into (ee), p. 238, and with the change of (ii) into (ai, 
ai), p. 295, but the change of (ee) into (ai), although possible, and 
in actual living English progress (p. 454, n. 1), is not usual. 
There was no reason at all to suppose that ay could have been (ii), 
and little reason to suppose that it would have been (ee) before it 
became (ai). On examining the origin of ay, ey, in English words 
derived from ags. sources, the y or i appears as the relic of a former 
g = (gh, gh., j) and then (i), which leads irrresistibly to the notion 
of the diphthong (ai), p. 440, 1. 14, p. 489. But it certainly does 
not always so arise, and we have seen in Orrmin (ib.) that the 
gg = (j) was sometimes as pure an insertion as we occasionally 
find in romance words derived from the Latin, 2 and as we now find 

[also to urn~\, rish'd rushed, tich'd T Not in Scotch, where the spellings 

touched, vlid flood, wid'n iconld not, ai, ei seem to have been developed in- 

winder wonder, wisser worser, zich dependency in the xv th century, for 

such, zin sun son, zmitch smutch. the Scotch long a, e, and perhaps 

Short E, I, usually called (e, i) are meant (au, ee), compare Sir T. Smith, 

frequently replaced by (9) or (a), as : supra, p. 121, 1. 18. These spellings 

bevul befell, bul bell, bulch'd belched, were accompanied by the similar forms 

burry'd buried, churish cherish, eszul oi, ui, oui for the long 0, u, ou, per- 

himself, etszul itself, mezul myself, haps = (oe, yv, ub), though the first 

mulkin milking, muller miller, purish was not much used. We must recol- 

perish, shullins shillings, spul spell, lect that in Scotch short i was not (i) 

spurrit spirit [common even in London, or (/), but (e), and hence might easily 

and compare syrop, stirrup'], tullee tell be used for (13) or (a) into which uii- 

you, turrabul terrible, ulbaw'd elbowed, accented (e) readily degenerates. For 

vuller fellow [no r pronounced, final or this information I am indebted to Mr. 

pre-consonantal trilled (r) seems un- Murray's paper on Scotch (referred to 

known in Devonshire], vullidge village, in the last note), which was kindly 

vulty filthy, vurrit ferret, vury very, shewn to me in the MS. The notes 

-rust first, vra\well, wulvare welfare, yul there furnished on the development of 

yell, yur'd heard, zniul smell, zulf self. Scotch orthography are highlv interest- 

The words zwp'd swept, ind«d indeed, ing, and tend to establish an intentional 

d«d did done, humman hummen woman phonetic reformation at this early 

ico, Hen, do not exactly belong to any period, removing Scotch spelling from 

of these categories. the historical affiliation which marks 

The above lists, which, being only the English, 

derived from one small book, are ne- 2 " In Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, 

cessarily very incomplete, serve to shew and Provencal, Latin A remains un- 

the importance of modern dialectic altered. Some deviations into at or 1 

study in the appreciation of ancient must be admitted. . . . The most im- 

and "therefore dialectic English (p. 581). portant and frequent case is when a by 



Chap. VII. § 1. 

in English after the sound of (ee) in what many persons recognize 
as the "standard" pronunciation of our language, for instance 
(n^ini) for name. There are a few straggling instances in even 
xrnth century MSS. where ay appears to rhyme to e, the chief of 
which turn on apparently a dialectic pronunciation of saide as sede, 
which is also an orthography occasionally employed (p. 484, 1. 15, 
p. 481, 1. 33). Dr. Gill, 1621 {Logonomia p. 17), cites (sed) as a 
northern pronunciation for (said), and classes it with (saa) for (sai). 
Mr. Payne has pointed out similar cases in the Owl and Nightingale, v. 
349, 707, 835, 1779. The orthography sede occurs also, v. 472, 548, 
1293, and probably elsewhere. 1 Mr. Payne also notes the less usual 
rhymes: bigrede upbreide 1411, misrede maide 1061, grede maide 
1335. These rhymes are certainly faulty, because in each case the 
ags. has a g in the second word but not in the first, and we cannot 
suppose them to have rhymed at this early period. 2 In Ploris and 

the action of an inserted coalescing i 
or e, according to the individual ten- 
dency of the language, passes into ai, 
or ei, or e and ie : prov. air, sp. aire 
from aer : prov. primairan (otherwise 
only primer primier), port, primeiro, 
span, primero, it. primiero, from pri- 
marily; prov. esclairar from esclariar 
which also exists ; prov. bais, port. 
beijo. span, beso from basium ; prov. 
fait, port, feito, span, //echo from /actus 
c being palatalised into i. ... This 
vowel has suffered most in French, 
where its pure sound is often obscured 
into ai, e and ie. We must first put 
aside the common romance process, 
just noticed, by which this obscuration 
is effected by an inserted i as in air, 
premier, ha /set; fait." Translated from 
Diez, Gr. der rom. Spr. 2nd. ed. i. 135. 

1 The Jesus Coll. Oxf. MS. reads 
seyde in each case. 

2 The orthography and rhymes of 
the Owl and Nightingale as exhibited 
in the Cott. MS. Calig. A. ix., fol- 
lowed by Wright, in his edition for the 
Percy Society, 1843, are by no means 
immaculate. The MS. is certainly of 
the xni th century, before the introduc- 
tion of ox for (uu), that is, before 1280 
or probably before the death of Henry 
III., 1272, (so that, as has been con- 
jectured on other grounds, Henry II. 
was the king whose death is alluded to 
in the poem), and is contained in the 
same volume with the elder text of 
Lajamon, though it is apparently not 
by the same scribe. Nor should I be 
inclined to think that the scribe was a 
Dorsetshire man, although the poem 
is usually ascribed to Nicholas de 
Guildford, of Portisham, Dorsetshire. 

The confusions of e i, o e, e a, recall 
the later seribe of Havelok. Dreim 21, 
cleine 301, are obvious scribal errors, 
corrected to drem clene in the Oxf. MS., 
and : crei 334, in Oxf. MS. crey, although 
put in to rhyme with dai, must be an 
error for cri. We have cases of omitted 
letters in : rise wse 53, wrste toberste 
121, wlite wte 439, for wise, verste (?), 
wite. There are many suspicious 
rhymes, and the following are chiefly 
assonances: worse mershe 303, hei- 
sugge stubbe 505, worde forworthe 
547, igremet of-chamed 931, wise ire 
1027, oreve idorve 1151, flesche cwesse 
1385, fiijste vicst 405, and, in addition 
to the ei, e rhymes cited in the text, 
we have: forbreideth nawedeth 1381, 
in Oxf. MS. ne awede}>. As to the 
present pronunciation of ay, ey in 
Dorsetshire, the presumed home of the 
poet, Mr. Barnes gives us very precise 
information : " The diphthongs ai or 
ay, and ei or ey, the third close long 
sound [that is, which usually have the 
the sound of a in mate], as in May, 
hay, maid, paid, rein, neighbour, prey, 
are sounded — like the Greek oi, — the 
a or e, the first open sound, as a in 
father, and the i or y as ee, the first 
close sound. The author has marked 
th a of diphthongs so sounded with a 
circumflex : as may, hay, maid, paid, 
vain, neighbour, prav." Poems of 
Mural Life, 2nd ed., p. 27.— That is, 
in Dorsetshire the sound (ai), which 
we have recognized as ancient, is still 
prevalent. This is a remarkable com- 
ment upon the false rhymes of the 
MSS. Stratmann's edition, 1868, is of 
no use for the present investigation, on 
account of its critical orthography. 

Chap. YII. § 1. AI AY, EI EY, IN SEVEN MSS. 639 

Blancheflur, Lumby's ed. occurs the rhyme : muchelhede maide 51, 
which is similarly faulty. 1 See also p. 473 and notes there. We 
have likewise seen in some faulty west midland MSS. belonging to 
the latter part of the xvth century, (supra p. 450, n. 2), that ey 
was regarded as equivalent to e. In the Towneley Mysteries we 
also find ay, ey, tending to rhyme either with a or e. In fact we 
have a right to suppose that in the xv th century, at least, the pro- 
nunciation of ey, ay as (ee) was gaining ground, for we could not 
otherwise account for the MSS. mentioned, for the adoption of the 
spelling in Scotch in 1500, p. 410, n. 3, and for the fact that Hart, 
— who from various other circumstances appears to have been a 
West Midland man — seemed to know absolutely no other pronun- 
ciation of ay than (ee) in 1551. 2 We have thus direct evidence 
of the coexistence of (ee, ai) in the xvt th century, each perhaps 
limited in area, just as we have direct evidence of the present co- 
existence of both sounds in high German (p. 238), and Dyak (p. 474, 
note, col. 2). Such changes do not generally affect a whole body 
of words suddenly. They begin with a few of them, concerning 
which a difference prevails for a very long while, then the area is 
extended, till perhaps the new sounds prevail. We have an in- 
stance of this in the present coexistence of the two sounds (o, u) 
for short u, p. 175 and notes. It is possible that although Grill in 
1621 was highly annoyed at maids being called (meedz) in place of 
(maidz) by gentlewomen of his day (supra, p. 91, 1. 8), this very 
pronunciation might have been the remnant of an old tradition, 
preserved by the three rhymes just cited from the xm th century 
to the present day, although this hypothesis is not so probable as 
that of scribal error. And if it were correct, it would by no means 

1 On consulting the Auchinleck MS. of the text in the Auch. MS. runs thus, 

text of Floris et Blancheflur, the diffi- v. 518 : 

culty vanishes. Lumby's edition of To the king that jhe hem nowt 

the Cam. MS. reads, v. 49 : biwreie 

hn art hire ilich of alle >inge, Where thourgh thai were fiker to 

Both of femblau«t and of nwrniwge, dethe. 

Of fairneffe and of muchelhede, Tne editor suggests biwrei\>e, which 

Butejm ert a man and heo a maide ; would not De a rhyme. The real read- 
where the both of the second line makes ™S ^ manifestly to deye, arising, as 
the third line altogether suspiciously Mr - Murray suggests, from the corn- 
like an insertion. The Auchinleck monMS confusion of yb.^^^,/ !s 
MS., according to the transcription both t m il the Au ? h - a ? d C ^ L MSS - 
kindly furnished me by Mr. Halkett, constantly spelled -ayl, and hence we 

the librarian of the Advocates Library, Tf *- n f r^^} ^ th ^ e rhyme ' 

Edinburgh, reads, v. 53 : ' Admiral confail ,99, for there was 

n™ „°, -,- , i f n ,• evidently an uncertain pronunciation 

Pou art ilich here of alle >mge f this strange word. * 

Of semblant and of mourning 2 TMs ^ (g j, lg69) k _ 

But >ou art a man and jhe 3 is a maide who ^ e5 • u ^ " h 

pons J,e wif to Flonce faide. me> ^ ^-^ ( ^.J^ Had 

Another bad rhyme m the Cam. MS. he any idea that others said (spes-ult) : J 

18 y - ^3. The facts in the text are perhaps partly 

Hele ihc wulle and noting wreie accounted for by the influence of the 

Ower beire cuwpaignie Scotch orthography and pronunciation, 

which in the Abbotsford Club edition referred to on p. 637, n. 1. 

640 AI AY, EI EY, IN SEVEN MSS. Chap. VII. § 1. 

prove that the general pronunciation of ay in all words from ags. 
was not distinctly (ai) and that the (ee) pronunciation was not 
extremely rare. 

In a former investigation it was attempted to shew that Norman 
French ei, ai, had at least frequently the same sound (ai), supra 
pp. 453-459. Mr. Payne on the contrary believes that the sound 
was always pure (ee), and that the Norman words were taken into 
English, spellings and all, retaining their old sounds. He then 
seems to conclude that all the English ay, ey, were also pronounced 
with pure (ee), and maintains that this view agrees with all the 
observed facts of the case (p. 582). Prof. Eapp also, as we shall see, 
lays down that Early English Orthography was Norman, and as he 
only recognizes (ee) or (ee) as the sound of Norman ai, of course 
he agrees practically with Mr. Payne. Modern habits have induced 
perhaps most readers to take the same view, which nothing but the 
positive evidence of the practice of the xvr th century could easily 
shake. 1 But it would seem strange if various scribes, writing by 
ear, and having the signs e, ee, ea, ie, at hand to express the sound 
(ee), should persist in a certain number of words, in always using 
ey, ay, but never one of the four former signs, although the sounds 
were identical. This is quite opposed to all we know of cacogra- 
phists of all ages, and seems to be only explicable on the theory of 
a real difference of sound, more marked than that of (ee, ee). Nay, 
more, some occasional blunders of e for ey, etc., would not render 
this less strange to any one who knows by painful experience (and 
what author does not know it ?) that he does not invariably write 
the letters he intends, and does not invariably see his error or his 
printer's or transcriber's errors when he revises the work. The 
mistake of e for ey we might expect to be more frequent than that 
of ay for e. When the writer is not a cacographist, or common 
scribe, but a careful theoretical orthographer as Omnin or Dan 
Michel, the absolute separation of the spellings e, ey becomes 
evidence. We cannot suppose that Dutchmen when they adopted 
pais called it anything but (pais), why then should we suppose Dan 
Michel, who constantly employs the spelling pais,' 1 pronounced 

1 I was glad to learn lately from so adraynkji, agrayju, etc., anpayri, apar- 
distinguished an English scholar as ceyueh, apayrej?, asayd, asayled, atrayt, 
Prof. H. Morley that he was always of bargayn, batayle, baylif, baylyes, bay)), 
opinion that ay, ey, were (ai) and not contraye, cortays, cortaysie, couaitise, 
(ee). dayes, defayled, despayred, eyder either, 

2 Mr. Morris's index to Dan Michel's eyr = air, eyren = eggs, e\se=ease, faili, 
Ayenbite refers to p. 2G1, as contain- faynrise, fornayce, germayn, graynes, 
ing peae for peace. I looked through greyner, longaynes, maimes, maine = 
that page without discovering any in- retinue, raaister, mayden, maystrie, 
stance of pese, but I found in it 11 in- meseyse, meyster, nejebores, nejen, or- 
stances of pais, pays and 3 of paysible. dayni ordenliche, oreysonne, paye = 
Thinking Dan Michel's usages impor- please, payenes =pagans, pays, paysible, 
tant, I have extracted those words given plait, playneres, playni, playty, por- 
in the index, which of course does not uayeh, porueyonce praysy, quaynte, 
refer to the commonest ags. words of queayntese, queyntise, raymi, [ags. reo- 
constant occurrence. This is the list, mian hryman, to cry out,] strait, strayni, 
the completeness of -which is not gua- tuay, uileynie, uorlay, wayn =gain, 
ranteed, though probable : adreynt, wayt, weyuerindemen, yfayled, zaynt. 

Chap. VII. § 1. AI AY, EI EY, IN SEVEN MSS. 641 

otherwise? And when we see some French words in Chaucer 
always or generally spelled with e which had an ai in French, as : 
resoun 276, sesoun 348, pees 2929, plesant 138, ese 223, 2672, 
why should we not suppose that in these words the (ee) sound 
was general, hut that in others, at least in England, the (ai) sound 
prevailed ? Nay more, when we find ese occasionally written eyse 
for the rhyme in Chaucer (supra, p. 250 and note 1, and p. 265), 
as it is in Dan Michel's prose, why should we not suppose that two 
sounds were prevalent, just as our own (niidh'J, noidlrj:) for neither, 
and that the poet took the sound which best suited him ? This 
appears to me to be the theory which best represents all the facts 
of the case. It is also the theory which best accords with the 
existing diversities of pronunciation within very narrow limits in .the 
English provinces. It remains to be seen how it is borne out by the 
orthography of the Ha. Harleian 7334, and the six newly published 
MS. texts, E. Ellesmere, He. Hengwrt, Ca. Cambridge, Co. Corpus, 
P. Petworth, and L. Lansdowne of the Canterbury Tales. For this 
purpose I have looked over the prologue and Knightes Tale, and 
examined a large number, probably the great majority of the cases, 
with the following results. The initial italic words, by which the 
lists are arranged, are in modem spelling, and where they are 
absent the words are obsolete. Where no initials are put, all the 
MSS. unnamed agree in the preceding spelling so far as having one 
of the combinations ai, ay, ei, ey is concerned, small deviations in 
other respects are not noted, but if any other letter is used for one 
of the above four it is named. The numbers refer to the lines of 
the Six Text edition, and they have frequently to be increased 
by 2 for "Wright's edition of the Harleian MS. 

List of "Words containing AY, EY in the Prologue and Knightes Tale . 

Anglosaxon and Scandinavian maidens, maydens 2300 

Words. nails, nayles 2141 

neighbour, nyjhebour Ca., neighebore 
again, agayn 991 535 

against, ajens Ca., ageyns 1787 neither, neither 1135 

aileth, eyleth 1081 nigh, neigh H. He., neyh Co., nyghe 
ashes, aisshes Co., asshen 2957 P., nyhe L., nyh Ca„ ny E., 732 

bewray, bewreye 2229 said, seyde 219, 1356, and frequently 

day, day, 19 and frequently say, seyn 1463 

die, deyen Ca., Co., dyen E. He. P. seen, seyn E. He. Ca. Co. L., seen Ha., 

dyjen L. 1109, deyde 2846 sene P. 2840 

dry, dreye Ca., drye 420, 1362, dreye slain, slayn 992, 2038, 2552, 2708; 

[rh. weye] 3024 slayn P. L., sleen 1556, sle sleen 

dyer, deyer fia., dyere 362 1859 

eye, eye E. Ca., eyghe P., yhe Ha. L., sleight, sleight 604 

iye He. 10, eyen E." He., eyghen spreynd Ha. E. He. Co. P., sprend Ca., 

Ha. P., eyjyyn Ca., yghen Co., sprined L. 2169 

yhen L. 267 and frequently two, tweye 704 

fain, fayn 2437 waileth, wayleth 1221 

fair, faire 1685. 1941 way, way 34, 1264, and often. 

flesh, fleissh Ha. Co., flessh 147 weighed, weigheden 454 

height, heght P., heighte 1890 whether, wheither E. He., whethii Ha., 
laid, leyde 1384 and frequently wheber Ca. Co. L., whedere P., 

lay, lay 20 and frequently 1857 



Chap. VII. § 1. 

French "Words. 

acquaintance, aqueyntaunce 245 

a'ieul, aiel E. He. Ca. ayel Ha., avell 

Co. L. eile P. 2477 
air, eir 1246 
apayd [rh. ysaid] 1868 
apparelling, apparaillynge 2913 
array, array 41 73, and often. 
attain, atteyne 1243 
availeth, auailleth 3040 
bargains, bargaynes 282 
barren, barayne 1244, baranL., bareyn 

battle, bataille 988, 2540 
braided, breided P., broyded E. He. 

Ca. Co., crowded Ha. L, 1049 
caitiff, catiff P., caytyf 1552, 1717, 1946 
certain, certeyn 204 and often. 
chain, cbeyne 2988 
chutaigne, cbasteyn 2922 
chieftain, chevetan Ha., cbieftayn 2555 
company, compaignye E. He. Co. P., 

cumpanye Ca., companye Ha. L. 

331, compaignye E. He. L., cum- 
panye Ca. Co. P., company Ha. 

2105, 2411 
complain, compleyn 908 
conveyed, conuoyed E., conveyed 2737 
counsel, conseil Ha. E. He. Co. P., 

counsel L., cuntre Ca. 3096 
courtesy, curteisie E. He. Ca., curtesie 

Ha. Co. P. L. 46, 132 
dais, deys Ha. E. He. Ca. Co. P. dese 

[rh. burgeise] L. 370 
darreyne, 1609, 2097 
debonnair, debonnaire [rb. faire] 2282 
despair, dispeir 1245 
dice, deys Ca., dys 1238 
disdain, disdeyn 789 
displayeth, desplayeth 966 
distraineth, destreyneth 1455, 1816 
dozen, doseyne 578 
fail, faille 1854, 2798 
finest, feynest Ca., fynest 194 
florin, floreyn Ca. Co. P., fioren Ha. 

L., floryn E. He. 2088 
franklins, frankeleyns 216 
fresh, fressbe Ha. E. He. P. L., frosscbe 

Ca., freissche Co., 92, [freiscb Ha.] 

2176, 2622 
furnace, forneys 202, 559 
gaineth, gayneth 1176, 2755 
gay, gay 73 
golyardeys 560 
harnessed, barneysed 114, 1006, 1634, 

kerchiefs, keverchefs Ha., couercbeis 

Ca. [the proper Norman plural, 

according to Mr. Payne], couer- 

chiefs E. He. Co. L., couerchefes 

P. 453 

leisure, leyser 1188 

Magdalen, Maudelayne 410 

maintain, mayntevne H. E., mayntene 

He. Ca. Co. P., maiten L. 1778 
master, mystir Ca., maister 261 
mastery, maistrie 165 
meyned 2170 
money, moneye 703 
ordained, ordeyned 2553 
paid, ypayed 1802 
pain-ed, peyned 139, peyne 1133 
painted, peyntid 1934, 1975 
palace, paleys 2513 
palfrey, palfrey 207, 2495 
plain, pleyn 790, 1464 
plein, pleyn 315 
portraiture, portreiture Ha. E. He. Ca. 

Co., pourtrature P. L. 1968, [pur- 

treture Ha.] 2036 
portray, portray 96 
portrayer, portreyor Ha., portreitour 

E., purtreyour He., purtreiour 

Co., purtraiour P., portretour Ca., 

purtreoure L., 1899 
portraying, portraying Ha., portreying 

Ca. Co.. purtraiynge P., por- 

treyynge E. He., purtreinge L. 

pray, preyen 1260 
prayer, prayer 2226 
purveyance, purveiance E. He., pur- 

ueance Ha. Co. P. L. puruyance 

Ca. 1665, purueiance E. H., pur- 

ueance Ha. Co. P. L., puruyance 

Ca. 3011 
quaint 1531, 2321, 2333, 2334 
raineth, reynith 1535 
reins, reynes 904 
sovereign, souereyn 1974 
straight, streite 457, stryt Ca., streyt 

suddenly, sodanly L., sodeynly 1530, 

sodeinliche 1575 
sustain, susteyne Ca. L., sustene 1993 
trace, trays -2141 
turkish, turkeys 2895 
turneiynge E. He. Co. turneynge Ha., 

turnyinge Ca. tornynge L., tor- 

namente P. 2557 
vain, veyn 1094 
vasselage Ha. E. He. Co. L., vassalage 

P., wasseyllage Ca. 3054 
vein, veyne 3, 2717 
verily, verraily E. He. Ca. Co. verrely 

P. L., verrily Ha. 1174. 
very, verray 422 
villany, vileynye E. He., velany Ca., 

L., vilonve Ha. Co. P. 70, [vilanye 

Ha.] 740 
waiting, waytinge 929 

Chap. VII. § 1. 



The general unanimity of these seven MSS. is certainly remarkable. 
It seems almost enough to lead the reader to suppose that when 
he finds the usual ay, ey replaced by a, e, i in any other MSS., the 
scribe has accidentally omitted one of the letters of the diphthong, 
which being supplied converts a, e, i into ay, ey, ai or ei respectively. 
Thus when in v. 1530 all but L. use ey or ay, and in v. 1575 all, in- 
cluding L., use ey in sodeynly, sodeynliche, we cannot but conclude 
that sodanhj in L. 1530, is a clerical error for sodaynly. "We have 
certainly no right to conclude that the a was designed to indicate 
a peculiar pronunciation of a as ay or conversely. But it will be 
best to consider the variants seriatim as they are not many in 

Consideration of Variants in the Last List. 

Anglosaxon and Scandinavian 

Against 1787 has still two sounds 
(«gemst - , Bgenst - ) which seem to cor- 
respond to two such original sounds as 
(again- agen - ). 

Ashes, aisshes Co. 2957 represented 
really a duplicate form, as appears from 
its having been preserved into the 
xvi th century, p. 120, 1. 6. 

Die 1109, see variants on p. 284. 

Dry 420, see variants on p. 285. 

Dyer, the general orthography dyer 
362 is curious, for the ags. deagan 
would naturally give deyer, which how- 
ever is only preserved in Ha., the rest 
giving dyere, and the Promptorium 
having dyyn ; Ha. has deye in 11037. 
It would almost seem as if habit had 
confused the two words dye, die, and 
hence given the first the same double 
sound as the second. There is no 
room for supposing the sound (dee) in 
either case. 

Eye 10, see variants on p. 285. 

Flesh, 147 is one of the words men- 
tioned on p. 265, as having two spell- 
ings in Ha. see also p. 473 note 1, for 
a possible origin of the double pronun- 

Height, heght P. 1890 is of course 
a clerical error for heighte. 

Neighbour 535, follows nigh in its 

Nigh 732, 535. The variants here 
seem to shew that this word should be 
added to the list given on pp. 284-6, 
as having a double pronunciation, 
especially as we have seen that the (ii) 
sound is preserved in Devon, p. 291, 
as it is in Lonsdale. 

Seen. The orthography seyn 2840 
for seen is supported by too many 
MSS. to be an error, it must be a du- 

plicate form, retaining in the infinitive 
the expression of the lost guttural, 
which crops up so often in different 
parts of this verb, Gothic saihwan, 
compare the forms on p. 279. 

Slay 992, see p. 265; the double 
sound (ee, ai) may have arisen from the 
double ags. form, without and with the 
guttural, the latter being represented 
by (ai) and the former by (ee), which 
is more common. 

Spreiud, isprend, isprind 2169 must 
be merely clerical errors for isprt wed, 
as in most MSS., because both words 
rhyme with ymeynd, which retains its 
orthography in each case. 

Whether, 1857, has certainly no 
more title to (ai) than beat or them, 
but nevertheless we have seen Orrmin 
introduce the (i) or (j) into these words, 
p. 489, hence it is not impossible that 
there may have been some provincials 
who said icheider, but still it is more 
probable that the ei of E. and He. in 
1857 are clerical errors. The word is 
not common and I have not noted 
another example of it in E. He. 

French Words. 

Barren, baran L. 1977, must be a 
clerical error for barayn. 

Braid 1049, seems to have had 
various sounds, corresponding to the 
ags. bregdan, icel. bregda, and to the 
French broder, which would give the 
forms breyde, browde. while broyde 
would seem to be an uncertain, or mis- 
taken mixture of the two (braid'e, 
bruud-e, bruid - e). We do not find 
brede (breed-e). but as the g was some- 
times omitted even in ags. it would 
have been less curious than hr 

Caitif. The orthography caUff P. 
1552, 1717, 1946, being repeated in 



Chap. VII. § 1. 

three places, although opposed to the 
other six MSS. which determine cay t if 
to be the usual form, may imply a dif- 
ferent pronunciation rather than be a 
clerical error. The French forms of 
this derivative of the Latin captivus, 
as given by Eoquefort are very numer- 
ous, but all of them contain i, or an e 
derived from ai, thus: caitif, caiptif, 
caitieu, caitis, caitiu, caitivie, cetif, 
cetis, chaitieu, chaitif, chaitis, chaitiu, 
cheitif, chetif, chety, quaitif, quetif. 
Eoquefort gives as Provencal and 
Languedoc forms : caitiou, caitious, 
caitius, caitivo. The Spanish cautivo 
has introduced the labial instead of the 
palatal modification, while the Italian 
only has preserved the a pure by as- 
similating p, thus, eattivo. If then 
the a in P. was intentional, it was very 

Chieftain, cheveten Ha. 2555, should 
according to the general analogy of 
such terminations be cheveteyn, and it 
will then agree with the other MSS. 

Company. In compaignye 331, 2105, 
2411, the i is conceived by M. Fran- 
cisque Michel to have been merely 
orthographical in French, introduced 
to make gn mouille, just as i was intro- 
duced before 11 to make it mouille. 
Compare also p. 309, n. 1, at end. It 
is very possible that both pronuncia- 
tions prevailed (kumpaimre, kum- 
pam're) and that the first was con- 
sidered as French, the latter as Eng- 
lish. There is no room for supposing 
such a pronunciation as (kumpeemre) 
with (ee). 

Conveyed. Conuoyed E. 2737 is not 
a variant of the usual conueyed, but 
another word altogether, a correction 
of the scribes. 

Counsel, counsel L. 3096, is probably 
a clerical error for counseil as in the 
other MSS. 

Courtesy. Curteisye 46, vileynye 70, 
may be considered together. They 
were common words, and the second 
syllable was usually unaccented, where- 
as in eurteis, vileyn, it was frequently 
accented. Hence we cannot be sur- 
prised at finding ey strictly preserved 
in the latter, but occasional deviations 
into non-diphthongal sounds occurring 
in the former. Careful scribes or 
speakers seem, however, to have pre- 
served the ey of the primitive in the 
derivative. The vilonye of Ha. Co. P. 
70, which is replaced by viknye in Ha. 

740, serves to corroborate this view, 
as evidently the scribe did not know 
how to write the indistinct sound he 
heard, a difficulty well known to all 
who have attempted to write down 
living sounds. See also Mr. Payne's 
remarks, supra, p. 585. To the same 
category belong the variants of por- 
traiture, purveyance, verily. 

Dais, dese L. for deys =d&is 370, in 
opposition to the six other MS. is pro- 
bably a clerical error for deyse the final 
e being added also to the rhyming 
word burgeise in L. which retains the i. 

Bice. Deys Ca. 1238 for dys is 
clearly an error as shewn by the rhym- 
ing word paradys, but dys itself seems 
to have been accommodated to the 
rhyme for dees, which occurs in Ha. 
13882, and is the natural representa- 
tive of the French des. 

Finest. The orthography fey nest 
Ca. 194, must be a clerical error. 

Florin. The floren, florin, floreyn 
2088 may be concurrent forms of a 
strange word, and the last seems more 
likely to have been erroneous. 

Fresh 92, had no doubt regularly 
(ee), but the older (ai) seems to have 
been usual to some, the frosshe of Ca. 
is a provincialism of the order noted 
on p. 476 

Kerchiefs. Couercheis Ca. 453, is 
probably a mere clerical error for 
couerchefs, i having been written for 
/, as we can hardly suppose the provin- 
cial scribe of Ca., to have selected a 
Norman form by design. 

Maintain. Maynteyne 1778, sus- 
teyne 1993, belong to the series of words 
derived from tenere. There is no dis- 
agreement respecting the ay in the 
first syllable of maynteyne ; sustene is 
fully supported by the rhyme, p. 265, 
1. 1, and hence mayntene, sustene are 
probably the proper forms. I have 
unfortunately no note of the Chau- 
cerian forms of obtain, detain, retain, 
contain, appertain, entertain, abstain, 
but probably -tens would be found the 
right form. The spelling ey and pro- 
nunciation (ai) may have crept in 
through a confusion with the form 
-teyne=l&t. -tinyere, of which I have 
also accidentally been guilty p. 265, 
1. 25, as : atteyne, bareyne, must rhyme, 
1243, 8323, and as -stringere produces 
-streyne 1455, 1816 in all MSS. 

Master, mystir Ca. 261 for master is 
probably a clerical error. 

Chap. VII. § 1. 



Portraiture 1968, portray er 1899 ; 
the variants may be explained as in 
Courtesy, which see. 

Portraying. In portreyyng, por- 
treyng 1938 there is an omission of 
one y on account of the inconvenience 
of the yy in the first form, overcome 
by changing the first y into i in P. 

Purveyance 1165, the variants may 
be explained as in Courtesy, which see. 

Straight. Stryt Ca. 1984, must be 
a clerical error for streyt, as the ab- 
sence of e is quite unaccountable. 

Suddenly. Sodanly L. 1530 must, as 
we have seen p. 643, be an error for 

Sustain 1993 see Maintain. 

Turneynge Ha. 2557 ; the variants 
are to be explained as those of portray- 
ing, which see. 

Verily 1174, the variants may be 
explained as in Courtesy, which see. 

Villany 70, see Courtesy. 

"Wasseyllage Ca. 3054, certainly 
arose from a confusion in the scribe's 
mind, vasselage valour being unusual, 
he reverted to the usual wasseyl for an 
explanation, and in wasseyl we have an 
ey for an ags. ce, which may be com- 
pared with ey for ea in Orrmin, supra 
p. 489. 


The natural effect of this examination has heen to place the 
variants rather than the constants strongly before the reader's mind. 
He must therefore recollect that out of the total of 1 1 1 words the 
following 73, many of which occur very frequently, are invariably 
spelt with one of the phonetically identical forms ai, ay, ei, ey, 
in each of the seven MSS. every time they occur : — 

again, aileth, bewray, day, fain, fair, dozen, fail, franklins frankeleyns, fur- 

laid, lay, maidens, nails, neither, said, 
say, sleight, two tweye, waileth, 

way, weighed. acquaintance, dieul, 

air, apayd, apparelling apparaillynge, 
array, attain, availeth, bargains, battle 
bataille, certain, chain, chutaigne, com- 
plain, darreyne, debonnair, despair, 
dice, disdain, displayeth, distraineth, 

nace forneys, gaineth, gay, golyardeys, 
harnessed harneysed, leisure, Magdalen 
Maudelayne, mastery, nieyned, money, 
ordained, paid, pained, painted, palace 
paleys, palfrey, plain, plein, portray, 
pray, prayer, quaint, raineth, reins, 
sovereign, trace trays, turkish turkeys, 
vain, vein, very, wailing. 

On the other hand, the variants only affect 38 words, of which 
few, except those already recognized to have two forms in 
use, occur more than once, while the variants confined to one or 
two MSS. display no manner of rule or order, and are far from 
shewing a decided e form as the substitute for ay, ey. They may 
be classified as follows : 

15 Clerical Errors : height 
heght, spreyned sprend sprined, whether 

wheither, barren baran, chieftain, 

chevetan, counsel counsel, dice deys, 
finest feynest, kerchiefs couercheis, 
maintain maynteyne mayntene, master 
mystir, straight stryt, suddenly sodanly, 
sustain susteyne, turneiynge turnyinge 

12 Double Forms : ashes aisshes 
asshen, die deyen dyen, dry dreye drye, 
dyer dyere deyer, eye eighe yhe, flesh 
fleissh flessh, neighbour neighebore 
nyjhebour, nigh neigh nyghe, seen seyn 

seen, slain slayn sleen, braided 

breided browdid, fresh fresshe freisshe. 

6 Indistinct Unaccented Sylla- 

bles : courtesy courteisie curtesie, por- 
traiture portreiture pourtrature, por- 
trayer portreyor purtreoure, purvey- 
ance purveiance purueance puruyance, 
verily verraily verrely verrily, villany 
vileynye velany vilonye. 

5 Miscellaneous : caitiff may have 
been occasionally catiffas well as coytif 

conuoyed was a different reading, 

not an error for conveyed for in 

being a foreign coin may have been 
occasionally mispronounced floreyn, 

povtveing was an orthographical 

abbreviation of portreiynge was- 
seyllage was a manifest error for the 
unusual vasselage, the usual wasseyl oc- 
curring to the scribe. 

The variants, therefore, furnish almost as convincing a proof as 
the constants, that ay, ey represented some sound distinct froin e 

646 TREATMENT OF FINAL E. Chap. VII. § 1. 

(ee). But if there was a distinct sound attachable to these com- 
binations ay, ey, in Chaucer's time, what could it have possibly been 
but that (ai) sound, which as we know by direct evidence, subsisted 
in the pronunciation of learned men and courtiers (Sir T. Smith was 
secretary of state) during the xvi th century, and which the spelling 
used, and no other, was calculated to express, and was apparently 
gradually introduced to express. The inference is therefore, that 
Chaucer's scribes pronounced ay, ey as (ai) and not as (ee), and 
where they wished to signify the sound of (ee), in certain well- 
known and common Norman words, they rejected the Norman or- 
thography and introduced the truly English spelling e. The in- 
ference again from this result is that there was a traditional English 
pronunciation of Norman ad, ei, as (ai), which may have lasted long 
after the custom had died out in Normandy, on the principle already 
adduced (p. 20), that emigrants preserve an older pronunciation. 

Treatment of Final E in the Critical Text. 

As the following text of the Prologue is intended solely for the 
use of students, it has been accommodated to their wants in various 
ways. First the question of final e demanded strict investigation. 
The helplessness of scribes during the period that it was dying out 
of use in the South, and had already died out in the North, makes 
the new MSS. of little value for its determination, the Cambridge 
and Lansdowne being evidently written by Northern scribes to 
whom a final e had become little more than a picturesque addition. 
It was necessary therefore to examine every word in connection 
with its etymology, constructional use, and metrical value. In 
every case where theory would require the use of a final e, or other 
elided letter, but the metre requires its elision, it has been replaced 
by an apostrophe. The results on p. 341 were deduced from the 
text adopted before it had heen revised by help of the Six-Text 
Edition, and therefore the numbers there given will be slightly 
erroneous l , but the reader will by this means understand at a glance 
the bearing of the rules on p. 342. 

The treatment of the verbal termination -ede, required particular 
attention. There are many cases in which, coming before a con- 
sonant, it might be -ed' or -de, and it was natural to think that the 
latter should be chosen, because in the contracted forms of two 
syllables, we practically find this forni ; thus : fedde 146, bledde 
145, wente 255, wiste 280, spente 300, coude 326, 346, 383, kepte 
442, dide 451, couthe 467, tawghte 497, cawghte 498, kepte 512, 
wolde 536, mighte 585, scholde 648, seyde 695, moste 712 and 

1 The number of elisions of essential lowing are examples: palmer's 13, 

e, stated at 13 on p. 341, has been re- servawnt's 101, fether's 107, finger's 

duced. The only important one left is 129, hunter's 178, grayhound's 190, 

meer' 541, and that is doubtful on ac- sleev's 193, tavern's 240, haven's 407, 

count of the double form of the rhym- housbond's 460, aventur's 795. Of 

ing word milker, see p. 389. The course (') is not used as the mark of 

number of plural -es treated as -s has the genitive cases, but only to shew a 

been somewhat increased. The fol- real elision. 

Chap. VII. § 1. TREATMENT OF FINAL E. 647 

many others. But even here it is occasionally elided. Mr. Moms 
observes that in the Cambridge MS. of Boethius, and in the elder 
"Wycliffite Version (see below § 3), the -ede is very regularly written. 
This however does not prove that the final e was pronounced, be- 
cause the orthography hire, here, oure, youre, is uniform, and the 
elision of the final -e almost as uniform. The final e in -ede might 
therefore have been written, and never or rarely pronounced. It is 
certain that the first e is sometimes elided, when the second also 
vanishes, as before a vowel or h in: lov'd' 206, 533, gam'd' 534, etc. 
But it is also certain that -ed 1 was pronounced in many cases with- 
out the e, supra p. 355, art. 53, Ex. Throughout the prologue T 
have not found one instance in which -ede, or -de, was necessary to 
the metre, 1 but there are several in which -ed', before a vowel, is 
necessary. If we add to this, that in point of fact -ed' remained in 
the xvi th century, and has scarcely yet died out of our biblical 
pronunciation, the presumption in favour of -ed'' is veiy strong. 2 On 
adopting this orthography, I have not found a single case in the 
prologue where it failed, but possibly such cases occur elsewhere, 
and if so, they must be compared to the rare use of hadde, and 
still rarer use of icere, here for the ordinary hadd\ wer* ', her\ 

The infinitive -e is perhaps occasionally lost. It is only saved 
by a trisyllabic measure in : yeve penawnce 223. If it is not 
elided in help' 259, then we must read whelpe 258, with most MSS. 
but unhistorically. On the other hand the subjunctive -e remains 
as : ruste 500, take 503, were 582, spede 769, quyte 770. 

Medial elisions must have been common, and are fully borne out 
by the Cuckoo Song, p. 423. Such elisions are: ev'iy 15, 327, 
ev'ne 83, ov'ral 249, ov'rest 290, rem'nawnt 724, and : mon'th 92, 
tak'th 789, com'th 839. The terminations -er, -el, -en, when run 
on to the following vowel, should also probably be treated as 
elisions. As respects -er, -re, I have sometimes hesitated whether to 
consider the termination as French -re, or as assimilated into English, 
under the form -er, but I believe the last is the right view, and in 
that case such elisions as: ord'r he 214, are precisely similar to : 
ev'ry 15, and occasion no difficulty. Similarly, -el, -le, are both 
found in MSS., but I have adopted -el, as more consonant with the 
treatment of strictly English words, and regarded the cases in which 
the I is run on to the following word, as elisions, thus : simp'l and 
119. Such elisions are common in modem English, and in the case 
of -le, they form the rule when syllables are added, supra p. 52. 
In : to fest'n' his hood 195, we have an elision of e in en, and a final 
e elided, the full gerundial fonn being to festene, as it would be 
written in prose. 

1 The plural weygheden 454, is not tabhjs, sadtys, fadrys, modrys, but its 
in point. subsequent restoration, accompanied 

2 Mr. Murray observes that lovde by a suppression of the y before the s, 
would be an older fonn than loved for in the more recent forms tabylU 
lovede, and grounds his observation on sadylls, fadyrs, modyrs. These analo- 
the fact of the similar suppression gies are valuable. All that is implied 
of the y before I in tabyll, sadyll, in the text is that the form -ed seems 
fady>; modyr, in the old Scotch plurals to have prevailed in Chaucer. 

648 chaucer's metre. chap. VII. § l. 

As the text now stands there is no instance of an open e, that is, 
of final e preserved before a vowel (supra p. 341, 1. 2. p. 363, art. 
82, and infra note on v. 429), but there is one instance of final e 
preserved before he, (infra note on v. 386). 

Metrical Peculiarities of Chaucer. 

The second point to which particular attention is paid in this 
text is the metre. Pains have been taken to choose such a text as 
would preserve the rhythm without violating the laws of final e, and 
without having recourse to modern conjecture. For this purpose 
a considerable number of trisyllabic measures (supra, p. 334) have 
been admitted, and their occurrence is pointed out by the sign iii 
in the margin. The 69 examples noted may be classified thus : 

i- , arising from the running on of i to a following vowel, either in two 
words as : many a 60, 212, 229, etc., bisy a 321, cari* a 130, studi' 
and 184, or in the same word, as : luvieer 80, curious 196, bisier 321, 
which may be considered the rule in modern poetry, see 60, 80, 130, 
184, 196, 212, 229, 303, 321, 322, 349, 350, 396, 438, 464, 530, 

560, 764, 782, 840, instances 20 

-er, arising from running this unaccented syllable on to a following 

vowel, in cases where the assumption and pronunciation of -r would 

be harsh, as : deliver, and 84, sommer hadd' 394, water he 400 ; and 

in the middle of a word, as : colerik 587, leccherous 626 ; instances 5 

-el, not before a preceding vowel, as : mesurabel was 435, mawncipel 

was 567, mawncipel sett' 586, instances 3 

-en, not before a preceding vowel, as : yeomen from 77 ; or before a pre- 
ceding vowel or h, where the elision 'n would be harsh, as : writen 

a 161, geten him 291, instances 3 

-e, arising from the pronunciation of final e, where it seems unnecessary, or 
harsh, to assume its suppression, as 88, 123, 132, 136, 197, 208, 223, 
224, 276, 320, 341, 343, 451, 454, 475, 507, 510, 524, 537, 550, 630, 

648, 650, 706, 777, 792, 806, 834, 853, instances 29 

Miscellaneous, in the following lines, where the trisyllabic measures are 
italicised for convenience. 

Of Engelond', to Cawnterber// they tvenie. 16" 

To Cawnterbery with Jul devout corage. 22 

His heed was balled, and schoon as any glas. 198 

And thryes hadd' she been at Jerusalem. 463 

Wyd was his par/sc/i and houses fer asonder. 491 y instances 

He was a schepperd, and not a mercenarie. 514 

He waited after no pomp' and reverence. 525 

Ther coude no man bring' him m arrerage. 602 

And also war' him of a significavit. 662 

Total 69 

It would have been easy in many cases by elisions or slight 
changes to have avoided these trisyllabic measures, but after con- 
sidering each case carefully, and comparing the different manu- 
scripts, there did not appear to be any sufficient ground for so doing. 

Allied to trisyllabic measures are the lines containing a super- 
fluous unaccented syllable at the end, but to this point, which was 
a matter of importance in old Italian and Spanish versification, and 
has become a matter of stringent rule in classical French poetry, no 
attention seems to have been paid by older writers, whether French 
or English, and Chaucer is in this respect as free as Shakspere. 

Chap. VII. § 1. CHAUCER'S METRE. 649 

There are a few cases of two superfluous unaccented syllables, com- 
parable to the Italian versi sdruccioli, and these have been indicated 
by (+) in the margin. There are only 6 instances : berye merye 
207, 208, apotecaryes letuaryes 425, 426, miscaiye mercenarye 513, 
514, all of which belong to the class *-, so that the two syllables 
practically strike the ear as one. 

But there are also real Alexandrines, or lines of six measures, 
which do not appear to have been previously noticed, and which 1 
have been very loth to admit. These are marked vi in the margin. 
There are four instances. In : 

But sore wepte sche if oon of hem wer' deed. 148 
the perfect unanimity of the MSS., and the harsh and unusual 
elision of the adverbial -e in sore, and the not common elision of the 
imperfect e in ivepte, which would be necessary to reduce the line to 
one of five measures, render the acceptance of an Alexandrine im- 
perative, and certainly it is effective in expressing the feeling of 
the Prioresse. In : 

Men mote yeve silver to the pore freres. 232 

the Alexandrine is not pure because the csesura does not fall after 
the third measure. But the MSS. are unanimous, the elisions mot 1 
yev'' undesirable, and the lengthening out of the line with the tag 
of "the pore freres," seems to indicate the very whine of the 
begging friar. In 

"With a thredbare cop', as a pore scoleer. 260 

the pore which lengthens the line out in all MSS., seems introduced 
for a similar purpose. The last instance 

I ne sawgh not this yeer so mery a companye. 764 
is conjectural, since no MS. gives the reading complete, but: I ne 
sawgh, or : I sawgh not, are both unmetrical, and by using both 
we obtain a passable Alexandrine, which may be taken for what it 
is worth, because no MS. reading can be accepted. 

The defective first measures to which attention was directed by 
Mr. Skeat, supra p. 333, have been noted by ( — ), and a careful 
consideration of the MSS. induces me to accept 13 instances, 1, 76, 
131, 170, 247, 271, 294, 371, 391, 417, 429, 733, 778, though 
they are not all satisfactoiy, as several of them (131, 247, 271, 
391, 778) offend against the principle of having a strong accent on 
the first syllable, and two (417, 429) throw the emphasis in rather 
an unusual manner, as : weel coud' he, weel knew he, where : weel 
coud" 1 he, well knew he, would have rather been expected, but there 
is no MS. authority for improving them. 

Three instances have been noted of sa>/nt forming a dissyllable, 
as already suggested, (supra pp. 264, 476), one of which (697), 
might be escaped by assuming a bad instance of a defective first 
measure, but the other two (120, 509,) seem clearly indicated 
by MS. authority. See the notes on these passages. They are 
indicated by ai in the margin. 1 

1 Mr. Murray has observed cases in then it had its Scotch value (a«), supra 
Scotch in which ai was dissyllabic, but p. 637, n. 1. He cites from Wyn- 


650 chaucer's French words. Chap. VII. § 1. 

Chaucer's Treatment of French "Words. 

The third point to which attention is directed in printing the 
text of the prologue, is linguistic rather than phonetic, but seemed 
of sufficient interest to introduce in a work intended for the use of 
the Chaucer Society, namely, the amount of French which Chaucer 
admitted into his English. ' ' Thank God ! I may now, if I like, 
turn Protestant !" exclaims Moore's Irish Gentleman on the evening 
of 16th April, 1829, when the news of the royal assent to the 
Catholic Relief Bill reached Dublin. 1 And in the same way it 
would appear that the removal of the blockade on the English 
language, when after "be furste moreyn," 1348, "John Cornwal, 
a maystere of grammere, chaungede be lore in gramere scole," 2 and 
Edward III. enacted in the 36th year of his reign, 1362-3, that all 
pleas should be pleaded and judged in the English tongue, the 
jealous exclusion of French terms from English works, which marks 
the former period, seemed to cease, and English having become the 
victor did not disdain to make free use of the more " gentle" 
tongue, in which so many treasures of literature were locked up. 
Even our older poems are more or less translations from the French, 
though couched in unmistakable English. But in the xrvth 
century we have Gower writing long poems in both languages, 
and Chaucer familiar with both, and often seeking his originals in 
French. The people for whom he principally wrote must have 
been also more or less familiar with the tongue of the nobles, and 
large numbers of French words must have passed into common use 
among Englishmen, before they could have assumed English in- 
flectional terminations. We have numerous instances of this in 
Chaucer. "Whenever a French verb was employed, the French 
termination was rejected, and an English inflectional system sub- 
stituted. Thus using italics for the French part, we have in the 
prologue: perced 2, engendered 4, 421, inspired 6, esed 29, honour'd 
50, embrouded 89, harneysed 114, entuned 123, peyned 139, rosted\47, 
ypivchtd 151, gatvded 159, crouned 161, purfyled 193, farsed 233, 
accorded 244, enryned 342, chawnged 348, passed 464, encombred 
508, spyced 526, ypunish'd 657, trussed 681, feyved 705, assembled 
717, sm'ed 749, grawnted 810, pray'den 811, railed 816, studieih 

841. flouting' 91, harping' 266, offr'mg' 450, 489, aswylmg 661, 

cry'' 636, rost', broylV , frye 383, rehers' 732, feyne 736. Again 

we have an English adjective or adverbial termination affixed to 
French words, as: specially 15, fetislj 124, 273, certainly 235, 
solemnely 274, staatly 281, estaatlieh. 140, verrayly 338, really 

town's Orygynal Oronykil of Scotland, search of a religion, by Thomas Moore, 

circa 1419-30, in reference to Malcolm chap. i. 


Malcolm kyng, lie lHWChful get, 2 See the whole noteworthy passage 

Had on his wvf Saynt Margret. from Trenisa's translation of Higden, 

Where, however, Margret might rather printed from the Cott. MS. Tiberius 

have been trissyllabic. D. VII., by Mr. R. Morris, in his 

Specimens of Early English, 1867, 

1 Travels of an Irish gentleman in p. 339. 


=royally 378, devoutly 482, scarslj 583, prively 609, subtilly 610, 

prively 652, playnly 727, properly 729, rudely 734. afe^'lees 

• 582. In esy 441, pomely 616, we have rather the change of the 

French -e into -y, which subsequently became general, but the ese 
remains in : esely 469. In : dayyeer 113, 392, we have a substan- 
tive with an English termination to a French root. T?oottnantel 
472, is compounded of an English and French word. In : daliatvnce 
211, loodmann^e 403, deyerye 577, French terminations only are 
assumed. A language must have long been in familiar use to 
admit of such treatment as this. "What then more likely than the 
introduction of complete words, which did not require to have their 
terminations changed ? The modern cookery book and fashion 
magazines are full of French words introduced bodily for a similar 
reason. Of course the subject matter and the audience greatly 
influence the choice of words, and we find Chaucer sensibly changing 
his manner with his matter — see the quantity of unmixed English 
in the characters of the Yeman, the Ploughman, and the Miller. 
To make this admixture of French and English evident to the eye, 
all words or parts of words which may be fairly attributed to French 
influence, including proper names, have been italicised, but some 
older Latin words of ecclesiastical origin and older JNorman words 
have not been marked and purely Latin words have been put in 
small capitals. 1 The result could then be subjected to a numerical 
test, and comes out as follows : 

Lines containing no French word . 

„ only one „ „ . 

„ two French words 

„ three „ „ 

„ four „ „ 

» nve » >> 

Lines in the Prologue . 858 100-0 

If the total number of French words in the prologue be reckoned 
from the above data, they will be found to be 761, or not quite one 
word in a line on an averaye. The overpoweringly English character 
of the work could not be more clearly demonstrated. 

Chaucer's language may then be described as a degraded Anglo- 
Saxon, into which French words had been interwoven, without 
interfering with such grammatical forms as had been left, to the 
extent of about 20 per cent., and containing occasionally complete 
French -phrases, of which, however, none occur in the prologue. 
To understand the formation of such a dead dialect, we have only 
to watch the formation of a similarly-constructed living dialect. 
Such a one really exists, although it must rapidly die out, as there 
are not only not the same causes at work which made the language 
of Chaucer develop into the language of England, but there are 
other and directly contrary influences which must rapidly lead to 
the extinction of its modern analogue. 

1 These are very few in number, see Minor' or of Saynt Beneyt. 173, in 
5, 162. 254, 336, 429, 430, 646, 662. which the French words were in- 

2 The line is : The reul' of Saynt dispensable. 


per cent. 

















Chap. VII. § 1. 

Pennsylvania German the Analogue of Chaucer's English. 

Fully one half of the people of Pennsylvania and Ohio in the 
United States of America understand the dialect known as Penn- 
sylvania German. This neighbourhood was the seat of a great Ger- 
man immigration from the Palatinate of the Rhine 1 and Switzer- 
land. Here they kept up their language, and established schools, 
which are now almost entirely extinct. Surrounded by English of 
the xvnth century they naturally grafted some of its words on 
their own, either as distinct phrases, or as the roots of inflections ; 
and, perhaps, in more recent times, when fully nine-tenths of the 
present generation are educated in English, the amount of intro- 
duced English has increased. 3 The result is a living dialect which 
may be described as a degraded 3 High German, into which English 

1 See supra, p. 47, lines 5 to 15. 

3 Some of these particulars have 
been taken from the preface to Mr. E. 
H. Rauch's Pennsylvanish Deitsch ! 
De Breefa fum Pit Schwefflebrenner un 
de Bevvy, si Fraw, fun Schliffletown 
on der Drucker fum " Father Abra- 
ham," Lancaster, Pa., 1868, and others 
from information kindly furnished me 
by Rev. Dr. Mombert, Lancaster, Penn- 
sylvania, U.S., in April, 1869. 

3 This does not mean that it is a 
degraded form of the present literary 
high German, but merely of the high 
German group of Germanic dialects. 
On 19 Aug. 1869, the 14th meeting of 
the German Press Union, of Pennsyl- 
vania, U.S., was held at Bethlehem, 
when an interesting discussion took 
place on Pennsylvania German, or das 
Deutsch-Petinsylvanische, as it is termed 
in the Reading Adler of 31 Aug. 1869, 
a German newspaper published at 
Reading, Berks County, Pa., U.S., from 
which the following account is trans- 
lated and condensed. Prof. Note, of 
Allentown, who is preparing a Penn- 
sylvania German grammar, drew at- 
tention to the recent German publi- 
cations on Frankish, Upper-Bavarian, 
Palatine, Swabian, and Swiss dialects, 
and asserted that the Penn. Germ, had 
an equally tough existence (zahesZeben) 
and deserved as much study. Mr. Dan 
E. Sehodler declared that the Germans 
of Pennsylvania could only be taught 
literary high German, in which their 
divine service had always been con- 
ducted, by means of their own dialect. 
Dr G. Killwr justified dialects. He 
considered that linguists, including J. 
Grimm, had not sufficiently compre- 
hended the importance of dialects. 
Speech was as natural to man as walk- 

ing, eating, and drinking, and the 
original language of a people was dia- 
lectic, not literary, which last only 
finally prevailed, to use Max Midler's 
expression as the high language, (Hoch- 
sprache). The roots of a literary 
language were planted in its dialects, 
whence it drew its strength and wealth, 
and which it in turn modified, polished 
and ennobled Was Penn. Germ, such a 
dialect ? Many English speakers, who 
knew nothing of German dialects, 
might deny it, and so might even many 
educated north Germans, who were un- 
acquainted with the south German 
dialects, and regarded all the genuine 
southern forms of Penn. Germ, as a 
corrupted high German or as idioms 
borrowed from the English. They 
would therefore style it a jargon, not a 
dialect. Certainly, the incorporation 
of English words and phrases had t(ivea 
it some such appearance, hut on re- 
moving these foreign elements it re- 
mained as good a dialect as the Alsa- 
tian after being stripped of its Gal- 
licisms, in which dialect beautiful 
poems and tales had been written, 
taking an honourable position in Ger- 
man literature. Penn Germ., apart 
from its English additions, was a south 
German dialect, composed of Frankish, 
Swabian. Palatine, and Allcnanic, 
which was interlarded with more or 
less English, according to the counties 
in which the settlements had occurred; 
in some places English was entirely 
absent. All that marked a dialect in 
Germany was present in Penn Germ., 
ami since new immigration was per- 
petually introducing fresh high Ger- 
man, the task would he to purify the 
old di tied "t its English jargon, and use 
the result for the benefit of the people 

Chap. VII. § 1. 



words have been interwoven, without interfering with such gram- 
matical forms as had been left, and containing occasionally complete 
English phrases. On referring to the first sentence of the last 
paragraph, the exact analogy of Pennsylvania Dutch to Chaucer's 
English will be at once apprehended. The dialect is said to possess 
a somewhat copious literature, and it is certainly an interesting 
study, which well deserves to be philologically conducted. 1 For 
the present work it has an additional special value, as it continually 
exhibits varieties of sound as compared with the received high 
German, which are identical with those which we have been led to 
suppose actually took place in the development of received English, 
as (00, ee, aa) for {aa, ai, au). 

The orthographical systems pursued in writing it have been two, 
and might obviously have been three or more. The first and most 
natural was to adopt such a German orthography as is usually 
employed for tbe representation of German dialects, and to spell 
the introduced English words chiefly after a German fashion. This 
is the plan pursued, but not quite consistently, 2 in the following 
extract, for which I am indebted to Dr. Mombert. The English 
constituents are italicised as the French are in the following edition of 
the prologue. A few words are explained in brackets [], but any one 
familiar with German will understand the original, which seems to 
have been written by an educated German familiar with good English. 

of Pennsylvania. The Penn. Germ, 
press was the champion of this move- 
ment, by which an entire German 
family would be more and more im- 
bued with modern German culture. 
As a striking proof of the identity of 
Palatine with Pennsylvanian German, 
he referred to Nadler's poems called 
Frbhlich Tfalz, Gott er halt's, which, 
written in the Palatine dialect, were, 
when read out to the meeting by Dr. 
Leisenring, a born Penn. German, as 
readily intelligible to the audience as if 
they had been written in Penn. German. 
Prof. Notz also observed that in Ger- 
many the people still spoke among one 
another in dialects, and only excep- 
tionally in high German when they 
spoke with those who had received a 
superior education— and that even the 
latter were wont to speak with the 
people in their own dialect. This was 
corroborated by Messrs. Rosenthal, 
Hesse, and others. On the motion of 
Prof. Notz, it was resolved to prosecute 
an inquiry into the Germanic forms of 
expression in use in Pennsylvania, and 
to report thereon, in order to obtain 
materials for a complete characterisa- 
tion of the dialect. 

1 Prof. S. S. Haldeman, of Columbia, 
Pennsylvania, to whom I have been 

under great phonetic obligations, and 
who has been familiar with the dialect 
from childhood, has promised to fur- 
nish the Philological Society with 
some systematic account of this pecu- 
liar hybrid language, the living repre- 
sentation not only of the marriage of 
English with Norman, but of the 
breaking up of Latin into the Romance 
dialects. The Rev. Dr. Mombert, for- 
merly of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, but 
now of Dresden, Saxony, who has long 
been engaged in collecting specimens, 
has also promised to furnish some ad- 
ditions. The preceding note shews the 
interest which it is now exciting in 
its native country. In this place it is 
only used as a passing illustration, but 
through the kindness of these com- 
petent guides, I am enabled to give 
the reader a trustworthy account so 
far as it goes. 

2 Thus aj is used for ee in ktyn — 
(tarn), or rather (kmn) according to Dr. 
Mombert, and ee for ih (ii) in Tear, which 
are accommodations to English habits. 
Coivskin retains its English form. A 
more strictly German orthography is 
followed in L. A. Wbllenweber's Ge- 
m'alde aus dem Volks- 
leben, Philadelphia und Leipzig, 1 869, 
p. 76. 



Chap. VII. § 1. 

Ein Gesprach. 

1. Ah, Davee, was hot Dich 
gestern Owent [Abend] so ver- 
tollt schmart aus Squeier Esse- 
heises kumnie mache ? War 
ebbes [etwas] letz 1 ? 

2. Nix apartiges ! ich hab 
jusht a bissel mit der Pally 
gesparkt [played the spark], als 
Dir ganz unvermuth der olte 
Mann derzu kummt, ummer 
[und mil'] zu vershte' gibt, er 
dat des net gleiche. 2 

1. Awer [aber] wie hot er's 
dir zu vershteh' gegewe' (gege- 
ben] ? Grob oder hoflich ? 

2. Ach net [nicht], er hat 
keyn [kein] wort geschwatzt. 

1. Well, wie hot er's dann 
g'mocht ? 

2. Er hat jusht de Teer 

[Thiire] ufg'mocht, mir mei' 
Huth in de Hand 'gewe' un' de 
Cow shin von der Wand g'kricht 
[gekriegt]. Do hob' ich g'denkt, 
er that's net gleiche, dass ich die 
Pally shpdrke that un bin grod 
f'ortgange ; des wer alles, Sam. 

1. Ja, geleddert hot er Dich, 
P/dvee, dann du bist net gange, — 
g'shprunge bischt Du als wenn 
a dutzend Hund hinnig [hinter] 
Dich her waren. Ich hab dich 

wohl geseyhne [gesehen]. 

2. Well, sei nur shtill drfon 
[dayon], und sags Niemand, 
sonst werd' ich ausgelacht. 

Sam versprach's ; awer sotn- 
how muss er sich doch ver- 
schnappt hawe [haben], sonst 
hatt's net g'druckt werde konne. 

The second style of orthography is to treat the whole as English 
and spell the German as well as the English words, after English 
analogies. This apparently hopeless task, 3 was undertaken by Mr. 
Rauch, who in his weekly newspaper, Father Abraham, has weekly 
furnished a letter from an imaginary Pit i.e. Peter Schwefflebrenner, 
without any interpretation, and in a spelling " peculiarly his own." 4 
Perhaps some of the popularity of these satirical letters is due, as 

1 South German letz, letseh, latsch, 
wrong, left-handed, as in high German 
links, for which Prof. Haldeman refers 
to Stalder, and to Ziemann, Mittel- 
hochdeutsches "Worterb. 217. See also 
Schmeller, Bayerisches Worterb. 2, 
530, " (Mior is \ciz) mir ist nicht recht, 
d. h. iibel." Compare high German 
verletzen, to injure. 

2 Dr. Mombert considers gleichen in 
this sense of " like, approve of," to be 
the English word like Germanized. 
But Dr. Stratmann, on seeing the 
passage, considered the word might be 
from the old high German lichen, to 
please. This verb, however, was in- 
transitive in all the Germanic dialects, 
and in old English (see Prol. 777 
below : if you liketh, where you is of 
course dative). The present active use 
seems to be modern English, and I 
have therefore marked it accordingly. 

3 An attempt of Chaucer's scribes to 
write his language after Norman ana- 
logies, as Rapp supposes to have been 
the case, would have been precisely 
analogous. Fortunately this was not 
possible, supra, p. 588, n. 4, or we 
might have never been able to recover 
his pronunciation. 

4 In the prospectus of his newspaper, 
Mr. Ranch says: "So weit das nier 
wissa, is der Pit Schwefflebrenner der 
eantsich monn in der United States 
dsers Pennsylvanish Deitsb. recht shreibt 
un bushtaweert exactly we's g'shwetzt 
un ous g'shprocha wserd," i.e., as far 
as we know, Pit Schwernebrenner is 
the only man in the United States 
who writes and spells Pennsylvania 
German correctly, exactly as it is gos- 
sipped and pronounced. 

Chap. VII. § 1. 



some of the fun of Hans Breitmann's Ballads 1 certainly is, to the 
drollness of the orthography, which however furnishes endless diffi- 
culties to one who has not a previous knowledge of the dialect. 2 

The third orthography would be the usual high German and 

1 Hans Breitmann's "poems are writ- 
ten in the droll broken English (not to 
be confounded with the Pennsylvanian 
German) spoken by millions — mostly 
uneducated — Germans in America, im- 
migrants to a great extent from south- 
ern Germany. Their English has not 
yet become a district dialect ; and it 
would even be difficult to fix at present 
the varieties in which it occurs." — 
Preface to the 8th edition of Hans 
Breitmann's Party, with other Ballads, 
by Charles G. Leland, London, 1869, 
p. xiii. In fact Mr. Leland has played 
with his dialect, and in its unfixed con- 
dition has made the greatest possible 
fun out of the confusion of p with b, t 
with d, and g with k, without stopping 
to consider whether he was giving an 
organically correct representation of 
any one German's pronunciation. He 
has consequently often written combi- 
nations which no German would na- 
turally say, and which few could, even 
after many trials, succeed in pronoun- 
cing, and some which are scarcely 
attackable by any organs of speech. 
The book has, therefore, plenty of vis 
comica, but no linguistic value. 

2 The following inconsistencies 
pointed out by Prof. S. S. Haldeman, 
are worth notice, because similar ab- 
surdities constantly occur in attempts 
to reduce our English dialects, or 
barbaric utterances, to English analo- 
gies, by persons who have not fixed 
upon any phonetic orthography, such 
as the Glossotype of Chap. VI., § 3, 
and imagine that the kaleidoscopic 
character of our own orthography is 
not a mere "shewing the eyes and 
grieving the heart." Prof. H. says : 
"The orthography is bad and incon- 
sistent, sometimes English and some- 
times German, so that it requires some 
knowledge of the dialect, and of English 
spelling to be able to read it. 

" The vowel of they occurs in ferstay, 
meh, nay, eAns, b«'s and base ( = b'6se, 
angry), h«st ( = heisst, called) mwich, 
daet, gea — ea being mostly used (as in 
heasa, tswea) ; but gedreat (also dreet) 
rhymes its English form treat, and 
dreat, ( = dreht, turns) with fate. 

" The German a is as in what and 
Ml, but the former falls into the vowel 
of hut, bid. Fall is represented by ah 
in betzrt/da, and aa in vaar, but usually 
by aw [an in sauga) as in aw (auch, 
also) g'sawt (said, gesagt). Hawa = 
haben, should have been haw-iva. The 
vowel of wh«t is represented by a or 
o, as in w«s, war, hab, k<mn, donn, 
norra, gonga. 

" of no occurs in bo/ma, so &moh\, 
=einmal, co#xa (=to coax!) doch, 
hoar ( = haar hair), woch, froke. 

" When German a has become Eng- 
lish u of b«t, it is written u, as in h«t 
( — hat, has), and a final, as in macha, 
denka—deiikf/i, [which = (b)], ffn=ein. 

" The vowel of fold occurs in w«V, 
shp^Vla, Ae, sh-rs, kreya = (kriiohB), y 
is used throughout for (gh) of regen. 
The y of my occurs in set, si, my and 
mei, bei, dyfel, subscr/ba. 

" W, when not used as a vowel, has 
its true German power (bh), as in 
tswea = sivei, hawa = haben, ?i'easht = 
weisst, M'enich and «>eanich \=wen ig, 
awer=aber, and some other examples 
of b have this sound. 

" Das is for dass that, and des is 
used for the neuter article das. The * 
is hissing (s). The r is trilled (.r) as 
in German. P b, t d, k g, are con- 
fused. The lost final n is commonly 
recalled by a nasalised vowel. 

" Oo in fool, f«ll, appears in tin, 
when used for ioid, hf for auf, wu = 
wo where, Zeitung pure German, shoola 
= schools. truvel= trouble. 

" English words mostly remain Eng- 
lish in pronunciation, as in : meeting- 
house, town, frolic, for instance, horse- 
race, game poker shpeela, bensa pitcha 
= pitch pence, iif course; but many 
words are modified when they cross a 
German characteristic, thus gnu/backs, 
the national currency, is rather (kriiir- 

"The vowel of f«t occurs in 
Barricks = Berks county, lodwarrick 
lodwserrick = latwerge electuary, kser- 
x'\cb=kirche, wl£Tt=werth, bar = her. 
-le is only an English orthography for 
el or 7, sh is English." 



Chap. VII. § 1. 

English orthographies for the words used, which would of course 
convey no information respecting the real state of the dialect. The 
only proper orthography, the only one from which such information 
can be derived, is of course phonetic. The kindness of Prof. Halde- 
mann has enabled me to supply this great desideratum. 1 The 
passage selected is really a puff of a jeweller's shop in Lancaster, 
Pa., and was chosen because it is short, complete, characteristic, 
varied, and, being not political, generally intelligible. It is given 
first in Mr. Pauch's peculiar Anglo-German spelling, and then in 
Prof. Haldemann's phonetic transcript, afterwards by way of ex- 
plaining the words, the passage is written out in ordinary High 
German and English, the English words being italicised, and finally 
a verbal English translation is furnished. On pp. 661-3 is added 
a series of notes on the peculiarities of the original, referred to in 
the first text. The reader will thus be able to form a good idea of 
the dialect, and those who are acquainted with German and English 
will thoroughly appreciate the formation of Chaucer's language. 

1 Professor Haldeman not having 
spoken the dialect naturally for many 
years, after completing his phonetic 
transcript, saw Mr. Rauch the author, 
and ascertained that their pronuncia- 
tions practically agreed. The phonetic 
transcript, here furnished, may there- 
fore be relied on. Prof. Haldeman 
being an accomplished phonetician, and 
acquainted with my palaeotype wrote 
the pronunciation himself in the letters 
here used. Of course for publication 
in a newspaper, my palaeotype would 
not answer, but my glossotype would 
enable the author to give his Penn- 
sylvania German in an English form 
and much more intelligibly. Thus the 
last paragraph in the example, p. 661, 
would run as follows in glossotype, 
adopting Prof. Ualdeman's pronuncia- 
tion : " Auver iyh kon der net ollas 
saugha. Va - rr [vehrr] maimer vissa 
vil, oonn va-rr [vehrr] farrst raiti 
Krishtaukh sokh vil— dee faaynsti oonn 
beshti bressents, maukh selverr dorrt 
ons Tsaums gai'a, oonn siyh selverr 
soota. Noli mohrr et press'nt. Peet 
Shveff'lbrennerr." But the proper 
orthograpby would be a glossotype 
upon a German instead of an English 
basis The following scheme would 
most probably answer all purposes. 
The meaning of the symbols is ex- 
plained by German examples, unless 
otherwise marked, and in palaeotype. 
Long vowels : ie hVb (ii), ee \>ee% (ee), 
ae sprache (ee, asre), aa Aa\ (aa), ao 
Eng. awl (aa), oo Boot (oo), uh PfttAl 

(uu), w<? £7ebel (yy), oe Oel (cece). 
Short Vowels : i Smn (i, i), e Bett 
(e, e), d Eng. bat (e, ae), a all (a), a 
Eng. what (a o), o Motte (o o), u Pf«nd 
(u, u), H Fwlle (y), 6 Bocke (ce), e ein« 
(e), Eng. b«t (b, 9), (,) sign of nasality. 
Diphthongs : ai HYn'n («i), oi Eng. 
joy, Hamburgh Iswle (oi), aii theo- 
retical -Ewle (ay), au k««en («u). 
Consonants : j j& (j), w «ie t,bh), 
Eng. w (w) must be indicated by a 
change of type, roman to italic, or con- 
versely, h hen (h), p b (p b), t d (t d), 
tsch dsh (tsh dzh), k g (k g), Ah (kH), 
/ v (f v), th dh (th dh), s* Nime (s), 
s wiese (z), sch sh (sh zh), ch gh (Ah 
kh, <?h gh), r I m n (r 1 m n), ng nk 
(q qk). German readers would not 
require to make the distinction ss, s, 
except between two vowels, as "Wiese, 
Niisse, Fuesse. They would also not 
find it necessary to distinguish between 
e, e final, or between er. er, unaccented. 
For similar reasons the short vowel 
signs are allowed a double sense. This 
style of writing would suit most dia- 
lectic German, but if any additional 
vowels are required ih, eh, ah, oh, are 
available. The last sentence of the 
following example, omitting the dis- 
tinction e, e, would then run as fol- 
lows : " Aower ich kon der net olles 
saoghe. Waer meener wisse wil, un 
waer ferst reeti Krischtaoch sokh wil, 
— die tainsti un beschti bressents, maokh 
selwer dort ons Tsaoms geee, un sikh 
selwer suhte. Noo moor et press'nt. 
Piet Schwefflbrenner." 

Chap. VII. § I. 



Rauch's Orthography. 

Prof. Haldeman's Pronunciation. 

Pennsylvanish Deitsh. P e n s e 1 v ee'nish. D « i t s h . 

Mr. 1 Fodder Abraham 2 Printer 
— Deer Sir : Ich kon mer now 
net 3 helfa 4 — ich mus der yetz 
amohl 5 shreiva 6 we ich un de 
Bevvy 1 ousgemocht hen doh fer- 
gonga 9 we mer in der shtadt 
Lancaster wara. 

Der hawpt 9 platz wu 10 mer 
onna 11 sin, war dort in selly 
Zahm's iwer ous sheana "Watcha 12 
un Jewelry establishment, grawd 
dort om eck 13 fun was se de Nord 
Queen Strose 14 heasa un Center 
Shquare — net weit fun wu das 
eier office is. 

In all meim leawa hab ich ne 
net so feel tip-top sheany sacha 
g'sea, un sell 15 is exactly was de 
Bevvy sawgt. 16 

We mer nei sin un amohl so a 
wennich rum geguckt hen, donn 
secht 16 de Bevvy — loud genunk 17 
das der monn 's hut heara kenna 
— " Now Pit," 18 secht se, "weil 

M/s-t'r FAd-'r tAA-brahAm 
prnrt'r — Diir Sar : IJch kAn m'r 
n«u net helf "B — ikh. mus d'r jets 
vmool' shrrtibh'i? bhii ?7h un di 
Bebhi aus-gemAkht Hen doo 
f'rgAq'B bhii m'r m d'r shtAt 
Leq - kesht'r bhAATB. 

D'r HAApt plAts bhuu m'r aitb 
sm, bhAr cUrt m sel't TsAAms 
z'blr'r axis sheemB bhAtsh'B un 
tshu'Blr* estepd/shniBnt, grAAd 
dArt Am ek fun bhAs si di Nort 
Kfiin Shtroos Hee'SB un Sen't'r 
Shkbheer — net wait fun bhuu 
dAs «i"'r Af"/s is. 

In a1 m«im WblrB HAb ilth. 
nii net so fiil tqrtAp shee'm 
SAkh'B ksee'v un sel is eksaekd* 
bhAs di PeblW sAAkt. 

Bhi m'r n«i sm un vmool soo 
b bhen'/Ah rum gegukt" Hen, 
dAU seAht di BeblW — kut gB- 
nuqk* dAs d'r mAns Hat HeerB 
ken-B — "N#u Pit," se&ht si, 

3. German and English Translation. 
Pennsylvanisches Deutsch. 

Mr. Vater Abraham, Printer — Bear 
Sir : Ich kann mir noiv nicht helfen — 
ich muss dir jetzt einmal schreiben wie 
ich und die Barbara ausgemacht haben, 
da vergangen, wie wir in der Stadt 
Lancaster waren. 

Der Haupt-Platz wo wir an sind, 
war dort in selbiges Zahms iiberaus 
schbne Wat c fie und Jewelry Estab- 
lishment, grade dort an-der Ecke von 
was sie die Nord Queen Strasse heis 
sen und Centre Square — nicht weit von 
wo dass euer office ist. 

In all meinem Leben habe ich nie 
nicht so viele tiptop schbne Sachen 
gesehen, und selbiges ist exactly was 
die Barbara sagt. 

"Wie wir hinein sind und einmal so 
ein wenig hemm geguckt haben, dann 
sagte die Barbara — laut genug dass der 
Mann es hat hbren konnen — "Now, 

4. Verbal English Translation. 
Pennsylvania German. 

Mr. Father Abraham, Printer — 
Bear Sir : 1 can myself now not help 
— I must to-thee now once write, how I 
and the Barbara managed [i.e. fared] 
have there past, as we in the town 
Lancaster were. 

The chief-place where we arrived 
are, was there in same Zahm's over- 
out beautiful Watches and Jewelry 
Establishment, exactly there at corner 
of what they the North Queen Street 
call, and Centre Square — not far from 
where that your office is. 

In all my life have I never not so 
many tiptop beautiful things seen, and 
same is exactly what the Barbara 

As we hence-into are, and once so a 
little around looked have, then said the 
Barbara — loud enough that the man it 
has to-hear been-able — "Now, Peter" 



Chap. VII. § 1. 

1. Ranch's Orthography, continued. 
se der di watch g'shtola hen 
dort in Nei Yorrick, 19 muskt an 
neie kawfa, un doh gookts das 36 
wann 20 du dick suta 21 kennskt." 22 

~We se sell g'sawt kut, donn 
hen awer amokl de kaerls 23 dort 
kinnick 21 em counter uf geguckt. 
Eaner kut si brill gedropt, 25 
un an onnerer is uf g'sktonna 
un all ken mick orrig 26 freind- 
lick aw 27 geguckt. 

Donn sogt eaner — so a wen- 
nick an goot guckicker 28 ding — 
seckt er, " Ick glawb dock now 
das ick weas waer du biskt." 
" Well, " sog ick, " waer 
denkskt ?" " Ei der Pit Sckwef- 
flebrenner." " Exactly so," kab 
ick g'sawt. " Un des dok is 
de Bevvy, di alty," seckt er. 
"Aw so," kab ick g'sawt. 

Donn kut er mer de kond 
gevva, un der Bevvy aw, un 
hut g'sawt er het shun feel fun 
meina breefa g'leasa, un er waer 
orrig froh mick amokl selwer 

3. Germ. $• Eng. Translation, cont. 

Peter," sagte sie, "weil sie dir deine 
Watch gestohlen haben dort in Neu 
York, musst du eine neue kaufen, and 
da guckt es [als] dass wann du dich 
suiten konnest." 

AVie sie selbiges gesagt hat, dann 
haben aber einmal die Kerb dort hin- 
terig dera counter aufgeguckt. Einer 
hat seine Brille gedropt, und ein an- 
derer ist aufgestandeu und alle haben 
mieh arg freundlich angeguckt. 

Dann sagt einer — so ein wenig ein 
gutguckiges Ding — sngte er, " Ich 
glaube dock now dass ich weiss wer du 
hist." "Well" sage ich, "wer 
denkest?" "Ei, der Peter Schwefel- 
brenuer." " Exactly so," habe ich 
gesagt. " Und das da ist die Barbara, 
deine Alte," sagte er. " Auch so," 
habe ich gesagt. 

Dann h t er mir die Hand gegeben, 
und der Barbara auch, und hat gesagt 
er hatte scbon viel von meinen Briefen 
gelesen, und er ware arg froh mich 

2. Hal demon' s Pronunciation, cont. 
"bktfil si dir dai ( bkAtsk 
ksktool'B Hen dArt m ~Nai JAWk, 
muskt ^n nai'v ~k\\f-v. } un doo 
gukts dAs bkAn du ditch. suut'T? 

Bki si sel ksAAt Hat, dAn Hen 
AA'b'r Bmool" di kserls dArt Hm - - 
ikh 13m k«unt - 'r uf gBgukt - . 
A'n'r Hat sai bril gudrApt", un 
en An'Brar is uf ksktArre un a1 
Hen mikh. AWkk fr«ind - h'£k aa 4 
gBgukt - . 

Dau sAkt ee'n^r — soo v bben'zX-k 
■en guut guk'/Ak'r d*'q — se£kt vr, 
" Ikh. glAAb doA-k n«u dAS ikh. 
bh« s bkser du bi'sht . " " Bkel, ' ' 
sAg ikh, "bkser deqkskt?" " A\ 
d'r Pit Skbkerf-lbren-'r." " Ek- 
saek'b' soo, ' ' HAb ikh ksAAt. " " Un 
des doo is di Bebk - /, dr?i aIW," 
se£ht ser. " :Aa soo," HAb ikh. 

Dau Hat ser m'r di HAnd 
gebk'B, un d'r PebW aa, un Hat 
ksAAt aer Het skun fiil fun main - B 
briif - a glee - si3, un a3r bkseaer 
ay 'ikh froo mi£k Bmook sekbhcr 

4. Verbal Eng. Translation, cont. 

said she, "because they to-thee thy 
watch stolen have there in New York, 
must thou a new (one) buy, and there 
looks it [as] that if thou thee suit 

As she same said has, then have 
again once the fellow* there behind the 
rum iter up-looked. One has his spec- 
tacles dropped, and another is up-stood, 
and all have me horrid friendlily on- 

Then says one — so a little a good- 
looking thing — said he, "I believe, 
however, now that I know who thou 
art." " Well," say I, " who thinkest 
(thou that I am) ? " " Eh, the Peter 
Sulphurburner." " Exactly so," have 
I said. " And that there ist the 
Barbara, thy old-woman," said he. 
" Also so," have I said. 

Then has he me the hand given, and 
to-the Barbara also, and has said he 
had already much of my letters read. 
and he was horrid glad me once self to 

Chap. VII. § 1. 



1. Ranch's Orthography, continued. 
tsu seana. 29 Dorm sin mer awer 
amohl on bisness. 

Watcha hen se dort, first-raty 
for 16 clahler bis tsu 450 dahler. 
Noch dem das mer se amohl 
recht beguckt hen, is de Bevvy 
tsu der conclusion kumma an 
Amerikanishe watch tsu kawfa. 

Dort hen se aw was se Ter- 
mommiters heasa — so a ding 
dass earn 30 weist we kalt s'wetter 
is, un sell dinkt mich kent mer 
braucha alleweil. Any-how mer 
hen eans gekawft. 

De watch is aw an first-raty. 
Ich war als 31 uf 32 der meanung 
das de Amerikanishe watcha 
waerra di'ous in Deitshlond 
g'macht, un awer sell is net 
wohr. Un de house-uhra ; chee- 
many 33 fires awer se hen about 
sheany ! Uf course mer hen aw 
eany gekawft, for wann ich 
amohl Posht Heashder bin mus 
ich eany hawa for 34 in de office 
ni du. 

3. Germ. $ Eng. Translation, cont. 
einmal selber zu sehen(en). Dann sind 
wir aber einmal an business. 

Watche haben sie dort. first-rate-e 
fur sechzehn bis zu vier hundert (und) 
fiinfzig Thaler. Nachdem dass wir sie 
einmal recht beguckt haben, ist die 
Barbara zu der conclusion gekommen 
eine Amerikanische watch zu kaufen. 

Dort haben sie auch was sie Ther- 
mometer* heissen — so ein Ding das 
einem weiset wie kalt das "Wetter ist, 
und selbiges diinkt mich konnten wir 
brauchen alleweile. Anyhow wir 
haben eines gekauft. 

Die Watch ist auch eine first-rate-e. 
Ich war also auf [alles auf, also of?] 
der Meinung dass die Amerikanischen 
Watche waren draussen in Deutschland 
gemacht, und aber selbiges ist nicht 
wahr. Und die Hausuhren; Gemini 
fires .' aber sie haben about scheme ! Of 
course wir haben auch eine gekauft, 
for wann ich einmal Post Master bin, 
muss ich eine haben for in die office 
hinein [zu] thun. 

2. Haldeman's Pronunciation, cont. 
tsu seewv. DAn sm m'r AAbrr'r 
vmool' An b/s'n^s. 

BhAtsh'B Hen si dArt, farst 
ree'ti f'r sekh'tsee his tsu fiir- 
Hun-Brt-fuf - ts«X'h tAAhar. NAkh 
dem dAs m'r sii vmool' rekht 
bBgukt* Hen, is di PeblW tsu d'r 
kAnkluirshcn kuni'u ^n :Amen- 
kAA'n/she bhAtsh tsu kAAf"u. 

DArt Hen si aa bhAs si ter- 
mAnWt'rs h^s*a — so v di'qdAS eem 
bhrtis't bhi kAlt 's bhet - 'r is, un 
sel diqt mikh. kent m'r bivmklre 
Ahabhail. Eh/hau m'r Hen 
ems gckAAft - . 

Dii blutsh is a a ■en farst ree'ti. 
Ikh. bhAr aIs uf der mee'nuq dAs 
dii :Amer«kAA'nishB bhAtsh"B 
bhsern? divras m DaitshdAnt 
gmAAkht", un AA - bh'r sel is 
net bhoor. Un dii h«us'uutb ; 
tshirmem fairs ! AA - bh'r si Hen 
■ebffut* shee'nil Uf koors m'r 
Hen aa eewi gekAAft - , f'r bliAn 
ikh. ■emool" Poosht Meesh't'r bm 
mus ikh ee'ni HAA'bht? for in di 
Ai'is n«i du. 

4. Verbal Eng. Translation, cont. 

see. Then are we again once on 

Watches have they there, first-rate 
(ones) for sixteen up -to four hunderd 
(and) fifty dollars. After that wie 
them once rightly beseen have, is the 
Barbara to the conclusion come, an 
American watch to buy. 

There have they also what they 
Thermometers call— so a thing that 
to-him shows how cold the weather 
is, and same thinks me might we use 
presently. Anyhow we have one 

The watch is also a first-rate (one). 
I was always on [all up = entirely 
of, always of] the opinion that the 
American watches were there-out in 
Germany made, and but same is not 
true. And the houseclocks ; Gemini 
Fires ! but they have about beautiful 
(ones) ! Of course we have also one 
bought, for when I once Post Master 
am, must I one have, for into the 
office hence-in (to) do. 



Chap. VII. § 1. 

1. Ranch's Orthography, continued. 

Se hen aw an grosser shtock 
fun Silvemy Leffla, Brilla, un 
ich weas net was olles. De 
Bevvy hut gedu das weil ich 
yetz holl amohl 35 an United 
Shtates Government Officer si 
waer, set ich mer aw an Brill 
kawfa, nn ich hah aw eany 
krickt das ich now net gewa 
deat fer duppelt's geld das se 
gekosht hut, for ich kon yetz 
noch amohl so goot seana un 
leasa das 36 tsufore. 

Un we ich amohl dorrich my 
neie Brill geguckt hah, donn 
hab ich aersht all de feiny sacha 
recht heguckt, un an examina- 
tion gemacht fun Breast Pins, 
Kings, "Watch-ketta, 37 Shtuds, 
Messera un Gowella, etc. 

Eans fun sella Breastpins hut 
der Bevvy about goot aw-g'- 
shtonna, awer er hut mer doch a 
wennich tsu feel g'fuddert der- 
fore — 25 dahler, un donn hab 

2. Haldeman's Pronunciation, cont. 

Sii Hen aa im groccsB shtAk 
fun SsTblrerm LePle, Bril-e un 
ikh bhees net bhAs aI'bs. Lii 
PeblW Hot geduu - (Ias bhrtil ikh 
jets hil ■ernool* un Junartet 
Shteets Gafmrent Of*?ser s«i 
bhaeaer, set ikh m'r aa vn Bril 
kiA'fe, un ikh HAp aa ee'ni krikt, 
d\s ikh nan net gebh-B deet f'r 
dup - 'lts geld dAS sii gekosht* 
Het, f'r ikh kin jets nokh vmool' 
soo guut see'nu un lerse dAS 

Un bhii ikh vmooV dAWZh 
mffij nai'i Bril gegukt - HAp, 
dAn HAp ikh aersht a1 dii farm 
sAklrra re£ht begukt* un «n 
eksaem/neslr'n gemAkht* fun 
Bresht'pms, Biqs, BhAtsh - ket - B, 
Shtots, Mes - ere un Giblr'lB, 
etset - Bre. 

Eens fun sel"B Breshtpms Hot 
d'r BeblW ubant- guut aa,'- 
gsht - AAn - B, AA - bh'r aer Hot mir 
dokh T3 bhem'Ah tsu fiil gfud - 'rt 
d'rfoor- — fihf tin tsbhin'Sikh 

3. Germ. $ Eng. Translation, cont. 

Sie haben auch einen grossen stock 
von silbernen Lbffeln, Brillen, und ich 
weiss nicht was alles. Die Barbara 
hat gethan dass weil ich jetzt bald 
einmal ein United States Government 
Officer sein werde, sollte ich mir auch 
eine Brille kaufen, und ich habe auch 
eine gekriegt, dass ich now nicht geben 
thate fur doppelt-das Geld das sie 
gekostet hat, for ich kann jetzt noch 
einmal so gut sehen und lesen [als] 
dass zuvor. 

Und wie ich einmal durch meine 
neue Brille geguckt habe, dann habe 
ich erst alle die feinen Sachen recht 
beguckt und an examination gemacht 
von Breastpins, Rings, TFatch-ketten, 
Studs, Messer und Gabeln, etc. 

Eins von sclbigen Breastpins hat der 
Barbara about gut angestanden, aber er 
hat mir doch ein wonig zu viel gefodert 
dafiir — fiinf und zwanzig Thaler — und 

4. Verbal Eng. Translation, cont. 

They have also a great stock of silver 
spoons, spectacles, and I know not 
what all. The Barbara has done [es- 
timated] that because I now soon once 
a United States Government Officer be 
shall, should I me also a pair-of-spec- 
tacles buy, and I have also one got, 
that I now not give would-do for 
double the money that it cost has, for 
I can now still once so good see and 
read [as] that before. 

And as I once through my new 
spectacles looked have, then have I 
first all the fine things right be-seen, 
and an examination made of Breast- 
pins, Sings, J I 'a tc/t chains, Studs, knives 
and forks, etc. 

One of the same Breastpins has the 
Barbara about good on-stood [suited], 
but he has me, however, a little too 
much asked therefore — five-and-twenty 

Chap. VII. § 1. 



1. Eauch's Orthography, continued. 

ich mer tsuletsht eany rous ge- 
pickt fer drei fsertle dahler, fer 
selly sogt de Bevvy, is anyhow 
ahead fun ennicher 38 onnery in 

Awer ich konn der net alles 
sawya. Waer meaner 39 wissa 
■will, nn wser first raty krishdog 
sach will — de feinsty un beshty 
presents, mog selwer do-rt ons 
Zahms gea un sich selwer suta. 
No more at present. 

Pit Schwefllebrenner. 

2. Saldeman's Pronunciation, cont. 

tAA'l'r, un dAn HAb ikh. nu'r 
tsuletsht" ee'xd raus grjpj'kt - f'r 
trad faert'l tAA'lrar, f'r seW sAkt 
di BeblW is en-/H«u* fun 
ewikhsr An'm in Shh'fdtaun. 

:Aa*bb'r ikh kAn d'r net a1"bs 
sAA'ghc. Bhaer mmr'r bhzVe 
bhil, un bhser ferst veet'i Kr&slr- 
tAAkh sAkh bh/1 — dii fain"sht« 
un beshW bres - ents, mAAkh sel - - 
bh'r dArt Ans TsAAms gee'v un 
sikh. sel'bh'r smrtB. Noo moor 
et bres*'nt. 

Piit Shbhefdbren-'r. 

3. Germ. §• Eng. Translation, cont. 
dann habe ich mir zuletzt eine heraus 
gepickt fur drei Viertel Thaler, for 
selbiges sagt die Barbara is anyhow 
ahead von einiger anderen in Schliffel- 

Aber ich kann dir nicht alles sagen. 
"Wer mehr wissen will, und wer first- 
rate-^ Christtag Sachen will — die 
feinsten und besten presents, mag selber 
dort an's Zahms gehen und sich selber 
suiten. JVo more at present. 

Peter Schwefelbrenner. 

4. Verbal Eng. Translation, cont. 
dollars — and then have I for-me at- 
last one out picked for three-quarters 
(of a) dollar, for same says the Barbara 
is anyhow ahead of any other in 

But I can thee not all say. Who 
more know will, and who first-rate 
Christmas things will — the finest and 
best presents, may himself there to-the 
Zahm's (house) go, and him self suit. 
No more at present. 

Peter Schwefelbrenner. 

Notes on the above Text. 

1 Mister is used as well as the 
German form (meeslrt'r). — S. S. 

2 Father Abraham means the late 
president Abraham Lincoln, assumed 
as the title of Rauch's newspaper. 

3 The guttural omitted, as frequently 
in nicht, nichts. 

4 The infinitive -e for -en, as fre- 
quently in Chaucer, and commonly 
now on the Rhine. 

5 Einmal, a common expletive, in 
wbich the first syllable, even among 
more educated German speakers sinks 
into an ind'stiuct (t>). Observe the 
transition of (a) into (oo). 

6 The common change of (b) into 

7 Bevvy, or Pevvy, is a short form 
of Barbara, a rather common name in 
the dialect. Both forms are used in the 
following specimen. — S.S.H. German 
Babbe, Babchen, compare the English 
Bab, Babby. 

8 Boh here, fergonga recently, an 
adverb, not for vergangene Woche. — 
S. S. H. 

9 Observe the frequent change of 
the German au, indisputably (au, «u) 
into English (aa), precisely as we find 
to have occurred in English of the 
xvn th century. 

10 The not unfrequent changes of o 
long into (uu) are comparable to 
similar English changes xv th century. 

11 Onna, tbe preposition an used as a 
verb, as in the English expression, 
" he ups and runs." I take this view 
because sind is an auxiliary and a 
present tense form, but the adverbial 
tendency of onna (as if thither) must 
nevertheless not be overlooked. A 
German will sometimes use in English 
an expression like " outen the candle!" 
rarely heard in English — S S. II. 

18 Observe here a German plural 
termination e athxcd to an English 



Chap. VII. § 1. 

13 Ecke being feminine, the correct 
form is an der Ecke, although -eck in 
composition is neuter, as dreieck, vier- 
eck.— S.S.H. In Schmeller's Bayr. 
Wort. 1, 25, "das Eck, eigentlich 
Egg" is recognized as south German. 
In the following word fun for von, 
short o becomes (u) or (u). 

14 This change of German a to o is 
common, as in (shloofu) for schlafen, 
(shoo/) for schaf, etc.— S.S.H. See 
note 5, and compare this with the 
change of ags. (a a) into South English 
(oo, oo), while (aa) remained in the 

13 This frequent and difficult word 
has been translated selbiges throughout, 
as the nearest high German word, and 
selly, 9 lines above it, may, in fact, in- 
dicate this form . Compare Schmel- 
ler's Bayr. Wort. 3, 232, " Selb [de- 
clinabel] in Schwaben ofter nach erster 
Declin.-Art (seler, e, es), in A. B. 
lieber nach zweiter [der, die, das (s'l, 
den s'ln, di s'ln), etc.] gebraueht, statt 
des hochd. jener, e, es, welches un- 
volksiiblich ist. [Fur der, die, das 
selbe im hochd. Sinn. d.h. idem, eadem, 
idem, braucht die Mundart der die, 
das nemliche.] (s'l as m«l, des s'l m«l, 
s'hmdz) jenes Mel, (sTa tsait) zu 
jener zeit, (s'l at-Hrdb-m) oder (-bhegq) 
des[jenigen] wegen." 

16 Sawgt=sagt, says, sec Jit = scigt, 
instead of sagte, said, with the Umlaut. 
— S. S. H. The weak verb has there- 
fore a strong inflection. This distinc- 
tion is preserved throughout. Compare 
the common vulgar (and older ?) forms 
slip, swep, with the usual slept, wept, 
and see supra p. 355, art. 54. 

17 Genwnk, with educed k, is com- 
mon in archaic and provincial German, 
and Bollenhagen rhymes Jung, pro- 
nounced juuck dialectically, with trunk. 
— S. S. H. See supra p. 192, n. 1. 

18 (Pit) or (Piit) may be used for 
this short form of Peter. — S.S.H. It 
is the English Pete, not a German 
form as the vowel shews 

19 Observe the vowel educed by the 
strong trill of the ( r). For con- 
venience (r i has been printed through- 
out, but the reader must remember 
that it is always distinctly, and some- 
times forcibly, trilled with the tip of 
the tongue, and never sinks to (i). 

20 Das warm, that though, as 
though. — S. S. H. Gookts das wann, 
for sieht es aus als ob, it looks as if. 
See note 36. 

21 Observe the German infinitive 
termination -e for -en, added to a 
purely English verb. 

2 - The development of s into (sh) is 
remarkable in high German. It is 
acknowledged as the proper pronun- 
ciation before t, p at the beginning of 
a syllable, throughout Germany, even 
North German actors not venturing to 
say (st-, sp-) even in Hamburg, as I 
am informed, the capital of that pro- 
nunciation. But in final -st, the 
common (-sht) is looked upon as a 
vulgarism, even in Saxony. 

23 Kcerls, may have an English s, 
but the form is often playfully used by 
good speakers in Germany, and hence 
may have been imported and not 

24 Hinnich for hinter has developed 
a final -ig, but this is a German ad- 

25 Gedropt, the German participial 
form for dropped. So also elsewhere I 
find gepunished, which may be com- 
pared with Chaucer's ypanis/i'd, Prol. 
v. 657. 

26 Orrig, very, Swiss arig (Stalder 
1, 110), German arg, but not used in 
a bad sense. — S.S.H. The word arg 
implies cunning and annoyance, but 
its use as an intensitive is comparable 
to our horrid, awfully, dreadfully, 
which are frequently used in a good 
sense, as : horrid beautiful, awfully 
nice, dreadfully crowded. Das ist zu 
arg ! that is too bad, too much ! is a 
common phrase even among educated 

27 Aw for German an is nasalised, 
which distinguishes it from the same 
syllable when used for the German 
atieh, also. — S. S. H. This recent 
evolution of a nasal sound in German, 
common also in Bavarian, may lead us 
to understand the comparatively recent 
nasal vowels in French, infra Chap. 
VIII, § 3. 

28 The gender is changed because it 
refers to a man ; so in high German it 
is not unfrequent to tint! Fraulein, 
Madchen, although they have a neuter 
adjective, referred to by a feminine 
pronoun, as : " das Fraulein bat ihren 
Handschuh fallen lassen," the young 
lady [neuter] has dropped her [fern.] 

29 In an earlier line g'sea for gesehen, 
but here we have a double infinitive, 
as if zu sehenen. This is also used for 
the third person plural of the present 

Chap. VII. § 1. 



tense, as in sie gehen-a, they go. — 
S.S.H. Compare also ich hab dick, 
wohl geseyhue, in the Gesprdch, p. 
654. This seems comparable to what 
Prof. Child calls the protracted past 
participle in Chaucer, supra, p. 357, 
art. 61. It is impossible to read 
the present specimen attentively with- 
out being struck by the similarity 
between this Pennsylvania German 
and Chaucer's English in the treat- 
ment of the final -e, -en of the older 
dialects. The form (sel'bhur) in the 
preceding line preserves the b in the 
form (bh) . Schmeller also allows selber 
to preserve the b as (sTba), see n. 15. 
3 " Das earn inist, that shews him, 
that shews to one or a person. — 
S. S. H. Earn =emem, not ikm. 

31 This ah is Swiss, which Stalder 
defines by ehedem hitherto and immer 
always, compare ags. eal-euge altoge- 
ther and eal-wig always. — S.S.H. See 
also Schmeller Bayr.- Wort. 1, 50. Dr. 
Mombert takes ah to be an obsolete 
high German contraction of alles in 
the sense of ever, mostly, usually. 

32 Prof. Haldeman takes uf for auf, 
but der Meinung, and not auf der 
Meinung, is the German phrase, and 
hence the word may be English, 
as afterwards, uf course. But this 
is hazardous, as uf in this sense could 
hardly be joined with a German dative 
der Meinung. Can ah uf be a dialec- 
tic expression for alles auf, literally all 
up, that is, entirely? Compare, Schmel- 
ler, Bayr. Wort. 1, 31, "auf und auf 
von unten (ganz, ohne Unterbrechung) 
bis oben, auf und aider voin Kopf bis 
zum Fuss, ganz und gar." 

33 Cheemany is the English exclama- 
tion Oh jeemany. — S.S.H. The Eng- 
lish is apparently a corruption of: Oh 
Jesus mihi, and has nothing to do with 
the Gemini. But what is the last part 
of this exclamation : fires ? Prof. 
Haldeman. suggests, hell fires ! Dr. 
Mombert derives from the shout of: 
fire ! Can the near resemblance in 
sound between cheemany and chimney, 
have suggested the following fires ? 
Such things happen. 

34 For in de office ni da seems to 
stand for um in die office hinein zu 
thun. The use of for for um is a mere 
Anglicism, but why is zu omitted be- 
fore thun ? By a misprint, or dialec- 

tically for euphony ? It is required 
both by the German and English 
idiom. Dr. Mombert considers the 
omission of zu dialectic in this place, 
elswhere we find zu do. 

35 Boll amohl, bald einmal, pretty 
soon, shortly. This use of einmal once, 
appears in the English of Germans, as 
in : " Bring now here the pen once." 

36 Das. This is not the neuter 
nominative article das, which is des in 
this dialect, but a contraction of ah 
dass, with the most important part, 
ah, omitted. — S.S.H. I am inclined 
to take it for dass used for ah, as in 
the former phrase das wann = als ob, 
see note 20. According to Schmeller, 
Bayr. Wort. 1, 400 "dass schliesst 
sich als allgemeinste conjunction, in 
der Rede des Volkes. gern andern con- 
junctionen erklarend an, oder vertritt 
deren Stelle." 

37 Watch-hetta, a half English, half 
German compound, is comparable to 
Chaucer's footmantel, half English and 
half French, in Prol. infra, v. 472, and 
supra p. 651, 1. 6. 

33 This may be the English any. 
like the German einig, treated like 
einiger, or it may be a legitimate de- 
velopment of this, as eins is eens. — 
S.S.H. The latter hypothesis seems 
the more probable, and then the Eng- 
lish signification may have been at- 
tached to the German word from simi- 
larity of sound. Dr. Mombert thinks 
the word may be either any treated as 
a German word, or irgend einer cor- 
rupted. Observe the frequent use 
of (ee) for (ai) as eens for eins. The 
transitions of (au) into (aa), (ai) into 
(ee), (aa) into (oo), and ocasionally (o) 
in (u). are all noteworthy in connection 
with similar changes in English. 

39 Meaner for mehr is obscure. Com- 
pare Schmeller, Bayr. Wort. 2, 581 ; 
"manig, Schwab, menig, mini/, a) wie 
hochd. manch .... Comparative h 
steht in Amberg. Akten v. 1365 ''An 
ainem stuck oder an mengcrn." . . . 
Sonst hort man im 1). W. wie in 
Schwaben einfacher den Comparativ 
mener, mehr, welcher eher aus (mee, 
me) als aus menger entstelU scheint ; 
oder sollte es nocli unmittelbar zum 
alten mama- gehoren?" 



F. ~W. Gesenius on the Language of Chaucer. 
Two German scholars, Professors Gesenius and Papp, have pub- 
lished special studies on the language and pronunciation of Chaucer, 
of which it is now necessary to give an account. The following is 
a condensed abstract of the treatise entitled : De Lingua Chauceri 
commentationem grammaticam scripsit Pridericus Guilelmus Ge- 
senius, Bonnae, 1847, 8vo. pp. 87. The writer (who must not 
be confounded with the late Prof. Wilhelm Gesenius, of Halle, the 
celebrated Hebraist,) used Tyrwhitt's text of the Canterbury Tales, 
according to the 1843 reprint. In the present abstract Wright's 
spelling and references to his ed. of Harl. MS. 7334 (which have 
all been verified) are substituted, and much relating to the pecu- 
liarities of Tyrwhitt's text is omitted ; inserted remarks are 
bracketed. Gesenius' s ags. orthography has been retained. 

Part I. The Letters. 

Chaucer seems to add or omit a final 
e at pleasure, both in ags. and fr. 
words, as was necessary to the metre ; 
and he used fr. words either with the 
fr. accent on the last syllable or with 
the present English accent, for the 
same reason. 

Chap. 1. Vowels derived from Anglo- 

Short vowels are followed by two 
consonants, or by either one or two in 
monosyllables, and long vowels have a 
single consonant followed by e final. 

I. Ags. short a is preserved in : land 
402, hand 401, bigan 5767, ran 4103, 
drank 6044, thanked 927 ; but fluctu- 
ates often between a and o, as : londes 
14, bond 108, outsprong 13526. bygon 
7142, nat 2247. drank 13970, i-thanked 
7700 [in the three last cases, Tyrwhitt 
has o]. 

Short a answers to ags. a, according 
to Grimm's separation a = goth. a, 
and « = gothic e, as: what, that pron., 
ags. hvat ]mt ; atte. ags. at 29 ; glas 
152, have ags. habban, etc. 

Short a also answers to ags. ea, as 
in : alle ags. ■ eall 1 0, scharpe ags. 
sce'arp 114, lialle 372, barme 10945, 
start' 935, 4703, halpe [Tyrwhitt, hilp 
"Wright] 5340, karf 9647, hals 4493. 

Long a is either a preserved ags. a 
long, or a produced aj^s. a short, as : 
make ags. macjan 4763, name, fare 
7016, ham, ags. Mm 4030. That this 
last word was pronounced differently 
to the others, which probably even 
then inclined to a (fr), is shewn by 
its interchange with home, whereas a 
always remains in make, name, etc. 

Long a also arises from ags. a short, 
as : smale ags. smal 9, bar 620 ; fadur 
100, blake 2980, this last vowel is 
sometimes short as 629. 

Long a like short a also arises from 
ags ea. as: gaf. ags. geaf 177. mary, 
ags. mearh 382, jape ags. geap 4341, 
ale 3820, gate 1895, care, etc. 

II. Chaucer's e replaces several dis- 
tinct ags. vowels. 

Short e stands 

for ags. e short, in : ende 15, wende 
16, bed'de, selle 3819, etc. 

for ags. i, y, in : cherche (Wr. 
chirche), ags. circe 4987 ; selle ags. 
syl, threshold, 3820, rhyming with 
selle, ags. sylle ; scheeld ags. scyld 
2895, rhyming with heeld, ags. heold, 
kesse ags. cyssan 8933 ; stenten, ags. 
stintan 906 ; geven, ags. gifan, gyfan 
917, etc. These forms are only found 
when wanted for the rhyme, and i is 
the more common vowel. 

for ags. ea, ed in : erme, ags. ear- 
mjan 13727; erthe, ags. eard, e'or'Se 
1K98 ; ers, ags. ears 7272 ; derne, ags. 
de'aru 3200, 3297 ; berd 272 ; est, ags. 
east 1905. 

for ags. eo in : sterres, ags. steorra 
270 ; cherles ags. ceorl, ger. kerl, 
7788 ; yerne ags. georne, ger. gern, 
6575; lerne, ags. leornjan. 310; swerd 
112, werk 481, derkest 4724; yelwe, 
ags. geolu 677. 

Long e stands 

for ags. short e in : ere, ags. erjan 
888 ; queen, ags. even 870, etc. 

lor ags. long e, more frequently, in : 
seke, ags. secan 13 ; kene 104, grene 
103. swete 5, mete 1902, wepyng 2831, 
deme 1883. 

Chap. VII. § 1. 



for ags. ae long : heres, ags. haer 
557 ; breede, 1972 ; lere, ags. laeran 
6491 ; see 59, yeer 82, reed 3527, 
slepen 10, clene 369, speche 309, strete 
3823, etc. 

for ags. eo as in : seke, ags. seoc 18, 
as well as : sike, ags. sioca 245, these 
diphthongs eo, io, had probably a simi- 
lar pronunciation and are hence fre- 
quently confused, so h'eofon, Mo/on, 
and /e65, frd"S ; scheene, ags. sceone, 
beautiful, 1070 ; leef 1839, theef 3937 ; 
tene, ags. teona, grief, 3108; deepe 
129, chese 6480, tree 9337, tre 6341, 
prestes 164, prest 503, etc. 

for ags. ea and ed in : eek 5, gret 84, 
beteth 11078, neede 306, reede 1971, 
bene 9728, chepe 5850, deef 448, 
stremes 1497, teeres 2829, eet 13925, 
mere 544. 

Nothing certain can be concluded 
concerning the pronunciation of these 
e's, which arose from so many sources. 
They all rhyme, and may have been 
the same. In modern spelling the e is 
now doubled, or more frequently re- 
verts to ea. 

III. The vowel i has generally re- 
mained unchanged at all periods of the 
language. Mention has already been 
made of its interchange with e where 
the ags y was the mutate of u or eo, io, 
thus: fist 6217, fest 14217, ags. fyst; 
mylle 4113, melle 3921, ags. myll ; 
fel 5090, fille 10883, ags. feol ; develes 
7276, devyl 3901 [divel Tyrwhitt, 
deuel Heng. and Corp.], ags. dioful. 
The i generally replaces ags. y, and e 
replaces ags. eo. Long i similarly re- 
places long ags. y, as occasionally in 
ags. Short ags. i seems to have been 
lengthened before Id, nd, [no reasons 
are adduced,] as in: wylde 2311, 
chylde 2312, fynde 2415, bynde 2416. 
Undoubtedly this long i was then pro- 
nounced as now, namely as German 
ei (ai). [Pronunciatio longse vocalis 
I sine dubio iam id aetatis eadem fuit 
quam nunc, id est ei.] In the con- 
tracted forms fint, print for findeth, 
grindeth, there was therefore a change 
of vowel, fint having the German short 
i, and findeth German ei. [No reasons 

IV. Short o stands 

for ags. short o in : wolde 651, 
god 1254. 

for ags. short u : somer ags. sumer 
396 ; wonne ags. wunnen 51 ; nonne 
118, sonne 7, domb 776, dong 532, 
sondry, ags. sunder, 14, 25. Nearly 

all these words are now written with w, 
and preserve Chaucer's pronunciation, 
for summer is written, but sommer 
spoken [i.e. Gesenius did not distin- 
guish the sounds (o, o).] 

for ags. short a, as already observed, 
and o is generally preferred before nd, 
and remains in Scotch and some 
northern dialects. 

Long o stands 

for ags. long o in : bookes, ags. hoc, 
1200 ; stooden 8981, stood 5435, took 
4430, foot 10219, sone 5023, sothely 
117, etc. 

for ags. long a in : wo, ags. va 8015, 
moo 111, owne, ags. agen 338, homly 
7425, on 31, goost 205, hoote 396, 
ooth 120, loth 488. In such words a 
is uncommon, the sole example noted 
being ham 4030. Both o's rhyme to- 
gether and were therefore pronounced 
alike. At present the first is u and the 
second o. 

for ags. short u in : sone 79 ; wone, 
ags. vunjan 337, groneth 7411. 

V. Short u stands for ags. short w 
in: ful, ags. full 90, lust 192, but 142, 
cursyng 663, uppon 700, suster 873, 
shulde prohably arose from some form 
sculde, not sceolde, as we have no other 
instance of ags. eo becoming short u. 
There is no long u in Chaucer. 

VI. The vowel y is occasionally put 
for i. 

VII. The diphthong ay or ai stands 
for ags. an in : day, ags. dag 19, weie 
793, lay 20, mayde 69, sayde 70, faire 
94, tayl 3876, nayles 2143, pleye 236, 
reyn 592, i-freyned, ags. fragnan 
12361. These examples shew that ey 
was occasionally written for ay, and 
hence that ey, ay must have been pro- 
nounced alike. 

VIII. The diphthong ey or ei arose 
from ags. ed as in : agein, ags. agean 
8642, or from edg as : eyen, ags. eage 
152, deye, ags. deagan 6802, [mori, is 
there such a word in ags. ? it is not in 
Bosworth or Ettmiiller; Orrmin has 
detenu, supra p. 284. There is a 
deagan tingere.] The change in these 
two last words may be conceived thus : 
first g is added to ei, then replaced by 
j (j) and finally vanishes, as eige, eije, 
eie or eye. From eah comes eigh, as 
eahta, hedh, nedh, sledh, which give 
eyght, heygh, neygh, sleygh. This 
orthography is however rare, and highc, 
nighe, stiff he, or hie nie site, without 
gh, which was probably not pronounced 
at that time, are more common. The 




Chap. VII. § 1. 

word eight explains the origin of night, 
might, etc., from ags. n'eaht, m'eaht, 
which were probably first written 
neight, nieight, and tben dropped the 
i. [There is no historical ground for 
this supposition.] 

IX. The diphthong ou, or ow at the 
end of words or before e, answers to 
ags. long u (as the German au to me- 
dieval German u), in : bour, ags. bur 
15153, oure 34, schowres 1, toun, ags. 
tiin 217 ; rouned, ags. run 7132, doun, 
ags. dun 954 ; hous 252, oule 6663, bouk, 
ags. buce, Germ, bauch, 2748, souked 
8326, brouke, ags. brucan, use, 10182, 
etc. In many of these words ow is 
now written. 

Before Id and nd, ou stands sometimes 
for ags. short u. Before gh, ou arises 
from ags. long o, and answers to middle 
German uo, as : inough, ags, genog, 
mhg. genuoc 375 ; rought, ags. rohte 
8561, 3770, for which au is sometimes 
found, compare sale 4185, soivle 4261. 

Finally ou sometimes arises from 
ags. eov, as in : foure, ags. feover 210 ; 
trouthe, ags. treovth, 46, etc. 

X. The diphthong eu, ew, will be 
treated under w. 

Chap. 2. Consonants derived from 

I. Liquids I, m, n, r. 

L is usually single at the end of 
words, though often doubled, as it is 
medially between a short and any 
vowel, but between a long vowel and 
a consonant it remains single. 

The metathesis of R which occurs 
euphonically in ags., is only found in : 
briddes 2931, 10925 ; thrid 2273, 
threttene 7811, thritty 14437 ; thurgh 
2619. But as these words have re- 
gained their primitive forms bird, 
third, through, we perceive that the 
metathesis was accidental. In other 
words the transposed ags. form disap- 
pears in Chaucer, thus : gothic rinvan, 
ags. irnan, Chaucer renne 3888 ; 
frankic drescan, ags. \erscan, Ch. 
thrcisshe 538, thrcisshfold 3482 ags. 
Jirescvold, berscvold ; frank, pr'estan, 
ags. bi ; rstan, Ch. berst [Harleian and 
Lansdownc bresf.en Ellesmere and 
Hengwurth, and Corpus, brestyn Cam- 
bridge,] 1982; goth. brirwan, ags. bir- 
nan, Ch. bren 2333 ; modern run, 
[urn in Devonshire], thrash, but burn 

II. Labials b, p. f, w. 

B is added euphonically to final m in 

lamb 4879, but not always, as lymes 
4881, now limbs. 

P is used for b in nempnen 4927. 

F, which between two vowels was v 
in ags., is lost in heed 109, ags. hedfod, 
hedvod. There seems to be a similar 
elision of/ from ags. efenford in enforce 
2237 [emforth Ellesmere, Hengwrt, 
Corpus, enforte Cambridge, hensforth 
Petworth, enforce Lansdowne], com- 
pare hem for haven 754, 1048, etc. F 
is generally final, as : wif 447, lyf 
2259, gaf 1902, haf 2430, stryf 1836 
knyf 3958, more rarely medial, [the 
instances cited have final / in Wright], 
where it is generally replaced by v, 
not found ags., as: wyve 1862, lyves 
1720, geven 917, heven 2441, steven, 
ags. stefen 10464 ; havenes 409. 

V is never used finally, but is re- 
placed by w, followed sometimes by e, 
as : sawgh 2019, draw 2549, now 2266, 
so we 2021, lowe 2025, knew 2070, 
bliew 10093, fewe 2107, newe 17291, 
trewe 17292. In the middle of a word 
aw, ow are replaced by au, ou, but 
before v, w is retained, as : howve 
3909, schowve 3910. 

^arises from ags. g, as in : lawe, ags. 
lagu 311 ; dawes, ags. dag, 11492, and 
as day is more common for the last, we 
also find lay for the first, 4796. Com- 
pare also fawe ags. faegen 5802 rhym- 
ing with lawe, i-slawe 945, for fain, 
slain. W also replaces g in : sawe 
1528, 6241, mawe 4906, wawes 1960, 
sorw 10736, morwe 2493, borwe 10910, 
herberw 4143, herbergh 767, 11347. 

III. Linguals d, t, th, s. 

The rule of doubling medial conso- 
nants is neglected if I) stands for ags. "5, 
as : thider 4564, whider 6968, gaderd, 
togeder, etc., in the preterits dide 
3421, 7073, 8739, and hade 556, 619, 
[Ellesmere and a few MSS. where it 
seems to have been an accommodation 
to the rhymes spade, blade.~] Similarly 
i-written 161, i-write 5086, although 
the vowel was short in ags. [It is 
lengthened by Bullokar in the xvi th 
century, p. 114, 1. 7-] Perhaps litel 
has a long i in Chaucer's time, see 87, 

S final is often single, as : blis 4842, 
glas 152, amys 17210.) 

The termination es in some adverbs 
is now ce, as: oones 3470, twyes 4346, 
thries 63, henncs hens 10972, 14102, 
henen 4031 [in Tyrwhitt, heythen 
Ellesmere, heithen Corpus, no cor- 
responding word in Harleian], henne 

Chap. VII. § 1. 



2358 ; thennes 5463, 4930, thenne 
6723; whennes 12175. 

The aspirate Tit had a double cha- 
racter ]> $ in ags., and a double sound, 
which probably prevailed in Chaucer's 
time, although scarcely recognized in 
writing. That th was used in both 
senses we see from : breeth, ags. brae"S 
5 ; heeth, ags. hae'S 6 ; fetheres, ags. 
feSer 107 ; forth, ags. forS 976 ; walk- 
eth 1054, etc.; that, ags. j?aet 10 — 
ther 43, thanked 927. The use of 
medial and final d for th are traces of 
$, as : mayde, ags. maeg'S 69 ; quod, 
ags. cvaft' 909 ; wheder ags. hva'Sre 
4714 {whether, Wright] ; cowde ags. 
cu5 94 ; whether and cou\e are also 
found. Again, we also find [in some 
MSS.] the ags. d replaced by th, in : 
father 7937, gather 1055, wether, 
10366, mother 5433, [in all these cases 
Wright's edition has d\ But t on the 
other hand is never put for ags. ]>. 

The relation of th, s, is shewn by 
their flexional interchange in -eth, -es. 

The elision of th gives ivher 7032, 

IV. Gutturals, c, k, ch, g, h, j, q, x. 

K is used before e, i, and c before 
a, o, u, hence kerver 1801, kerveth 
17272, but: carf 100. Medial ags cc 
becomes eh or kk, as nekke, ags. hnecca 
238 ; thikke, ags. Jicca 551 ; lakketh 
2282, lokkes 679. Modern ek after a 
short vowel is sometimes k, as : seke 18, 
blake 2980. 

Grimm lays down the rule that c, k 
fall into ch before e, i except when 
these vowels are the mutates of a, o, u, 
in which cases k remains, (Gram. P, 
515.) cch has arisen from ags. cc in 
the same way as kk, as : wrecche, ags. 
vraecca 11332fecche, ags.fe'ccano942; 
cacche Mel., strecche, recche, etc. 
Probably the pronunciation was as the 
present tch. 

K was ejected from made, though 
the form maked remains 2526. In 
reule 173, if it is not derived from the 
French, the g of ags. regul, regol, has 
been ejected. 

G was probably always hard, and so 
may have been gg, in : brigge, ags. 
brycg 3920 ; eggyng ags. ecg, 10009 ; 
hegge, ags. hecg 16704. From this 
certainly did not much differ that gg 
which both in Chaucer and afterwards 
passed into t, as : ligge, lye ags. lecgan, 
2207; legge, ags. lecgan, '3935; abegge, 
abeye, ags. bycgan 3936. 

The g and y were often interchanged, 
as give yeve, forgete, forgate, gate yate, 
ayen agen, etc. The y replaced guttural 
g [due to editor] as in : yere, yonge, 
yerne, ey ; and also in words and ad- 
jectives where y arises from ig, as: 
peny, very, mery, etc., and in the pre- 
fix y or i for ags. ge, as : ylike, ynough, 
ywis, ymade, yslain, ywriten, ysene, 
ysowe 5653. And g we have seen is 
also interchanged with w. 

The hard sound of ags. h is evident 
from the change of niht, leoht, Jliht, 
viht, etc., into night, light, flight, 
wight, etc. 

Ags. sc had always changed into sh, 
German sch. In some words ssh re- 
places sh as : fresshe, ags. fresc 90, 
wessch 2285, wissh 4873, asshy 2885. 
There is also the metathesis cs or x for 
sc in axe. 

Chap. 3. Vowel mutation, apocope, and 
junction of the negative particle. 

I. There is no proper vowel mutation 
(icmlaut), but both the non-mutate and 
mutate forms, and sometimes one or the 
other, are occasionally preserved, as: 
sote 1, swete 5 ; grove 1637, greves 
1497, 1643 to rhyme with leves; wel- 
ken 9000, ags. wolcen, Germ, wolke ; 
the comparatives and superlatives, 
lenger, strenger, werst, aud plurals, men, 
feet, gees. 

II. Apocope; lite, fro, mo, tho = 

III. Negative junction; before a 
vowel : non = ne on, nother, neithir = 
ne other, ne either, m's=ne is, nam = 
ne am ; before h or w : nad = ne had, 
10212, nath = ne hath 925, »il=ne 
will 8522, nolde=ne wolde 552, nere 
= ne were 877, not = ne wot 286, 
nysten= ne wysten 10948. 

Chap. 4. Vowels derived from the 

French words with unaltered spelling 
were probably introduced by Chaucer 
himself, and the others had been pre- 
viously received and changed bv popu- 
lar use. 

I. The vowel a in unaccented syl- 
lables had probably even then approxi- 
mated to e, and hence these two vowels 
are often confounded. Thus Chaucer's 
a replaces fr. e, ai, and again Ch. e re- 
places fr. a, thus: vasselage [see vas- 
selage, p. 642, col. 2, and wasscyllage, 
p. 645], fr. vasselage 3056, vilanye [see 
villany, p. 642, col. 2, and courtesy, 
p. 644, col. 1], fr. vilenie, vilainie, 



728 ; companye, fr. compaignie 4554, 
chesteyn [chasteyn, chestayn, in MSS., 
see p. 642,] fr. chastaigne 2924. 

With the interchange of the ags. 
vowels a, o, we may compare the change 
of fr. a, au, the latter having probably 
a rough sound as of ao united, which 
took place before nc, ns, ng, nd, nt in 
both languages, but au was more fre- 
quent in Chaucer and a in French, as : 
grevance 11253, grevaunce 15999, and 
other ance and ant terminations, also : 
romauns, fr. romance 15305 ; en- 
haunsen, fr. enhanser 1436 ; straunge 
fr. estrange 10590, 10403, 10381; 
demaundes, fr. demande 8224 ; launde 
fr. lande, uncultivated district, 1693, 
1698 ; tyraunt, fr. tirant 9863, tyrant 
15589; graunted 6478, 6595; haunt 
fr. hante 449. With the exception of 
the last word all these have now a. 

II. Long e frequently arises from 
French ai, as in : plesaunce, fr. plai- 
sance 2487 ; appese, fr. apaisier 8309 ; 
freeltee, fr. frailete ; peere, fr. paire 
15540. Sometimes it replaces ie, as : 
nece, fr. niez 14511 ; sege 939, siege 
56 ; and the e is even short in : cherte, 
fr. chierte 11193. Similarly fr. i is 
omitted in the' infinitive termination 
ier, compare arace, creance, darreine, 
auter, etc.. in the list of obsolete fr. 

Long e also replaces fr. eu in : peple 
2662 [the word is omitted in Harl., 
other MSS. have peple, poeple, puple], 
mebles [moeblis Harl.] 9188. To this 
we should refer : reproef 5598, ypreued 
[proved Harl., proeued Hengwrt] 487. 

III. That the pronunciation of i 
fluctuated between i and e we see by 
the frequent interchange of these let- 
ters ; the fr. shews e for It. i, as : de- 
vine 122, divyn 15543, divide 15676, 
divided 15720 [Tyr. has devide in the 
first case], enformed 10649, fr. in- 
former, enformer ; defame 8416, dif- 
fame 8606 ; surquidrie surquedrie, 
chivachee chevachie, see obsolete fr. 
words below. 

IV. Chaucer frequently writes o for 
fr. ou in accented syllables, as : cover- 
chefes [most MSS., keverchefs Havl.] fr. 
couvrechief 455 ; corone, fr. couronne 
2292 ; bocler, fr. boucler 4017 ; govern- 
aunce, fr. gouvernance 10625 ; sove- 
reyn, fr. souverain 67. More rarely 
Ch. u=fr. ou, as : turne [most MSS., 
toume Harl.], fr. tourner 2456 ; cur- 
tesye, fr. courtoisie 15982. 

V. Fr. o is often replaced by Ch. «, 

as: turment [torment Harl.], fr. tor- 
mente 5265 ; abundauntly, fr. habon- 
dant 5290 ; purveans, fr. porveance, 
pourveance 1667 ; in assuage 11147, 
fr. assoager, assouager, the u had cer- 
tainly the sound of w, compare aswage 

For long u we occasionally find ew, 
which was certainly pronounced as in 
the present few, dew, thus : salewith 
[Harl. and the six MSS. read saluetK] 
1494, transmewed [translated Harl., 
transmeeuyd Univ. Cam. Dd. 4, 24] 826 
mewe, fr. mue 351 [muwe Ellesmere 
and Hengwrt MSS.] jewise, fr. juise 
[juwyse Harl. and most MSS., iwes 
Petworth, iuyse Lansd.] 1741. 

VI. The vowels y and i are inter- 
changed in fr. as in ags. words. 

VII. The fr. diphthongs ai, oi, 
usually appear as ei in Chaucer, and 
must have been pronounced identically, 
as: seynte, fr. saint 511; doseyn, fr. 
dosaine 580 ; chesteyn, fr. chastaigne 
2924 ; peyneth, fr. painer, peiner 4740 ; 
coveitous, fr. covoiteux, Mel. These 
diphthongs interchange in Ch. as well 
as in fr. [different MSS. differ so 
much that Gesenius's references to 
Tyrwhitt's edition on this point are 
worthless] . For the interchange of a 
and ai see I. 

VIII. When the diphthong ou arose 
from fr, o, it was perhaps pronounced 
as long o. This is very probable in 
those words which now contain o or u 
in place of the diphthong, but less so 
in those which have preserved ou ; as 
these had even then perhaps the sound 
of German au. Ex. noumbre 5607 ; 
facound, fr. faconde 13465, soun, fr. 
son 2434; abounde fr. habonder 16234. 
[The other examples have o in Wright's 
ed., or like flour 4 are not to the point; 
the above are now all nasal on.~\ 

Chap. 5. Consonants derived from the 

The doubling of final consonants is 
frequently neglected. 

I. Liquids. 

[The examples of doubling I, r, are 
so different in Wright's ed. that they 
cannot be cited.] 

_P inserted : dampned 5530, damp- 
nacioun 6649; sompne 6929 =somone 
7159, sompnour 6909, solempne 209. 
This p is also often found in old fr. 
Similarly in Provencal dampna, somp- 
nar, Diez. Gram. 1, 190 (ed. 1.). 

Chap. VII. § 1. 



II. Labials. 

-P for b ; gipser, fr. gibecier 359 ; 
capul, fr. cabal 7732. The letter v, 
which was adopted from the romance 
languages into English, had no doubt 
the same sound as at present, that is, 
it was the German «•, and the w was 
the German u. [That is, Ges. con- 
fuses (v, w) with (bh, u) in common 
with most Germans.] 

As in ags. g passes into German w, 
so in fr. words initial w becomes g or 
gu. Whether this change was made 
in English by the analogy of the ags. 
elements or from some other dialect of 
old fr., in which probably both forms 
were in use, it is difficult to determine. 
The following are examples : wiket, fr. 
guichet 10026 ; awayt, fr. aguet 7239 ; 
wardrobe, fr. garderobe 14983. To 
these appear to belong warice and 
wastear, though they may derive from 
the frankic warjan wastan. 

III. Linguals. 

Z is an additional letter, but is sel- 
dom used, as later 242. Ch. generally 
writes s for z. 

IV. Gutturals. 

C before e, i was probably s as now. 
Fr. gn now pronounced as German nj, 
(nj) is reduced to n in Ch., as Coloyne 
468, feyne 738, barreine, essoine, oine- 
ment. G was doubled after short 
vowels in imitation of ags. 

The aspirate h, which seems to have 
come from external sources into Eng- 
lish, and was scarcely heard in speech, 
was acknowledged byCh., but has now 
disappeared, as : abhominaciouns 4508. 
In proheme 7919, the /* seems only in- 
serted as a diaeresis. 

Fr. qu before e and i is often changed 
into k, as : phisik 913, magik 418, 
practike 5769, cliket 10025. 

Chap. 6. Aphteresis of unaccented 

French e, a. 
Initial e is frequently omitted before 
st, sp, sc, as: stabled, fr. establir 2997; 
spices, 'fr. espece 3015; specially 14, 
squyer, fr. escuyer 79,scoler, fr.escolier 
262 ; straunge, fr. estrange 13. Similarly 
a, e, are rejected in other words where 
they are now received, as : potecary 
14267, compare Italian bottega a shop ; 
prentis 14711, pistil 9030, compare 
Italian pistola, chiesa. The initial a 
in avysioun 16600, has been subse- 
quently rejected. 

Part II. Flexion. 

Chap. 1. On Nouns. 

Chap. 2. On Adjectives. 

Chap. 3. On Pronouns S; Numerals. 

Chap. 4. On Verbs. 


I. Obsolete Chaucerian words of 
Anglosaxon origin. 

[All Gesenius's words are inserted, 
though some of them are still in fre- 
quent use, at least provincially, or have 
been recently revived. To all such 
words I have prefixed f. The italic 
word is Chaucer's, the roman word is 
ags., meanings and observations are in 
brackets. Gesenius seems to have sim- 
ply extracted this list from Tyrwhitt's 
Glossary without verification, as he has 
occasionally given a reference as if to 
Cant. Tales, which belongs to Rom. of 
Rose. The Mel. and Pers. T. refer to 
the tales of Melibeus and the Persoun, 
without any precise indication, as edi- 
tions differ so much.] 

abegge abycgan [abide] 3936, abeye 
13515, abye 12622 agrise agrisan 
[frighten] 5034, algates algate algeats 
[in any case] 573, 7619, anhang an- 
hangan [hang on] 13690, attry atterly 
atter atterlic Persons Tale [poisonous], 
awreke avrecan [wreak] 10768. 

bale [p. 379], barme bearm [lap] 
10945, bedred beddredda [bedridden] 
7351, 9168 ; biknowe becnavan [con- 
fess] 5306, bhjnne blinnan [cease] 13099, 
bhjve [quickly, supra, p. 380, col. 2], 
borwe [supra, p. 380, col. 2 ; where for 
loan read security'], bouk biice [belly] 
2748, byleve frank, pilipan, germ, blei- 
ben, [remain] 10897. 

fchafare ceap + faran ? germ, kauf- 
fahren [chaffer, bargain] 4558, clepe 
clypjan [call] 3432, [name] 121, etc., 
colde [to turn cold] 5299, fcop cop 
[top] 556, tfrt/dofjan [daft] 4206, dere 
derjan [hurt] 1824, 10554, derne dearn 
dyrn [hidden p. 382] 3278, 3297, 
dighten dihtan [dispose] 6349, 16015, 
■fdomesman [judge] 15976. 

eft aft eft [again] 1671, 5212, eft- 
sones [soon again] 6390, eftsoone 16082, 
feek eac [eke] 5, felde yldo eldo [old 
age] 6797, emforth [supra p. 666, col. 2, 
1. 8,] fere erjan [to plough] 888, erme 
earmjan [to pity] 13727, ers, ears ars 
[arse] 3732, 7276. 

fele fela feola [many] 8793, fere 
[companionship, supra p. 383], ffit fitt 
[song] 15296, fleme aflyman [drive 
away] 17114,/o floga? [arrow] 17196, 



Chap. VII. § 1. 

fonge fangan [take] 4797, forpine 
pinan [waste away] 205, forward fore- 
veard [promise] 831, 850, 854, 4460, 
freyne gefregnan [ask] 12361, fremde 
fremed [strange] 10743. 

galegatexL [yell] 6414, 6918, fgar 
gearvan [make ; the word is get in 
Harl., Heng., Corp., gar in Tyrwhitt] 
4130, girden geard gyrd? [cut off] 
16032, gleede gled [heat] 3379, guide 
gnidan [so Tyr., girdyng Harl., gig- 
gynge Elles., Cam., gyggynge Heng., 
gydyng Corp. gideing Lans., sigyng 
Pet.] 2504, grame grama, ger. gram 
[grief] 13331, greyth hra'Sjan [pre- 
pare] 4307, graithe 16080. 

hals heals [neck] 4493, halse he'als- 
jan [embrace] 15056, [heende frank, 
pihandi, germ, behende [swift ? cour- 
teous, supra, p. 3S5] 3199, 6868, hente 
gehentan [to take] 700, hent 7082, 
herds hirde [shepherd] 605, 12120, 
herie herjan [praise] 5292, 8492, heste 
haes [command] 14055, byheste 4461, 
heete [promised] 2400, hete i75i, fhight 
[call] 1015, fhie higan, on hye [in 
haste] 2981, in hyghe [in haste] 4629. 
hine hina [hind p. 385] 605, fholt 
holt, germ, holz [wood] 6. 

jape geap [joke] 707, 4341, 13240, 
[to joke] 15104. 

kit he cySan [announce] 7191, keked 
germ, gucken [Corp., loked Harl., liked 
Heng.] 3445, latvred [delayed] Pers. 
Tale, fleche laece 3902, lydne lyden 
[language] 10749, leemes leoma [ray : 
beemes Harl.] 16416, tore laeran [teach] 
6491, 10002, levene [lightning] lige ? 
more probably than, hlifjan 5858, 
flewed laevd leaved [ignorant] 6928, 
7590, lissed lysan [loosed] 11482, [re- 
mission] 11550, lith li« [limb] 16361, 
litherly lySr la"§ [bad], ger. liederlich, 

make maga mag, [husband] 5667, 
[wife] 9698, [match] 2558. 

nempnen nemnan nemjan [name] 
4927, note notu [business] 4066. 

oned [united] 7550. 

fpan panne [brainpan, skull] 15438. 

rathe hra^ hratS [quick] 14510, 
frecche recan [reck, care] 2247, 4514, 
reed raed [advice] 3527, [to advise] 
3073, reyse goth. urraisjan [travel] 54, 
rys arisan, germ, reisholz [twig] 3324, 
roune run 7132, rowne 10530, rode 
rude [ruddiness, face] 3317, 15138. 

fsawe sagu [saying] 1528, schawe 
scuva scua [shade, grove] 4365, 6968, 
shymeryng sciman scimjan, ger. schim- 
inern, [Heng., glymeryng Harl.] 4295, 

scheene seine sceone scone, ger. schon 
[beautiful] 1070, 10202, fshepen scy- 
pen, ger. schoppen [stable] 6453, 
schonde sceonde [disgrace] 15316, 
fsibbe sib [relation] Mel., sikurly 
frank, sihhur, germ, sicher 137, secur 
[ib.] 9582, sithe srS [times] 5575, 5153, 
sithen sith sin sifrSan 4478, 1817, seth 
5234, schenchith scencan [pour out 
wine] 9596, smythe smrSan [forge" 
3760, sonde sand [message, messenger" 
4808, 14630, fsparre sparran [spar" 
992, star/ staerf [died] 935, 4703, 
steven stefen [voice] 10464, stounde 
stund [space of time] 3990, fstreen 
streonan [parents] 8033, swelte sveltan 
[die] 3703, sivelde 1358, sweven svefen 
[dream] 16408, etc., swithe svi$ 
[quickly] 5057. 

ftene te'ona [loss] 3108, thewes J?eav 
[morals] 8285, tholid boljan [suffer] 
7128, ithrepe >reapjan [blame] 12754, 
twynne tvinjan tveonjan [doubt, sepa- 
rate] 837, 13845. 

unethe eatSe [uneasily] 3123, unhele 
unhaelu [affliction] 13531, unrightwi- 
riht [injury] 6675. 

wanhope vanjan + hopa [despair] 
1251, welkid vlacjan ? frank, welchon, 
germ, verwelkt [withered] 14153, 
fwelken volcen 9000, [Harl. reads 
heven 16217, Tyr. welketi], fvjende 
[went] 21, whiter [shortly, just now] 
13256, fwhilom hvilum, ger. weiland 
861, wisse visan [shew] 6590, wone 
vunjan [dwell] 337, fwood vod [mad] 
1331, woodith [rageth] 12395. 

yerne georne 6575, fyede eode [went] 
13069, ywys gewis [certainly] 6040. 

II. Obsolete Chaucerian words of 
French origin. 

[The italic word is Chaucer's, the 
roman the old French as given by 
Gesenius on the authority of Roquefort ; 
when this is not added the word was 
unchanged by Chaucer. Meanings and 
remarks are in brackets. This list again 
contains many words not really obso- 
lete, here marked with f-] 

agregge agregier [aggravate] Mel., 
amoneste [admonish] Mel., anientissed 
anientir [annihilated] Mel., arace ar- 
raehier [tear] 8979, farray, [order] 
8138, [state, condition] 718, 8841, 
4719, [dress] 8860, [escort] 8821, [to 
put in order] 8837, arette arester [ac- 
cuse, impute] 726 [Harl., Corp., Pet., 
Lans., have ret, rette, the others na- 
rette], 2731, fassoile [solve, absolve] 
9528, attempre attemprer 16324, Mel., 



avaunte avanter [boast] 5985, avaun- 
tour [boaster] Mel., avoutrie [adultery] 
6888, advoutrie 9309, aider autier 2294, 
awayt aguet [watch] 7241, 16211, 
ayel aiel [grandfather] [ayel Harl., 
ayell Corp., Lans., aiel Elles, Heng. 
Cam., eile Pet.] 2479. 

\bareigne baraigne [barren] 8324, 
bareyn 1979, fbaudery bauderie [joy] 
1928, fbenesoun beneison 9239, blandise 
blandir Pers. T., bobaunce boubance 
6151, borel burel [rough dark dress] 
5938, [rough] 11028, bribe [broken 
meat after a meal] 6960, [beg] 4415, 
burned burnir 1985. 

cantel [fragment] 3010, -fcatel catels 
[goods] 542, 4447, fcharbocle [carbun- 
cle] 15279, chesteyn chastaigne [chest- 
nut] 2924, chivachie chevauche'e [ca- 
valry expedition] 85, chivache 16982, 
clergeoun clergeon [acolyte] 14914, 
corrumpable [corruptible] 3012, costage 
[cost] 5831, covine [practice, cunning] 
606, coulpe [fault] Pers. T., custumance 
[custom] 15997, creaunce creancier 
[act on credit] 14700, 14714. 

dereyne derainier [prove justness of 
claim] 1611, 1633, delyver delivre 
[quick] 84, f disarray desarray [con- 
fusion] Pers. T., disputisoun disputison 
[dispute] 11202, dole dol [grief, no re- 
ference given, 4'38], drewery druerie 
[fidelity] 15303. 

egrimoigne agrimoine [agrimony] 
12728, enchesoun enchaison [cause] 
10770, engendrure [generation] 5716, 
engregge engreger [aggravate] Pers. T., 
enhorte enhorter [exhort] 2853, fentent 
[intention] 3173, fesckue eschuir 
[avoid] Mel., essoine essoigne [excuse] 
Pers. T., estres [situation, plan of 
house] 1973, 4293. 

faiteur faiteor [idle fellow, no re- 
ference], false falser [to falsify] 3175, 
ffey fe'e [faith] 3284, ffers [fierce] 
1600, fetys [beautiful] 157, Jiaunce 
fiance [trust, false reference, 6 - 167] 
fortune fortuner [render prosperous] 

garget gargate [neck] 16821, fgent 
[genteel] 3234, gyn engin [trick] 10442, 
13093, giteme gisterne guiterne [guitar] 
3333, 4394, gonfenon [standard 6-62, 
gounfaucoun 6*37 j. 

fharie harier [persecute] 2728 [rent 
Wr., haried, the Six MSS.], herburgage 
[dwelling] 4327, humblesse [humble- 
ness] 4585. 

jambeux [leggings] 15283, jangle 
jangler [to jest] 10534, [a jest] 6989, 

juwise juise [judgment] 1741, irons 
ireux [angry] 7598. 

lachesse [negligence] Pers. T., letua- 
ries [electuaries] 428, 9683, letterure 
lettreure [literature] 15982, 12774, 
loos los [praise, good fame] 13296, 
Mel., loscngour [flatterer] 16812. 

Mahoun Mahon [Mahomet] 4644, 
fmaistrie [master's skill] 3383, [mas- 
tery] 6622, 9048, fmalison maleiceon 
[malediction] Pers. T., fmanace ma- 
nacher [menace] 9626, maat mat [sad] 
957, matrimoigne [matrimony] 9447, 
maumet mahommet [idol] Pers. T., 
merciable [merciful] 15099, mesel 
[leper] Pers. T., meselrie [leprosy] Pers. 
T., \meivemue [place for keeping birds] 
351, 10957, mester [mystery, business, 
trade] 615, 1342 [except in Harl., 
which reads cheer.] 

nakers nacaires [kettledrums] 2513, 
nyce [foolish] 6520, nycete 4044. 

■\oynement oignement 633, olifaunt 
olifant [elephant] 15219, opye [opium] 

f palmer palmier 13, parage [parent- 
age] 5832, parfight parfyt parfit [per- 
fect] 72, 3011, parte parter [take part 
in] 9504, fpenance [penitence] Pers. 
T., [penance] 223, [affliction] 5224, 
11052, penant [penitent] 15420, po- 
raille [poor people] 247, prow prou 
[profit] 13715, fpurveance pourveance 
[providence, forethought] 1254, 6152, 
3566, puterie [whoredom] Pers. T., 
putour [whoremonger] Pers. T. 

rage ragier [sport] 3273, real [royal] 
15630, rially [royally] 380, reneye 
reneier [renounce] 4760, 4796, repeire 
[return] 10903, respite 11886, \route 
[crowd] ger. rotte, 624. 

f solas [joy, pleasure] 800, 3654, 
sourde sourdre [to rise] Pers. T., sur- 
quedrie [presumption] Pers. T. 

talent [inclination, desire] 5557, Pers. 
T. tester testiere [horse's head armour] 
2501, textuel [texted wel Wr., having 
a power of citing texts] 17167, trans- 
mewe transmuer [translatedWr.~\ 8261, 
tretys traictis [well made, streight Wr. ] 
152, ftriacle [remedy] 4899, trine trin 
[triune] 11973. 

vasselage [bravery] 3056, fverray 
[true] 6786, fversijiour versifieur 
[versifyer] Mel., viage veage [journey] 
77, 4679, \vitaille [victuals] 3551, void 
voider [to remove] 87S6, [to depart] 
11462, [to leave, make empty] 9689. 

ivarice garir [heal] 12840, [grow 
whole], Mel. tw«si;o«?-gasteur [waster] 



Chap. VII. $ 1. 

M. Rapp on the Pronunciation of Chaucer. 

Dr. Moritz Rapp, at the conclusion of his Vergleichende Gram- 
matik, vol. 3, pp. 166-179, has given his opinion concerning the 
pronunciation of Chaucer, chiefly on a priori grounds, using "Wright's 
edition, and has appended a phonetic transcription of the opening 
lines of the Canterbury Tales as a specimen. This account is here 
annexed, slightly abridged, with the phonetic spelling transliterated 
into palaeotype, preserving all the peculiarities of the original, such 
as absence of accent mark, duplication of consonants, German (bh) 
for (w), modern English errors of pronunciation, etc. A few re- 
marks are added in brackets. 

The liquids are to be pronounced as 
written, and hence I is not mute, 
though there is a trace of its disap- 
pearance in the form (Haf) for (Half). 
The transposition of r is not complete ; 
•we again find (renne) for (irnan), and 
(brenne) for (birnan), English (ronn, 
bsrn), (thurkh) through is unchanged, 
(bird) and (brid) are both used, 
(threshe) replaces (therskan), and 
(breste) replaces (berstan), English 

Among the labials, b remains after 
m in (lamb), but (limm) is without the 
present mute b. For (nemnan) we 
have the peculiar (nempnen), and 
similarly (dampnen) to damn. Final 
f as in (bhiif ) wife, is also written 
medially wive, that is, in the French 
fashion, because v tended towards / in 
the middle ages. But initially, in 
order to preserve the pure German (bh), 
recourse was had to the reduplication 
uu or w. On w after a vowel see 
below. (Bh) sometimes arises from a 
guttural, as sorwe, that is, (sorbhe) 
now sorrow — (sorroo), from sorg. 

Among the dentals d and t occasion 
no difficulty, and s has, by French in- 
fluence, become pure (s), [Dr. Bapp 
holds it to have been (sj) in ags.] 
especially as it sometimes results from 
]>. The z is merely an s. The most 
difficult point is th. In ags., we have 
shewn [supra p. 555, note] that it had 
only one value (th). I consider that 
this is also the case for this dialect. 
As regards the initial sound, which in 
the English pronouns is (dh), there is 
not only no proof of this softening, but 
the contrary results from v. 12589 
So faren we, if I schal say the sothe. 
Now, quod oure ost, yit let me talke 
to the. 
The form sothe has here assumed a 
false French e, since the age, is (sooth) 

and English (suuth), [it may be the 
adverbial e, or the definite e, according 
as the is taken as the pronoun or the 
definite article,] which must therefore 
have here been called (soothe), as this 
th is always hard, and as to the, i.e. 
(too th^) rhymes with it, shewing that 
the e of sothe was audible if not long, 
and that the th of to the was neces- 
sarily hard, as the English (tuu dhii) 
would have been no rhyme, [but see 
supra p. 318]. Similar rhymes are 
(aluu thee) allow thee, and (juuthe) 
youth, (mi thee) hie thee, and (sbhiithe) 
quickly, [supra pp. 318, 444, n. 2]. The 
Anglosaxon value of the letters must 
be presumed until there is an evident 
sign of some change having occurred. 
For the medial English th we have a 
distinct testimony that the Icelandic 
and Danish softening of d into (dh) 
had not yet occuiTed. for the best MSS. 
retain the ags. d, thus : ags. (feeder) 
here (fader), now (faadher), (gaderjan) 
here (gader) now(g;cdhdhor),(tog8edere) 
here (togEder) now (togudhdhar), (bliE- 
der) here (bliEder) now (uEdhdhar), 
weather, (moodor) here (mooder) now 
(madhdhor) mother, (khbhider) here 
(khbhider) now (huidhdhar) whither, 
(thider) here (thider) now (dhidhdhar) 
thither. Inferior MS. have father, 
gather, thither, etc., shewing that the 
softening of d into the Danish (dh) 
began soon after Chaucer. But when 
we find the d in Chaucer it follows as 
a matter of course that the genuine 
old h (th) as in (broother, fether) when 
here written brother, father, could only 
have had the sound (th), and could 
not have been pronounced like the 
(brodhdhor, fEdhdhar). The ags. ku\e 
is here (kuth) and also (kud) or (kuud) 
for (kun-de.) 

Among the gutturals, k is written 
for c when e or i follows, and before 

Chap. VII. § 1. 



n as (knEu) knew. The reduplicated 
form is ck. The g is pure (g) in the 
German words, hut in French words 
the syllables ge, gi, have the Provencal 
sounds (dzhe, dzhi), which is certainly 
beyond the known range of Norman or 
old French, where g is resolved into 
simple (zh), but here gentil is still 
(dzhentil) not (zhentil). Similarly 
romanic eh is (tsh), and this value 
is applied to old naturalised words, 
in which the hiss has arisen from 
k, as (tshertsh) from (kirk), (tsh«p) 
from (keapjwn) cheapen, and in 
thoroughly German words (tshild 
from (kild) child ; and (selk) be- 
comes (eetsh) each. Reduplication is 
expressed by cch, representing the 
sharpened (tsh) [i.e. which shortens the 
preceding vowel] so that (bhraekka) 
exile becomes wrecche, and sometimes 
wretch, which can only mean (bhrEtsh) ; 
similarly from (fekk«n) comes (fetshe) 
and in the same way (retshe, stretshe) 
and the obscure cacche = (k«tshe), 
which comes from the Norman cockier, 
although (tshase) also occurs from the 
French ehasser. The reduplicated g 
occasions some difficulty. In French 
words abbregier can only give abregge 
= (abredzhe), and loger gives (lodzhe), 
etc., but the hiss is not so certain in 
brigge bridge, egge edge, point, hegge 
hedge, as now prevalent, because we 
find also ligge and lie from (ligg«n) 
now (lai), legge and (lEEie) from (Ieg- 
g«n) now (l<p<e) , and ( from 
(bygg<ra) now (bai). Similarly (bEgge) 
ask, beg, now (bEg), which, as I be- 
lieve, was formed from (buug<ra) or 
(bEge<ra) to bow. Here we find mo- 
dern (dzh) and hence the (dzh) of the 
former cases is doubtful. 

The softening of g into (j) is a 
slighter difference. The letter (j) does 
not occur in ags., and has been replaced 
in an uncertain way by i, g, ge. In 
Chaucer the simple sign y is employed 
[more generally j, the y is due to the 
editor, p. 310], which often goes fur- 
ther than in English, as we have not 
only {seev) a year, but give and (jEve, 
j«f, fonEte, j«t, tfjEn, «JEnst) and (ee) 
or (EEi) an egg. 

The termination ig drops its g, as 
(pEni) for penig, and the particle ge 
assumes the form i, as (inuukh) enough, 
(ibhis - ) certain, and in the participles 
(it#ken) taken, (imAAd) made, (islAA) 
or (islEEn) slain, (iseene) seen, (ibhriten) 
written, etc. From (geliike) comes 

(iliik) or (iliitsh), and the suffixed 
(-liik) is reduced to (li). 

The old pronunciation (qg) must be 
retained for ng, thus (loqg, loqger) or 
(leqger) ; there is no certain evidence 
for (loqq). The French nasal is in pre- 
ference expressed by n. What the 
Frenchman wrote raison and pro- 
nounced (rEEsoq-) is here written resoun 
and called (resuun), as if the (q) were 
unknown. As the termination in 
givende has assumed the form {giving), 
we might conjecture the sound to be 
(giviq), because the form comes direct 
from (givin), as the Scotch and com- 
mon people still say, but we must re- 
member that giving also answers to the 
German Gebung, in which the g is 

We now come to h, which is also 
a difficulty. That initial h before a 
vowel had now become (h') as in Ger- 
man of the xin th century, is very pro- 
bable, because h was also written in 
Latin and French words, and is still 
spoken. Chaucer has occasionally 
elided the silent e in the French fashion 
before h, which was certainly an error 
[ivas freilich ein Missgriff war ! 
shared by Orrmin, supra p. 490, and 
intermediate writers, who were free 
from French influence.] For the me- 
dial h, the dialect perceived its differ- 
ence from (h'), and hence used the new 
combination gh, known in the old 
Flemish, where the soft (kh) has been 
developed from g. The ags. niht — 
(nikht) became night = (nikht), and 
similarly thurgh = (thurkh). For 
(khlEakh«n) we have lawh, and 
laugh, both =(lAAkh); (sEakh) gives 
sawh = (sAAkh) or seigh — (sEEkh). 
Before I, n, r, the ags. h has disap- 
peared, but ags. (khbhiite) is here 
somewhat singularly written white, a 
transposition of hwite. Had h been 
silent it would have been omitted as in 
/;/, hn, hr, but as it was different from 
an ordinary h before a vowel, this ab- 
normal sign for (khbh), formed on the 
analogy of gh, came into use, and 
really signified an abbreviated heavy 
ghw. Hence (khbhiite) retained its 
Anglosaxon sound in Chaucer's time. 
[Rapp could not distinguish English w 
from (u), and hence to him wh was 
(hu), the real meaning of wh thus 
escaped him. His theory is that h 
was always (kh) in the old Teutonic 

We have still to consider sk and ks. 



Chap. VII. § 1. 

The former was softened to (sjkj) in 
ags., and hence prepared the way for 
the simple (sh), and this may have 
nearly occurred by Chaucer's time, as 
he writes sch which hears the same re- 
lation to the French cA = (tsh), as the 
Italian sei to ci, s shewing the omission 
of the initial t. Some MSS. use ssh 
and even the present sh, the guttural 
being entirely forgotten. The ags. ks 
remains, but sk is still transposed into 
ks in the bad old way, as axe = (akse) 
for (ffske). 

For the vowels, Gesenius has come 
to conclusions, which are partly based 
on Grimm's Grammar, and partly due 
to his having been preoccupied with 
modern English, and have no firm 
foundation. The Englishmen of the 
present day have no more idea how to 
read their own old language, than the 
Frenchmen theirs. We Germans are 
less prejudiced in these matters, and 
can judge more freely. Two conditions 
are necessary for reading old English 
correctly— first, to read Anglosaxon 
correctly, whence the dialect arose; 
secondly, to read old French correctly, 
on whose orthography the old English 
was quite unmistakably modelled. 
[The complete catena of old English 
writers now known, renders this asser- 
tion more than doubtful. See supra 
p. 588, n. 2, and p. 640.] 

"We must presume that the old 
French a was pure (a). The ags. a, 
was lower=(tf). The English ortho- 
graphy paid no attention to this differ- 
ence, and hence spoke French a as (a). 
There can be no doubt of this, if we 
observe that this a was lengthened into 
au or aw, the value of which from a 
French point of view was (aa), as it 
still is in English, as straunge, de- 
maunde, tyraurtt, grannie, haunte. In 
all these cases the Englishman en- 
deavours to imitate French nasality by 
the combination (AAn). [This au for 
a onlv occurs before », see supra, p. 
143, and infra Chap. VIII., § 3]. 

The old short vowel a hence remains 
(a) as in ags, thus (makjan) is in the 
oldest documents (mr/kie, m«ki) and 
afterwards (m<?ke), where the (a) need 
no more be prolonged by the accent 
than in the German maehen (mr/kh<n), 
and we may read (makke). [But see 
Orrmin's makenn, p. 492]. 

The most important point is that the 
ags. false diphthongs are again over- 
come ; instead of (Ealle) we have the 

older form (alle), instead of (sksarp) we 
find (sh«rpe) etc. The nasal (an), as 
in ags., is disposed to fall into (on), as 
(hond, lond, droqk, begonne), etc. 

The greatest doubt might arise from 
the ags. ce or rather (le) appearing as 
(a) without mutation; thus, ags. (thaet, 
khbh»t, bhseter, smsel) again fall into 
(that, khbhfift, bhater, snwl) . The mu- 
tation is revoked — that means, the ags. 
mutation had prevailed in literature, but 
not with the whole mass of the people, 
and hence in the present popular for- 
mation might revert to the older sound, 
for it is undeniable that although the 
present Englishman says (dhset) with 
a mutated a, he pronounces (imat, 
UAAtar, smAAl) what, water, small, 
without a mutate. In most cases the 
non-mutated form may be explained by 
a flexion, for if (dseg) in ags. gave the 
plural (dagos), we may understand how 
Chaucer writes at one time (dEE) day 
and at another (dAA) daw for day, 

Short e remains unchanged as (e) 
under the accent, when unaccented it 
had perhaps become (a). Even in ags. 
it interchanges with i, y, as (tshirtsh) 
or (tshertsh) church. The ags. eo is 
again overcome, for although forms like 
beo, beo]>, still occur in the oldest monu- 
ments, e is the later form, so that 
(stEorra) star again becomes (stErre), 
and (gEolu) yellow gives (jElbhe, jeIu), 
(fEol) fell becomes (fEll, fill), etc. A 
short (e) sometimes rhymes with a long 
one in Chaucer, as (, rmle) mea- 
dow, red. Such false rhymes are how- 
ever found in German poetry of the 
xiii th century, and they are far from 
justifying us in introducing the modern 
long vowel into such words as (m«ke, 
mEde), etc. 

The old long vowel e is here (ee), as 
appears all the more certainly from its 
not being distinguished in writing from 
the short. [Rapp writes e e, but he 
usually pairs ee,ae = («e,EBE), the 
(ee) being doubtful, (ee, ee). This 
arises from German habits, but in 
reality in closed syllables (e) is more 
frequent than (e), if a distinction has 
to be made. It would perhaps have 
represented Eapp more correctly to 
have written (ee e, ee e), but I con- 
sidered myself bound to the other dis- 
tribution, although it leads here to the 
absurdity of making (ee, e) a pair]. 
The quantity of the ags. must be re- 
tained, hence (s«k«n, keene) can only 
give (swke, kem) seek, keen, and from 

Chap. VII. § 1. 



(sbheete) we also obtain (soote), with 
omitted (ee), compare Norse (scecet) 
sweet. [The careful notation of quan- 
tity by Chimin points him out as a 
better authority for this later period.] 
Long (ee) also replaces ags. m as (heere, 
see, slwpe) hare, sea, sleep, and tbe old 
long e'o as (s«ke, leete lee\e, detpe, 
tshetse) seek, lief, deep, choose, and 
finally the old long e'a as (eek) from 
(eak), and similarly (greete, heme, 
tshee'pe) great, bean, cheapen. These 
different (ee) rhyme together and have 
regularly become (ii) in modern Eng- 
lish. There is no doubt about short 
i, and long i could not have been a 
diphthong, because the French ortho- 
graphy had no suspicion of such a 
sound. Ags. y is sometimes rendered 
by ui as fuire fire, which, however, 
already rhymes with (miire) and must 
therefore have sounded (fiire). The 
(yy) had become (ii) even in ags., so 
that (bruud) becomes (briide), etc. 
Least of all can we suppose short i in 
(bhilde, tshilde, finde) wild, child, find, 
to be diphthongal, or even long, as the 
orthography would have otherwise been 
quite different. 

Short o may retain its natural sound 
(o), and often replaces ags. u, thus 
(sumor) gives (sommer), and (khnut, 
furthor) give (not, further) nut, further. 
In these cases the Englishman gene- 
rally recurs to the mutate of (u), to be 
presently mentioned. 

Long o in Chaucer unites two old 
long vowels, (aa) in (Hoome), some- 
times (HAm), (goost from (gAAst), 
(oothe) from (AAth) oath, (Hoote) from 
(HAt) ; and the old (oo) in (booke, 
tooke, foote, soothe). Both (oo) rhyme 
together, and must have, therefore, 
closely resembled each other ; they can 
scarcely have been the same, as they 
afterwards separated ; the latter may 
have inclined to (u) and has become 
quite (u). 

The sound of (u) is in the French 
fashion constantly denoted by ou. [But 
see supra, p. 425, 1. 3. Eapp is pro- 
bably wrong in attributing the intro- 
duction to French influence.] French 
raison was written red sun by the Anglo- 
Norman, and resotm by Chaucer, which 
could have only sounded (resuun). A 
diphthong is impossible, as the name 
Cawcasoas Caucasus rhymes with hous, 
and resotm with toun. Hence the 
sound must have been (huus, tuun) as 
in all German dialects of this date. 

Hence we have (fluur) flower for the 
French (fleecer). The real difficulty 
consists in determining the quantity of 
the vowel, as it is not shewn by the 
spelling. Position would require a 
short (u) in cases like (shulder, hund, 
stund, bunden) shoulder, old (skulder), 
hound, hour, bound ; but the old 
(sookhte) must produce a (suukhte) 
sought ; and cases like (brukhte, 
thukhte) brought, thought, are doubt- 

On the other hand the vowel written 
u, must have been the mutate common 
to the French, Icelander, Dutchman, 
Swede. The true sound is therefore 
an intermediate, which may have fluc- 
tuated between (ce, u, y), (lyst, kyrs) 
desire, curse. These u generally de- 
rive from ags. u, not y. The use of 
this sound in the unaccented syllable is 
remarkable. The ags. (batluan) has two 
forms of the participle (b«thod, bathed). 
Hence the two forms in Chaucer, 
(bathyd) or rather (bathud) exactly as 
in Icelandic [where the « = (■?), not (u), 
supra p. 548], the second (bathid, 
bathed). Later English, however, 
could not fix this intermediate sound, 
and hence, forced by the mutations, gave 
the short u the colourless natural vowel 
(o), except before r where we still hear 
(a), [meaning, perhaps (ao). This theo- 
retical account does not seem to re- 
present the facts of the case.] The 
above value of short (u) in old Eng- 
lish is proved by all French words 
having this orthography. Sometimes 
Chaucer endeavours to express long 
(yy) by ui, as fruit, where, however, 
we may suspect the French diphthong ; 
but generally he writes nature for 
(natyyre) without symbolising the 
length. "We should not be misled by 
the retention of the pure (u) in mo- 
dern English for a few of tbese mu- 
tated u, as (full, putt, shudd, fruut). 
These anomalies establish no more 
against the clear ride than the few pure 
(a) of modern English prove anything 
against its ancient value. 

The written diphthongs cause pecu- 
liar difficulties. The combinations at, 
ay, ei, ey, must have their French 
sound (ee), but as they often arise 
from (nog) there seems to have been an 
intermediate half-diphthongal or triph- 
thongal (eei) ; thus (dsege) gives (dEEi) 
or (dEE). From eagc) we have the 
variants eye, ye, eighe, yyhe, so that 
the sound varies as (me, iije, iie, 



Chap. VII. § 1. 

Eikhe, iikhe). Similarly (riiikhe) and 
(Hiie) high, and (nEEkhe, niie) nigh. 
"We have already considered au, aw, to 
have been (aa). The ags. (lagu, lakh) 
law, gives laive, which perhaps bor- 
dered on a triphthongal (lAAue). In 
the same way we occasionally find 
(dAAue) day, in two syllables, instead 
of the usual (cIee), ags. (daeg, da-gas), 
and from ags. (sAAbhl) comes saule = 
(sAAle) and soule, which could have 
only been (suule). The medial ow = 
ou, that is, (uu), but before a vowel it 
might also border on a triphthong ; 
thus lowh = (luukh) low, is also written 
lowe = (looue) ? Oughen = (uukhen), 
and also owen = (oouen), now own = 
(oon). Similarly groive may have 
varied between (gruue, grooue) and so 
on with many others. These cases 
give most room for doubt, and the 
dialect was probably unsettled. But 
the diphthong eu, eiv, leaves no room 
for doubt ; it cannot be French (ce) 
for heure hour is here (Hyyre) [proba- 
bly a misprint for (Huure)], and for 
peuple we also find (petple). On the 
other hand the French beaute, which 
was called (beauts, beotee) is here 
written bewte, which was clearly 
(bEutfe). Similarly German words, as 
knew, cannot have been anything but 
(kneo, knEu). Similarly (nEue) new. 
The French diphthong oi as in vois 

Khbhan that ^4prille bhith His shuures soot 
The drukht of martsh Hath pErsed too the 

.4nd bathyd Evri VEF.n in sbbitsb likuur 
Of khbhitsh vertyy- EndzhEndred is the 

fluur, 4 

Khbhan Sefirys eek bhith His sbheete breeth 
Enspiiryd nath in Evri Holt and Heeth 
The tEndre kroppes, and the joqge sonne 
Hath in the Ram His Halfe kurs ironne, 8 
.dnd smale fuules maken melodiie 
That sleepen al the nikht bhith oopen iie, 
Soo priketh hbbti natyyr- in hbt koradzkes, 
Than loqgen folk too goon on pilgriniadzhes, 
u4nd palmers for too seeken strA^ndzhe 

strondes 13 

Too feme nalbhes, kuuth- in sondri londes, 
^4nd spesialli from Evri shiires Ende 
Of Eqglond too Kantyrbyri thee bhEnde 16 
The Hooli blissfyl martir for too seeke 
That Htm Hath nolpen khbhan that thee 

bheer seeke. 
Bifell that in that sesuun on a dEE 
In Suuth-bhtrk at the tabbard as ii Iee, 20 
Keedi too bhKnden on mii pilgrimadzhe 
Too Ka3ntyrb-ri bhith fyl devuut koradzhe, 
At nikht bhas kom intoo that hostelriie 
BhEl niin and tbhKnti in a kompaniie 24 
Of sondri folk bii avcntyyr- ifalle 
In felaship, and pilgrims bheer bhi alle 
That tobhord Kantyrbyri bholden riide. 
The tshambers and the stables bheeren 

bhiide. 28 

voice, was taken over unaltered, and 
also replaces romanic ui, which was 
too far removed from English feelings ; 
we have seen fruit pass into (fryyt, 
fruut) ; ennuyer becomes (anoi) and 
destruire is written destriiie, destrie, 
but had the same sound (destroi). 

As regards the so-called mute e, it 
was undeniably historical in Chaucer 
and represented old inflections, yet it 
was, with equal certainty, in many 
cases merely mechanically imitated 
from the French. But we cannot scan 
Chaucer in the French fashion, with- 
out omitting or inserting the mute e at 
our pleasure, and in a critical edition 
of the poet, the spoken e only ought to 
be written. What was its sound when 
spoken ? Certainly not (a) as in 
French, but a pure (e) with some in- 
clination to (i) . This is shewn by the 
rhyme (soothe, too thff) already cited, 
and many others, as clerkes, derk is; 
(dveed is, deedes) etc. At present 
Englishmen pronounce this final e in 
the same way as i, and in general e,i 
present as natural a euphonicum as the 
French (a). 

The following are the opening lines 
of the Canterbury Tales reduced to a 
strict metre. 

[Some misprints seem to occur in 
the original, but I have left them un- 

.dnd bhEl bhe bheeren eesyd atte bEste, 
-<4nd shortli khbhan the sonne bhas too reste 
Soo Had ii spoken bhith heih Evritsh-oon 
That ii bhas of hei- fElaship anoon 32 

-<4nd mAAde forbhard Erli too ariise 
Too tak- uur bhKE thsr as ii juu debhiise, 
Byt nAAthefess, khbhiils ii Habh tiim and 

Or that ii ferther in this tale pase 36 

Me thiqketh it akordant too resuun 
Too telle juu all the kondisiuun 
^4nd khbhitsh thee bheeren and of khb/»at 

Of eetsh of HEm, soo as it seemed mee 40 
.4nd eek in khbhat arrEE that thee bheer- 

.4nd at a knikht than bhol ii first beginne. 
A knikht thEr bhas and that a bhorthi 

That from the tiime that He first bigan 44 
Too riiden uut He loved tshivalriie 
Truuth and Honuur, freedoom and kyrtesiie. 
Fyl bhorthi bhas He in His lordes bhErre 
And thEitoo Hadd lie riden nooman ferre 48 
As bhEl in kristendoom as HeethenEsse 
-4nd Ever Honuurd for His bhorthinESse. 
At Alisnndr- He bhffs khbhan it bhas bhonne, 
Fyl ofte tiim He Hadd the bord bigonne 52 
_4bovcn alle nasiuuns in Pryse, 
In Lettoou nadde rEEsed and in Ryse 
Noo kristen man soo oft of His degree, 
In Gi:rnad- alte siidzhe aadd He bee, 56 


At mortal batEEls Hadd He been fiifteene 61 Bhith lokkes kryll- as thee bhF.r lEEd in 
And fukhten for uur at Tramasseene, prEsse, 

In listes thriies and ee slEEn His foo. Of tbhEnti jeer He bhas of adzh- ii gesse, 

This ilke bhortlri knikht Hadd been alsoo 64 Of His statyyr- He bhas of Even lEqthe 83 

Somtiime bhita the lord of Palatiie ^nd bhondyrli delivr- and greet of strEqthe, 

^IgEEn another Heethen in Tyrkiie, And He hadd been somtiim in tshivatshiie 

,4nd Evermoor He Hadd a sovrEEn priis. in Flandres, in Artois and Pikardiie, 

-4nd thukh that He bhas bhorthi He bhas .4nd born Him bhEl, as in soo litel spase 

bhiis, 68 In Hop too stonden in his ladi grase. 

And of His port as miik as is a msed. Embruudid bhas ue as it bheer a mEde 88 

He nsver jit a vilonii ne sEEd A\ fyl of fiEshe fluures, khbhiit- and reede. 

In al His liif, yntoo noo raaner bhikht. Siqgiqg He bhas or fluutiqg al the o/ee, 

He bhas a vErrEE pErfikht dzhEntil knikht. He bhas as fiEsh as is the moonth of hiee, 92 

Byt for too tElle juu of bis arrEE, 73 Short bhas His guuu bhith sleeves loqg and 

His Hors bhas good, byt He ne bhas nukht bhiide, 

gEE, BhEl kuud He sitt- on Hors and fEEre riide, 

Of fystian He bhEred a dzhepuun He kuud soqges bhEl make and endiite, 

Al bismoteryd bhith His Haberdzhuun, 76 Dyhystn- and eek dAAns- and bhEl pyrtrEE 
For He bhnslat komen from His viadzhe and bhriite. 96 

-4nd bhEnte for too doon His pilgrimadzhe. Soo Hoot He lovde, that bii nikhter-tale 

Bhith Him thEr bhas his son, a Joqg He sleep nomoor than dooth a nikhtiqgale. 

skbhieer, KyrtEES He bhas, lukhli (or loouli) and 
A lovjer and a lysti batsheleer 80 SEivisable 

And karf beforn His fadyr at the table. 100 

If in the above we read (ee, e) and (oo, o) for (ee, e) and (oo, 6), 
and (e) for (e) which is a slight difference, and also (ii, i) for (ii, i), 
and do not insist on (a) for (a), and also read (w, wh) for the un- 
English (bh, khbh), the differences between this transcript and 
my own, reduce to 1) the treatment of final e, which Rapp had not 
sufficiently studied ; 2) the merging of all short u into (y), certainly 
erroneous ; 3) the indistinct separation of the two values of ou into 
(uu, oou), and 4) the conception of (ee), an un-English sound, as 
the proper pronunciation of ey, ay as distinct from long e. It is 
remarkable that so much similarity should have been attained by 
such a distinctly different course of investigation. 

Instructions foe. Keading the Phonetic Transcript of the Prologue. 

The application of the results of Chapter IY. to the exhibition 
of the pronunciation of the prologue, has been a work of great 
difficulty, and numerous cases of hesitation occurred, where analogy 
alone could decide. The passages have been studied carefully, and 
in order to judge of the effect, I have endeavoured to familiarise 
myself with the conception of the pronunciation by continually 
reading aloud. The examination of older pronunciation in Chap. 
V., has on the whole confirmed the view taken, and I feel con- 
siderable confidence in recommending Early English scholars to 
endeavour to read some passages for themselves, and not to pre- 
judge the effect, as many from old habits may feel inclined. As 
some difficulty may be felt in acquiring the facility of utterance 
necessary for judging of the effect of this system of pronunciation, it 
may not be out of place to give a few hints for practice in reading, 
shewing how those who find a difficulty in reproducing the precise 
sounds which are indicated, may approximate to them sufficiently 
for this purpose. These instructions correspond to those which I 
have given in the introduction to the second edition of Mr. R. 
Morris's Chaucer. 

The roman vowels (a, e, o, u) must be pronounced as in Italian, 


with the broad or open e, o, not the narrow or close sounds. They 
are practically the same as the short vowels in German, or the 
French short a, e, o, ou. The (a) is never our common English a in 
fat, that is (as), but is much broader, as in the provinces, though 
Londoners will probably say (se). For (o) few will perhaps use 
any sound but the familiar (o). The (u) also may be pronounced 
as (u), that is, u in bull or oo in foot. The long vowels are 
(aa, ee, oo, uu) and represent the same sounds prolonged, but if 
any English reader finds a difficulty in pronouncing the broad and 
long (ee, oo) as in Italian, Spanish, Welsh, and before r in the 
modern English mare, more, he may take the easier close sounds 
(ee, oo) as in male, mole. The short (i) is the English short • in 
pit, and will occasion no difficulty. But the long (n) being un- 
usual, if it cannot be appreciated by help of the directions on p. 
106, may be pronounced as (ii), that is as ee in feet. The vowel 
(yy), which only occurs long, is the long French u, or long German 
ii. The final (-e) should be pronounced shortly and indistinctly, 
like the German final -e, or our final a in China, idea, (supra p. 119, 
note, col. 2), and inflectional final -en should sound as we now pro- 
nounce -en in science, patient. It would probably have been more 
correct to write (a) in these places, but there is no authority for 
any other but an (e) sound, see p. 318. 

For the diphthongs, (ai) represents the German ai, French, ai 
Italian ahi, Welsh ai, the usual sound of English aye, 1 when it is 
distinguished from eye, but readers may confound it with that 
sound without inconvenience. The diphthong (au) represents the 
German au, and bears the same relation to the English oiv in now, 
as the German ai to English eye,' but readers may without incon- 
venience use the sound of English ow in now. Many English 
speakers habitually say (ai, au) for (ai, au) in eye, now. The diph- 
thong (ui) is the Italian ui in lui, the French out nearly, or more 
exactly the French oui taking care to accent the first element, and 
not to confound the sound with the English tee. 

The aspirate is always represented by (H h), never by (h), which 
is only used to modify preceding letters. 

(J j) must be pronounced as German j in ja, or English y in yea, 
yaivn, and not as English j in just. 

The letters (b d fg k 1 mnprstvwz) have their 
ordinary English meanings, but it should be remembered that (g) 
is always as in gay, go, get, never as in gem ; that (r) is always 
trilled with the tip of the tongue as in ray, roe, and never pro- 
nounced as in air, ear, oar ; and also that (s) is always the hiss in 
hiss and never like a (z) as in his, or like (sh). The letter (q) has 
altogether a new meaning, that of ng in sing, singer, but ng in 
finger is (qg). 

1 This word is variously pronounced, text is generally used in the South of 

and some persons rhyme it with nay. England, but this pronunciation is per- 

In taking votes at a public meeting the haps unknown in Scotland, 
sound intended to be conveyed in the 


(Th, dh) represent the sounds in thin, then., the modern Greek 8- 

(Sh, zh) are the sounds in mesh measure, or nish, vision, the 
Fr. eh, j. 

(Kh, gh) are the usual German ch in ach and g in Ta^e. But 
careful speakers will observe that the Germans have three sounds 
of ch as in ich, ach, auch, and these are distinguished as (kh, kh, 
kwh) ; and the similar varieties (gh, gh, gwh) are sometimes found. 
The reader who feels it difficult to distinguish these three sounds, 
may content himself with saying (kh, gh) or even (h'). The (kioh) 
when initial is the Scotch quh, Welsh chw, and may be called 
(khw-) without inconvenience. Final (gwb) differs little from 
(wh) as truly pronounced in ivhen, what, which should, if possible, 
be carefully distinguished from (w). As however (wh) is almost 
unknown to speakers in the south of England, they may approxi- 
mate to it, when initial, by saying (h'u), and, when final, by 
saying (uh'). 

The italic (to) is also used in the combination (kiv) which has 
precisely the sound of qu in queen, and in (rw) which may be pro- 
nounced as (rw), without inconvenience. 

(Tsh, dzh) are the consonantal diphthongs in chest jest, or such 

The hyphen (-) indicates that the words or letters between which 
it is placed, are only separated for the convenience of the reader, 
but are really run on to each other in speech. Hence it frequently 
stands for an omitted letter (p. 10), and is frequently used for an 
omitted initial (h), in those positions where the constant elision of 
a preceding final -e shews that it could not have been pronounced 
(p. 314). 

These are all the signs which occur in the prologue, except the 
accent point (*), which indicates the principal stress. Every sylla- 
ble of a word is sometimes followed by (•), as (naa'tyyr), in order 
to warn the reader not to slur over or place a predominant stress 
on either syllable. For the same reason long vowels are often 
written in unaccented syllables. 

If the reader will bear these directions in mind and remember 
to pronounce with a general broad tone, rather Germanesque or 
provincial, he will have no difficulty in reading out the following 
prologue, and when he has attained facility in reading for him- 
self, or has an opportunity of hearing others read in this way, he 
will be able to judge of the result, but not before. 

The name of the poet, Geoffrey Chaucer, maybe called (Dzhef'rar 
Tshaifseer), but the first name may also have been called (Dzhef - - 
ree - ), see supra, p. 462. The evenness of stress seems guaranteed 
by Gower's even stress on his own name (Gmreer), but he uses 
Chaucer only with the accent on the first syllable, just as Chaucer 
also accents Gower only on the first. 

680 text of chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. §i. 


— is prefixed to lines containing a defective first measure. 

4- is prefixed to lines containing two superfluous terminal syllables. 

iii is prefixed to lines containing a trissyllabic measure. 

vi is prefixed to lines of six measures. 

ai is prefixed to the lines in Avhich saynt appears to be dissyllabic. 

(') indicates an omitted e. 

Italics point out words or parts of words of French origin. 

Small capitals in the text are purely Latin forms or words. 


— Whan that April with his schoures swote 

The drought of March hath perced to the rote 

And bathed' ev'ry veyn? in swich licour, 

Of which vertu engend 'red' is the flour ; 4 

"Whan zephtetjs, eek, with his swete brethe 

Inspired? hath in ev'ry holt' and hethe 

The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne 

Hath in the Ram his halfe cows ironne 8 

And smale foiiles maken melodye 

That slepen al the night with open ye, — 

So pricketh hem natur' in her' corages ; 

Than longen folk to goon on pilgrymages, 1 2 

And palmeer' s for to seken strawnge strondes 

To feme halwes couth' in sondry londes ; 

And specialllj, from ev'ry schyres ende 
iii Of Engelond, to Cawnterbery they wende, 16 

The holy blisful martyr for to seke. 

That hem hath holpen whan that they wer' seke. 
Bifel that in that sesoun on a day' 

In Southwerk at the Tabard as I lay, 20 

Redy to wenden on my pilgrymage 
iii To Cawnterbery with ful devout corage, 

At night was com' into that hostelrye 

"Wei nyn' and twenty in a companye 24 

Of sondry folk', by aventur'' ifalle 

In felawschip ', and pilgrim'' 's wer' they alle, 

That toward Cawnterbery wolden ryde. 

The chambres and the stabeVs weren wyde, 28 

And wel we weren escd atte beste. 

And schortly, whan the sonne was to reste 

So hadd' I spoken with hem ev'rych oon, 

That I was of her' felawschip' anoon, 32 

Preliminary Note. ferred to thus : E. Ellesmere, He. 

Seven MSS. only are referred to, Hengwrt, Ca. Cambridge, Co. Corpus, 

unless others are specially named. P. Petworth, L. Lansdowne. 
Ha. is the Harl. 7334, as edited by 

Morris. '"The Six MSS." are those 1 Defective first measure see p. 

published by the Chaucer Society, and 333, note 1. The six MSS. do not 

edited by Furnivall. They are re- favour any other scheme, but all write 



(it) See pp. 106, 271, readers may say (ii) for convenience, p. 678. 

(oo) See p. 95, readers may read (oo, o) for (oo, o) for convenience, pp. 678. 

(-) Initial often indicates an unpronounced (h), and that the word is run on 

to the preceding ; at the end of a word it denotes that it is run on to 

the following. 

Zntroduk" sjuun 1 . 

"Whan dhat Aa-pml with, -is shuures swoot'e 
Dhe druukwht of Martsh Hath pers - ed too dhe root'e, 
And baadlred evm vain in sw«tsh liV'kuiur, 
Of wbitsh vertyy endzhen'dred is dhe fiuur ; 4 

Whan Zef'/rus, eek, with -is sweet'e breetlre 
Thspwred Hath in evrw Holt and Heetlre 
Dhe ten-dre krop'es, and dhe Juq*e smre 
Hath m dhe Ram -is Half - e kuurs enure, 8 

And smaahe fuukes maak'en melod/re, 
Dhat sleep - en al dhe nikht with. oop*en ii'e, — 
Soo prek"eth Hem naa'tyyr* in Her koo - raadzh - es ; 
Dhan loq'en folk to goon on p&Tgr«maadzlres, 12 

And pakmeerz for to seek'en straundzlre strond'es, 
To fenre Hakwes kuuth in sundre lond-es ; 
And spes' ialii, from evrii slmres end'e 
Of Eq/elond, to Kaun'terber'w dhai wend'e, 16 

Dhe hoo'Im bU's'ful marteYr for to seek - e, 
Dhat Hem Hath Holp-en, whan dhat dhai weer seek'e. 

B/fek dhat m dhat see'smur on a dai 
At Suutrrwerk at dhe Tab - ard - as Ii lai, 20 

Reedu to wend'en on mi paTgn'maadzlre 
To Kamrterbern w«th ful devuuk koo'raadzlre, 
At nikht was kuum in too dhat os - telri're 
Weel niin and twen'tw in a kunrpam'fe 24 

Of sun 'dm folk, hii aawentyyr* t'fake 
In fekauslmp, and p&Tgr«nz wer dhai ake, 
Dhat tocwerd Kaun terbereY wold-en r«Vd'e. 
Dhe tshaanrberz and dhe staa'b'lz wee"ren wnd - e, 28 

And weel we wee'ren ees-ed ake beske. 
And shortdn, whan dhe smre was to rest'e 
Soo Had Ii spook-en with -em evmtsh oon, 
Dhat Ii was of -er fehaushnp anoon, 32 

or indicate a final e to April, which French pronunciation had been imi- 

is against Averil 6128, April 4426. tated. The verse is wanting in Ca. 

8 Ram. See Temporary Preface to which however reads Caun. in v. 769. 

the Six Text Edition of Chaucer, p. 89. 18 whan that, L. alone omits 

16 Cawnterbery. E. He. Co. that, and makes wer e a dissyllable, 

and Harl. 1758, write Caun., and P. which is unusual, and is not eupho- 

indicates it. It would seem as if the nious in the present case. 


682 text of chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. § 1. 

And made foorward eerly for to ryse, 

To tak' our' wey theer as I you. devyse. 

But natheles whyl's I hav' tym' and space, 

Eer that I f either in this tale pace, • 36 

Me thinketh it accordawnt to resoun 

To tellen you al the condicioun 

Of eech' of hem, so as it semed' me ; 

And which they weren, and of what degre, 40 

And eek in what array that they wer' inne, 

And at a knight than wol I first beginne. 

1. The Knight. 

A Knight ther was, and that a worthy man, 

That fro the tyme that he first bigan 44 

To ryden out, he loved' chivalrye, 

Trouth and honour, fredoom and curteysye. 

Ful worthy was he in his lordes werre, 

And theerto hadd' he ridden, no man ferre, 48 

As weel in Cristendom as hethenesse, 

And ever' honour'd for his worthinesse. 

At AlisawndW he was whan it was wonne, 

Ful ofte tym' he hadd' the boord bigonne 52 

Aboven alle naciouns in Pruse. 

In Lettou? hadd' he reysed and in Ruse, 

No cristen man so oft' of his degre. 

At Gernad' atte seg" 1 eek hadd' he be 56 

iii Of Algesir, and ridden in Palmy rye 

At Lyeys was he, and at Satalye 

Whan they wer' worm' ; and in the Grete Se 
iii At many a noVl aryve" 1 hadd' he be. 60 

At mortal batayVs hadd' he been fiftene, 

And fowghten for our' feyth at Tramassene. 

In listes thryes, and ay slayn his fo. 

This ilke worthy knight hadd' ben also 64 

Somtyme with the lord of Palatye, 

Ayeyn another hethen in Turkye : 

And evremor' he hadd' a sov'rayn prys. 

And thowgh that he wer' worthy he was wys, 68 

33 foorward, promise. No 38 tellen, theMSS. have telle, 

MS. marks the length of the vowel in the n has heen added on account of the 

f o o r, hut as the word came from following y. 

foreweard. it would, according to the 46 curteysye, so E. He. Ca., 

usual analogy, evidenced by the mo- the rest have curtesye; the ey 

dern pronunciation of fore, have be- has been retained on account of 

come lengthened, and the long vowel, c u r t e y s. See Courtesy, p. 644. 

after the extinction of the ?, becomes 56 eek is inserted in the six MSS. 

useful in distinguishing the word from 57 Palmyrye, the MSS. have 

forward, onward, for to ryse all the unintelligible Belmarye. 

is the reading of the six MSS. This correction is due, I believe, to 

36 eer, E. He. L. read er, the Mr. W. Aldis Wright, who has kindly 

others or ; in either case the vowel was favoured me with his collation of T. 

probably long as in modern ere. 15733 in various MSS. 


And maad - e foorward eerlw for to ms-e, 

To taak uur wai dheer as Ii juu devzYs'e. 

But naa*dheles, wlmls /*" -aav turn and spaas'e, 

Eer dhat Ii ferdher in dhis taade paas*e, 36 

Meth/qk'eth it ak'ordaumV to ree - suiur 

To tel - en juu al dhe kondismun* 

Of eetsh of Hem, soo as it seenred mee, 

And whitsh dhai wee'ren, and of what dee'gree*, 40 

And eek in what arar dhat dhai wer in~e 

And at a kniXht dhan wol Ii first begm'e. 

1. Dhe Kntifelit. 

A km'Aht dheer was, and dhat a wurdh'M man, 

Dhat froo dhe tmn*e dhat -e ferst began - 44 

To md*en uut, Hee luved tshi'rvalrere, 

Truuth and on - uur, free - doom* and kurtaistre. 

Ful wurdh - M was -e in -is lord'es were, 

And dheerto Had -e r?'d"en, noo man fere, 48 

As weel in Kn'st"endoonr, as Heedlrenes'e, 

And ever on"uurd" for -*s wurdh*Mnes"e. 

At Aalmaun'dr -e was whan it was wun*e, 

Ful oft - e tiim -e Had dhe boord begun - e 52 

Abuuven ake naa'smunz- in Pryys*e. 

In Let'oou Had -e raiz-ed and in B,yys*e, 

Noo kr?'st*en man soo oft of n«s dee - gree\ 

At Gernaad* at"e seedzh eek Had -e bee 56 

Of ATdzhees«Yr, and r«d - en in Palmmre. 

At Lirais was -e, and at Saa-taalire 

Whan dhai wer wun ; and in dhe Greet - e see 

At man'i a noobd- aa'rirvee 1 Had -e bee. 60 

At mortaal* bat - ailz* Had -e been fifteen'e 

And fouk^ht'en for uur faith at Traamaaseen'e 

In h'st'es thrrres, and ai slain -is foo. 

Dh«s ilk-e wurdh ii kmX-ht -ad been alsoo - 64 

SumteYnre w«th dhe lord of Paadaatn'e, 

Ajain anudlrer Heedlren in Tyrksre : 

And evremoor -e Had a suvrain pnVs. 

And dhooukwh dhat Hee wer wurdh'w Hee was wms, 68 

Cenobia, of Palmire the queene, 

Harl. 7334. 
Cenobie, of Palymerie Quene, 

Univ. Cam. Dd. 4. 24. 
Cenobia, of Palimerye queene, 

Do. Gg. 4. 27. 
Cenobia, of Palymer ye quene, 

Do. Mm. 2. 5. 
Cenobia, of Belmary quene, 

Trin. Coll. Cam. E. 3. 19. 
Cenobia of Belmary quene, 

Do. P. 3. 15. 
Cenobia, of Palemirie the quene, 

Do. R. 3. 3. 

The trissyllabic measure was over- 
looked in the enumeration on p. 648, 
sub. -en. 

60 aryve', so Ha. and Ca., the 
others have a r m e y e, a r m e, for 
which the word n o b 1' will have to 
be n o b e 1, in two syllables, which 
is not usual before a vowel, and the 
construction to be at an arme, 
seems doubtful, while to be at an 
a r y v e e or landing in the G r e t e 
S e is natural. 

68 wer', so E. He. Ca., the others 

684 text of chatjcer's prologue. Chap. VII. § l. 

And of his poort' as meek as is a mayde. 

Ne never yit no vilayny' he seyde 

In al his lyf, unto no maner* wight. 

He was a veraij perfyt gentil knight. 72 

But for to tellen you of his aray, 

His hors was good, hut he ne was not gay. 

Of fustian he wered' a gipoun, 
— Al hismoter'd with his hawbergeoun. 76 

iii For he was laat' yeomen from his vyage, 

And wente for to doon his pilgrymage. 

2. The Sgtjyeer. 

With him ther was his son', a yong Squyeer, 
iii A lovieer, and a lusty bacheleer, 80 

With lockes crull' as they wer' leyd' in presse. 

Of twenty yeer he was of aag' I gesse. 

Of his statur' he was of ev'ne lengthe 
iii And wonderly deliver, and greet of strengthe. 84 

And he hadd' hen somtym' in chivachye 

In Flaivndres, in Artoys, and Picardye, 

And boom him weel, as in so lytel space, 
iii In hope to stonden in his lady grace. 88 

JUmbrouded was he, as it wer' a mede 

Al ful of fresche floures whit' and rede. 

Singing' he was, or flouting al the day; 

He was as fresch as is the mon'th of May. 92 

Schort was his goun, with sieves long and wyde. 

"Weel coud' he sitt' on hors, and fayre ryde. 

He coude songes mak' and weel endyte, 

Just' and eek dawnc\ and weel purtray' and wryte. 96 

So hoot he loved', that by nightertale 

He sleep no moor' than dooth a nightingale. 

Curteys he was, lowly, and servisabel, 

And carf bifoorn his fader at the tabel. 100 

3. The Yeman. 

A Teman hadd' he and servawnfs no mo, 

At that tym', for him liste ryde so ; 

And he was clad in coot' and hood' of grene. 

A scheef of pocock arwes bright' and kene 104 

Under his belt' he baar ful thriftily. 

"Weel coud' he dress' his tackel yemanly, 

His arwes drouped' nowght with fethres lowe, 

And in his hond he baar a mighty bo we. 108 

A nothecd hadd' he, with a broun visage. 

Of wodecraft weel coud' he al th' usage. 

90 f re she was not counted in the enumeration will be given in a foot- 
enumeration of the fr. words p. 651. note to the last line of the Prologue. 
In correcting the proofs several other 109 notheed, a closely cropped 
omissions have been found and a new poll. Tondre, " to sheere, clip, cut, 


And of -is poort as meek as is a maid'e. 

Ne never jit noo vuHainn - -e said'e 

in all -is liif, untoo - noo man'eer wikht. 

He was a verai per'fY/t dzhen'U'l kai&ht. 72 

But for to token juu of nis arar, 

H/s Hors was good, but Hee ne was not gai, 

Of fus'tiaan - -e weered a dzlw'rpuun - , 

Al bi'smoot'erd w^th -is Hau - berdzhuun' 76 

For Hee was laat skunren from He's viraadzlre, 

And went'e for to doon -is pjTgranaadzh/e. 

2. Dhe Skwn'-eer. 

With rom dbeer was -is suun, a juq Skwii'eer, 

A hrWeer, and a lust'w baa^tsbeleer*, 80 

With, lok-es krul as dhai wer laid m pres'e. 

Of twen'tn jeer -e was of aadzb li ges'e. 

Of H^s staa'tyyr -e was of eewne leqth/e, 

And wurrderhY deliver, and greet of streqtlre. 84 

And Hee -ad been sumtmn' in tslmwaatshire 

In Flaun'dres, in Artuis', and P/rkard«V - e, 

And boom -im weel, as in soo ltrt'l spaas*e, 

In Hoop*e to stond'en in -is laad'zV graas'e. 88 

Embruud'ed was -e, as it wer a meed'e 

Al ful of freslre fluures, •wh.iit and reed'e. 

S/q^'q* -e was, or fluu*t«q*, al dbe dai ; 

He was as fresh as »s dhe moonth of Mai. 92 

Short was -is guun, with, sleeves loq and ww'd'e. 

Weel kuud -e sit on Hors, and farre md'e, 

He kuud'e soq'es maak and weel endwt'e, 

Dzhust and eek dauns, and weel purtrai* and rwiit'e. 96 

So Hoot -e luved dhat hii m£ht*ertaal*e 

He sleep noo moor dhan dooth a m'&hWqgaake. 

Kurtais* -e was, 1oou*1m", and servus'aa'b'l, 

And karf bfcfoonr -is faad'er at dhe taa'b'l. 100 

3. Dhe Jee'man. 
A Jee'man Had -e and servaunts - noo moo, 
At dhat twm, for -im. k'st'e md'e soo ; 
And Hee was klad in koot and Hood of green*e. 
A sheef of poo - kok arwes hrikht and keen'e 104 

TJh'der -«s belt -e baar ful threft'ihY. 
Weel kuud -e dres -ts tak - 'l jee'manLY; 
Hz's arwes druup - ed noukwht with fedherz loou"e, 
And in -is Hond -e baar a mikh'tii boou'e. 108 

A not'Heed Had -e, with, a bruun v/rsaadzh'e. 
Of wood - ekraft weel kuud -e al dh- yysaadzlre. 

powle, nott, pare round," Cotgrave. south of Scotland as a terra of derision, 

See Athenteum, 15 May, 1869, p. 678, synonymous with hlockhead. Xott iu 

col. 3. " Not-head is broad, bull- Dunbar, nowt in Burns, oxen. — 

headed. Noivt-head is used iu the W.J. A." Ibid., 5 June, 1869, p. 772, 

686 text of chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. § 1. 

Upon his arm' lie baar a gay braceer, 

And by his syd' a swerd and a boucleer 112 

And on that other syd' a gay daggeer 

Harney sed weel, and scharp as poynt of sper' ; 

A Cristofr' on his brest' of silver schene. 

An horn he baar, the bawdrik was of grene ; 116 

Aforsteer was he soothly, as I gesse. 

4. The Pryobesse. 

Ther was also a Nonrf ', a Pry or esse, 

That of hir' smyling' was ful simp I and coy ; 
ai Hir' gretest ooth was but by Saynt Loy ; 120 

And sche was cleped madam 1 Englentyne. 

Ful weel sche sang the servyse divyne, 
iii Entuned in hir' noose ful semely ; 

And Frensch sche spaak ful fayr' &n.dfetis\y, 124 

After the scool' of Stratford atte Bowe, 

For Frensch of Paris was to hir' unknowe. 

At mete weel ytawght was sche withalle ; 

Sche leet no morsel from hir' lippes falle, 128 

Ne wett' hir' finger's in hir' sawce depe. 
iii Weel coud' sche cari 1 a morsel, and weel kepe, 
— That no droppe fil upon hir' breste. 
iii In curteysye was set ful moch' hir leste. 132 

Hir' overlippe wyped' sche so clene, 

That in hir' cuppe was no ferthing sene 

Of grese, whan sche dronken hadd' hir' drawght. 
iii Ful semely after hir' mete sche rawght'. 136 

And sikerly sche was of greet dispoorte, 

And ful plesawnt, and amiabV of poorte, 

Andpeyned 1 hir' to countrefete chere 

Of court 1 , and been estaatlich of manere, 140 

And to been hoolden digri of reverence. 

But for to speken of hir' conscience, 

Sche was so charitaVl and so pitous, 

Sche wolde weep' if that sche sawgh a mous 144 

. Cawght in a trapp', if it wer' deed or bledde. 

Of smale houndes hadd' sche, that sche fedde 

With roosted flesch, and milk, and wastel breed, 
vi But sore wepte sche if oon of hem wer' deed, 148 

col. 3. Jamieson gives the forms nott, and 697 infra for the probable occa- 

nowt for black cattle, properly oxen sional dissyllabic use of saynt as 

with the secondary sense of lout, and (saa - mt). As this had not been ob- 

refers to Icel. naut (noeoe«t), Dan. nod served, Tyrwhitt proposes to com- 

(noeoedh), Sw. not (ncecet), and ags. plete the metre by reading Eloy. 

neat, our modern neat (niit) cattle. with no MS. authority, Prof. Child 

115 Cristofr', this was accident- proposes othe (supra p. 390, sub, 

ally not counted among the French oath), thus : Hir' gretest othe nas 

words on p. 651. but by Saint Loy, and Mr. Morris 

120 seynt. See supra, pp. 264, would read ne was as in v. 74, 

476, 649, note, and notes on vv. 509 thus : Hir' gretest ooth ne was but by 


Upon.' -is arm -e baar a gai braa'seer, 

And \>ii -is siid a swerd and a buk - leer, 112 

And on dhat ucUrer siid a gai dag*eer 

Harnais - ed weel, and sharp as puint of speer; 

A Krist'ofr- on -»s brest of sskver sheen*e. 

An Horn -e baar, dhe bau'&rYk was of green*e. 116 

A forsteer was -e sootirkY, as li ges - e. 

4. Dhe Prt'rores'e. 

Dheer was aksoo* a Nun, a Pm'ores'e, 

Dbat of -iir snuYWq was ful s/nrpl- and kui, 

H«Yr greet'est ooth was but bii saa*mt Lui ; 120 

And shee was kkqred maa - daanr Eq - lentun - e. 

Ful weel she saq dhe servnVe dmrne, 

Entyyn'ed in -iir nooz'e ful seenrekY, 

And Frensh she spaak ful fair and fee'tesbY, 124 

Afker dhe skool of Strakford ake Boou - e, 

For Frensb of Paa - ms - was to mYr unknoou'e, 

At mee'te weel itankwht' was shee we-'thake, 

She leet noo morsel from -tit lqres fake, 128 

Ne wet -iir ftq'gerz in -iir saus*e deep*e. 

Weel kuud she kaW a morsel, and weel keep*e 

Dhat no drop'e ftl upon -iir breske. 

In kurtais/re was set ful mutsh -iir leske. 132 

H?Yr overkqre w«Yp - ed shee soo kleen'e, 

Dhat in -iir kup - e was no ferdrWq seen'e 

Of grees - e, whan shee druqk - en Had -iir draukwht. 

Ful see - mekY afker -iir nieeke she raukwht. 136 

And sik'erlti she was of greet di'spoorke, 

And ful plee - zaunk and aa - m/aa - bl- of poorke, 

And parrred niir to kuiurtrefeeke tsheere 

Of kuurt, and been estaakk'tsh of man - eere, 140 

And to been Hookken d^Yn of reeverens'e. 

But for to speek'en of -iir kon's/ens'e, 

She was soo tshaa'mtaa'bl- and soo p^Y•tuus•, 

She wokke weep, if dhat she saugwh a muus 144 

Kaukwht in a trap, if it wer deed or bled'e. 

Of smaake Hund - es Had she, dhat she fed*e 

With roosked flesh, and m«lk and was'tel breed, 

But soore wep - te shee «f oon of Hem wer deed, 148 

Saint Loy. Both the last suggestions vation of the open vowel in o t h e, 

make a lame line by throwing the hut all the Six MSS. read : This was 

accent on h y, unless we make b y thyn ooth, and myn also certeyn, only 

saynt Loy, a quotation of the P., L. write a superfluous e as othe. 

Nonne's oath, which is not probable. 122 servyse. See supra, p. 331. 

The Ha. has n a s, the Six MSS. have 131 f il, all MSS. except He. read 

was simply. For othe, which is a ne fil. The insertion of ne would 

very doubtful form, Prof. Child refers introduce a iii. 

to 1141, where Ha. reads: This was 132 ful, so E. Ca. Co. L. 

thyn othe and myn eek certayn, which 148 So all MSS., produciug an 

would require the exceptional preser- Alexandrine, see supra p. 649. 

688 text of chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. § l. 

Or if men smoot' it with a yerde smerte, 
And al was conscienc 1 and tendWe herte. 
Ful seniely hir' wimp'l j pinched was ; 
Hir' nose streyt; hir' eyen grey as glas ; 152 

Hir' mouth ful smaal, and theerto soft' and reed, 
But sikerly sche hadd' a fayr foorheed. 
It was almoost a sparine brood, I trowe, 
For hardily sche was not undergrowe. 156 

"Fvlfetis was hir' clook' as I was waar. 
Of smaal coraal about hir' arm sche baar 
A payr' of bedes gawded al with grene ; 
And theeron heng a brooch of goold ful schene, 160 

iii On which ther was first writen a crouned A 
And after : Amor vlncit omnia. 

5. 6. 7. 8. Anothee Nonne and thee Peeestes. 

Another NonrH also with hir' hadd' sche, 

That was hir' chapellayn, and Preestes thre. 164 

9. The Monk. 

A Monk ther was, a fayr for the maystrye, 
An out-rydeer, that loved' venerye ; 
A manly man, to been an abbot abel. 

Ful many a deynte hors hadd' he in stalel: 168 

And whan he rood, men might his bridel here 
— Ginglen, in a whistling' wind' as clere 
And eek as loud' as dooth the chapel belle 
Theer as this lord was keper of the celle. 172 

The reuV of Saynt Mawr' or of Saynt Beneyt, 
Hecatcs 1 that it was oold and somdeel streyt, 
This ilke Monk leet it forby him pace, 
And heeld after the newe world the space. 176 

He yaaf nat of that text a pulled hen, 
That sayth, that hunter's been noon holy men, 
Ne that a monk, whan he is recchelees, 
Is lyken'd to a fisch' that's waterlees ; 180 

This is to sayn, a monk out of his cloyster, 
But thilke text heeld he not worth an oyster. 

159 payr'. This was accidentally 175 This line has evidently caused 

not counted among the French words difficulties to the old transcribers. The 

on p. 651. following are the readings : 

164 Chapellayn. See Temp. This ilke monk leet forby hem pace. 

Pref. to Six-Text Ed. of Chaucer, p. 92. —Ha. 

170 Ginglen. E. gyngle, This ilke monk leet olde thynges 

He. gyngelyn Ca., gynglyng pace. — The six MSS. 

Co. Pe. L. In any case the line has Now the Ha. is not only defective in 

an imperfect initial measure, and the metre, but in sense, for there is no 

reading in He. has only four measures. antecedent to hem. The two rules 


Or if men smoot it with a jerd*e smert'e, 

And al was kon'siens* and tend're nert'e. 

Ful seenrehY -iir wimpl- ipmtslred was, 

Hiir nooz'e strait, roYr aien grai as glas, 152 

BjYr muuth ful smaal, and dheer'too- soft and reed, 

But sik - erli* she Had a fair foorheed*. 

It was almoost* a span^e brood, Ii troou'e, 

For Hardilii she was not un*dergroou-e. 156 

Ful fee 'tis was -iir klook, as Ii was waar. 

Of smaal kooTaab abuut* -iir arm she baar 

A pair of beed-es gaud-ed al with green -e ; 

And dheeron Heq a brootsh of goold ful sheen # e, 160 

On whitsh dher was first xwit'&a. a krumred A a, 

And afVer, Aa'mor v in - sit onrniaa. Anu direr Ifun-e and three Freest- es. 

Anudb/er Nun alsoo- with, Hiir -ad shee, 

Dhat was -iir tshaa-pelahr, and Preest'es three. 164 

9. Dhe Muqk. 

A Muqk dher was, a fair for dhe mais-trire, 

An uut'riideer, dhat luved veemerire, 

A man dii man, to been an ab"ot aa'b'l. 

Ful man - i- a daurtee Hors -ad Hee in staa'b'l : 168 

And whan -e rood men mikht -is brii-d'l Heere 

Dzhiq'glen in a whist diq wind as kleere 

And eek as luud as dooth dhe tshaa-peb bebe 

Dheer as dhis lord was keep*er of dhe sebe. 172 

Dhe ryyl of saint Maur or of saint Benait", 

Bekaus 1 dhat it was oold and sunrdeel strait, 

Dhis ilk*e Muqk leet it forbii -im paas - e, 

And Heeld afVer dhe neu - e world dhe spaas*e. 176 

He jaaf nat of dhat tekst a pubed Hen, 

Dhat saith dhat Hunt - erz been noon Hoobii men, 

Ne dhat a muqk, whan Hee is retslrelees, 

Is hYk'end too a fish dhat -s waa'terlees ; 180 

Dhat is to sain, a muqk uut of -is kluist'er, 

But dhilk'e tekst Heeld Hee not wurth an uist'er. 

named being separated by or, have been let old things pass," which must be 

referred to as it in the preceding line. erroneous. 

I therefore conjecturally insert it and 179 r ecchelees, so the six MSS. 

change hem to him, though I cannot It probably stands for rejhel-lees, 

bring other instances of the use offorby without his rule, which not being a 

him. The reading of the six MSS. usual phrase required the explanation 

gets out of the difficulty by a clumsy of v. 181, and the Ha. cloysterles 

repetition of old, and by leaving a sen- was only a gloss which crept into the 

tence incomplete thus : " the rule . . . text out of v. 181, and renders that 

because that it was old . . . this monk line a useless repetition. 

690 text of chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. § l. 

And I sayd' his opynioun was good, 
iii What! schuld' he stud?, and mak' himselven wood, 184 

Upon a hook in cloyst'r alwey to poure, 

Or swinke with his handes, and laboure, 

As Awstin hit ? Hou schal the world be served. ? 

Let Awstin hav' his swink to him reserved. 188 

Theerfor' he was a prikasour aright ; 

Gray hound's he hadd' as swift as foul in flight, 

Of priking' and of hunting' for the hare 

Was al his lust, for no cost wold' he spare. 192 

I sawgh his slev's purfyled atte honde 

With grys' and that the fynest of a londe, 

And for to fest'n' his hood under his chin 
iii He hadd' of goold ywrowght a curious pin ; 196 

iii A loveknott' in the greter ende ther was. 
iii His heed was hailed and schoon as any glas, 

And eek his faac' as he hadd' been anoynt ; 

He was a lord ful fat and in good poynt ; 200 

His eyen steep, and rolling' in his heed, 

That stemed, as afornays of a leed ; 

His botes soup'l, his hors in greet eslaat. 

JNou certaynlj he was a fayr prelaat ; 204 

He was not pal' as a forpyned goost. 

A fat swan lov'd' he best of any roost. 
+ His palfrey was as broun as is a berye. 

10. The Fbebe. 

+ iii A Frere ther was, a wantoun and a merye, 208 

A limitour, a ful solemne man. 

In alle th' or d' res fowr' is noon that can 

So moch' of daliawnc' and fayr lanyage. 
iii He hadd' ymaad ful many a fayr mariage 212 

Of yonge wimmen, at his owne cost. 

Unto his ord'r he was a nobel post. 
iii Ful weel bilov'd and familieer was he 

With frankeleyns ov'ral in his cuntre, 216 

And eek with worthy wimmen of the toun : 

For he hadd' poueer of confessioun, 

As sayd' himself, more than a curaat, 

For of his ord'r he was licenciaat. 220 

Ful swetely herd' he confessioun, 

And plesawnt was his absolucioun ; 
iii He was an esy man to yeve penawnce 
iii Theer as he wiste to haan a good pitaivnce ; 224 

184 studi', although taken from modern u = (a), and has therefore been 
the French, so that we should expect adopted. 

u = (yy), Ca. and L. read stodie, 201 s t e e p, bright, see steap on 

shewing u = (u), which agrees with the p. 108 of Cockayne's St. Marherete 

(supra p. 471, n. 2). 


And Ii said his oo^piY'nrarur was good. 

What! shuld -e stud - ? and maak -/mselven wood, 184 

Upon* a book in kluist'r- akwai to puu're, 

Or sw/qk*e with, -is Handles and laa'bmrre, 

As AusWn bit ? Huu shal dhe world be served ? 

Let Austin Haav -is swt'qk to mm reserved. 188 

Dheerfoor -e was a pnY/kaasuur arz/cht - , 

Grai'mrndz - -e Had as swtft as fuul in nikht ; 

Of -prik'iq and of HunWq for dhe Haare 

Was al -is lust, for noo kost wold -e spaare. 192 

Ii saukwh -is sleevz purfVzTed at*e hond'e 

With. gr«s, and dhat dhe fmrest of a lond'e, 

And for to fest'n- -is Hood mrder -is tshm 

He Had of goold irwoukwht' a kyynuus pm; 196 

A luve-knot in dhe greet - er end - e dher was. 

His Heed was baked and shoon as an-ii glas, 

And eek -is faas, as Hee -ad been anuint*. 

He was a lord ful fat and in good puint ; 200 

His aren steep, and rooWq in -is Heed, 

Dhat steenred as a furnais - of a leed ; 

H«s booties supd-, -is Hors m greet estaat*. 

Nuu sertainhY -e was a fair prelaat* ; 204 

He was not paal as a forpmred goost. 

A fat swan luv'd -e best of an*n roost. 

H«s pakfrai was as bruun as is a berie. 

10. Dhe Freere 

A Freere dher was, a wan'tuun and a merie, 208 

A KrnuY/tuur, a ful soodenrne man. 

in ake dh- ordres foour is noon dhat can 

Soo mutsh of daa'h'auns" and fair laq"gaadzh*e. 

He Had imaad* ful man - ? a fair mariaadzh/e 212 

Of juq - e wk'en, at -is oomre kost. 

TJntoo - -is ordr- -e was a noo'b'l post. 

Ful weel biluvd* and faa'milieer was Hee 

With fraqk - elainz - ovrak in His kun'tree", 216 

And eek with wurdlrii winren of dhe tuun : 

For Hee -ad pmreer of konfes'iuun - , 

As said -imself, moore dhan a kyyraat", 

For of -is ordr- -e was lirsen'siaat". 220 

Ful sweet'elii Herd Hee konfes'iuurr, 

And plee'saunt" was -is ab'soolyysiuun* ; 

He was an eez*ii man to jeeve penauns'e 

Dheer as -e wist'e to Haan a good pirtauns*e ; 224 

202 for nays, see Temporary 219 See supra, p. 331, note. All 

Preface to the Six-Text edition, p. 99. MSS. agree. 

212 ful occurs in all six MSS. 

217 wimmen, wommen Ha. E. 223 yeve, all MSS. except L. 

He. Co. P., wemen Ca., wemmen L. have the final e. 

692 text of chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. §i. 

For unto a por' order for to yeve 

Is signe that a man is weel yschreve. 

For if he yaaf, he dorste mak' avawnt, 

He wiste that a man was repentawnt. 228 

iii For many a man so hard is of his herte, 

He may not wepe though him sore smerte. 

Theerfor' insted' of weping' and preyeres, 
vi Men moote yeve silver to the pore freres. 232 

His tipet was ay farsed. ful of knyfes 

And pinnes, for to yeve fayre wyfes. 

And certaynYy he hadd' a mery note. 

Weel coud' he sing' and pleyen on a rote. 236 

Of yedding's he baar utterly the prys. 

His necke whyt was as the flour-de-lys. 

Theerto he strong was as a chawmpioun. 

He knew the tavern's weel in ev'ry toun, 240 

And ev'rich ostelleer or gay tapsteer, 

Better than a lazeer or a beggeer, 

For unto swich a worthy man as he 

Accorded not, as by his faculte, 244 

To haan with sike lazeer's acqueyntawnce. 

It is not honest, it may not avawnce, 
— For to delen with noon swich porayle, 

But al with rich' and seller's of vitayle. 248 

And ov'ral, ther as profit schuld' aryse, 

Curteys he was, and lowly of servyse. 

Ther was no man no wheer so vertuous. 

He was the beste beggeer in his hous, 252 

For thowgh a widwe hadde nowght a sho, 

So plesawnt was his In princtpio, 

Tet wold' he haan a ferthing er he wente. 

His pourchaas was weel better that his rente. 256 

And rag' he coud' and pleyen as a whelp, 

In lovedayes coud' he mochel help'. 

For theer was he not lyk' a cloystereer, 
vi "With a threedbare cop' as a pore scoleer, 260 

But he was lyk' a mayster or a pope. 

Of doubel worsted was his semicope, 

232 All MSS. agree in making this 249 a s omitted in Ha. Ca., found 

a line of six measures, and it seems to in the rest. 

portray the whining beggary of the 252 After this line He. alone in- 

cry, supra, p. 649. serts the couplet — 

_„ ,, , „ And yaf a certeyn ferme, for the 

235 note, throte Ca. ^ avmte 

240 tavern's weel, the six Noon of his bretheren, cam ther in 

MSS. have this order. Ha. wel t.he his haunte. 

tavernes. 253 So all the six MSS., meaning, 

although a widow had next to nothing 

247 n o n E. He. Ca., the others in the world, yet so pleasant was his 

omit it. introductory lesson In principio erat 


For uirto a poor ord'er for to Jeeve 
Is s/rne dhat a man is weel e'shree^ve. 
For if -e Jaaf, -e durst" e niaak a vaunt - , 
He w/ske dhat a man was ree'pentaunt*. 228 

For man - / a man soo Hard is of -is Herke, 
He mai not weep - e dhooukwh -*m soore smerke. 
Dheerfoor msteed" of weep"»q/ and prareeres, 
Men mooke jeeve stl'ver too dhe poore freeres. 232 

H»s tip - et was ai fars - ed ful of kmYfes, 
And pares for to jeeve farre w*Vf"es. 
And BertainlVt -e Had a mer'ii nooke. 
"Weel kuud -e s*'q and plaren on a rooke. 236 

Of Jed"«qz Hee baar ukerkY dhe pms. 
Hi's nek'e whwt was as dhe fluur de Ins. 
Dheertoo* -e stroq was as a tshaunrpmun\ 
He kneu dhe taa'vernz" weel in evrw tuun, 240 

And evrrtsh os'teleer* or gai tapsteer - , 
Better dhan a kurzeer or a beg'eer*, 
For un*to sw/tsh. a wurdlrn man as Hee 
Akord'ed not, as hit -is fak'ultee 244 

To Haan with s«k - e laa*zeerz aa'kwarrrtauns'e ; 
It is not on*est, it mai not avauns'e, 
For to deeken with noon sw/'tsh poor'aike 
But al with ritsh and sekerz of vartaike. 248 

And ovrak, dheer as profit shuld arns'e, 
Kurtais* -e was, and lootrln of service. 
Dher was noo man noo wheer soo vertyyuus*. 
He was dhe beske beg^eer in -is huus, 252 

For dhooukwh a wed"we Had'e noukwkt a shoo, 
So plee-saunt* was -is In priii-s i *■ pj'oo, 
' Jet wold -e Haan a ferdlWq eer -e wenke. 

H«s puurtshaas* was weel beker dhan -is renke. 256 

And raadzh -e kuud, and plaren as a whelp, 

In luvedares kuud -e mutslrel Help. 

For dheer was Hee not Ink a kluiskereer*, 

With a threed - baar - e koop as a poore skokeer", 260 

But Hee was Ink a mais'ter or a poo - pe. 

Of duu-b'l worsted was -is senrskoop-e, 

verbum (See Temp. Pref. to Six-Text the Wyf of Bathe, 6288 as pointed 

ed. of Chaucer, p. 93) that he would coax out by Mr. Aldis Wright, — 

a trifle out of her. The Ha. reads The clerk whan he is old, and may 

but oo schoo, on which see Temp. nought do 

Pref. p. 94. That we are not to take Of Venus werkis, is not worth a scho. 

the words literally, but that schoo was 256 weel, so the six MS S., omitted 

merely used as a representative of some- in Ha. 

thing utterly worthless, which was 260 So all MSS. except Ca. which 

convenient for the rhyme, just as pulled reads, as is a scholer, against 

hen 177, or oyster 182, and the usual rhythm. Compare v. 232. See also 

bean, straw, modern Jig, farthing, etc., Temp. Pref. to Six-TextEd. of Chaucer, 

is shewn by its use in the Prologe to p. 100. 

694 text of chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. § 1. 

And rounded as a bell' out of the presse. 

Somwhat lie lipsed, for his wantounnesse, 264 

To mak' his Englisch swet' upon his tonge ; 

And in his harping', whan that he hadd' songe, 

His eyghen twinkled in his heed aright. 

As doon the sterres in the frosty night. 268 

This worthy limitour was call'd Suberd. 

11. The Marchawnt. 

A Marchawnt was ther with a forked herd, 

— In motlee and heygh on hors he sat, 

Upon his heed a Flawndrisch bever hat ; 272 

His botes elapsed fayr' and fetislj. 
His resouns spaak he ful solemnely, 
Sotming' alwey th' encrees of his winninge. 
iii He wolde the se wer' kept for any thinge 276 

Betwixe Middeburgh and Orewelle. 
"Weel coud' he in eschawnge scheldes selle, 
This worthy man ful weel his wit bisette ; 
Ther wiste no wight that he was in dette, 280 

So staatlj was he of his governawnce, 
With his bargayn's, and with his chevisawnce. 
For sooth' he was a worthy man withalle, 
But sooth to sayn, I n'oot hou men him calle. 284 

12. The Cleek. 

A Clerk ther was of Oxenfoord' also, 
That unto logik hadde long' ygo. 
So lene was his hors as is a rake, 

And he n'as not right fat, I undertake, 288 

But loked' holw', and theerto soberly. 
Ful threedbar' was his ov'rest courtepy, 
iii For he hadd' geten him yet no benefyce, 

Ne was so worldly for to hav' offyce. 292 

For him was lever hav' at his bedd's heed 

— Twenty bokes, clad in blak and reed, 
Of Aristofl, and his philosophye, 

Than robes rich' or fith'l or gay sawtrye. 296 

264 his, so the six MSS., omitted hut the order of the words is conjec- 
in Ha. which therefore required lip- rurally altered on account of the rhythm, 
s e d e for the metre. 

271 motlee, so all hut Ha. L. / p? f 75 .. 11 SOU «« 7 ? P ff S ? * g \?* T' 
which have m o 1 1 e 1 e y. The word is (fttmuUer 667) but only as the sub- 
obscure, and may be ^elch mudliw, Jf£ *^' A s . th « ™ r i ha * he ™ 
(myd-liu) of a changing colour. £"*• f °, rm of on ! d /™ d £ om th / Fre ?<* 
1 * ' ° ° « is here printed in itahes and marked 

274 All MSS. read he spaak, as French. 



And ruund'ed as a bel uut of dhe pres - e. 

Sunrwhat- He h'p-sed, for -is wan-tuunnes*e, 264 

To maak -is Eq-lVsh sweet upon* dhe tuq*e ; 

And in -is Harpj'q, whan dhat Hee -ad suq*e, 

His ai£h - en tw^qk'led m -is Heed ar^ht", 

As doon dhe steres in dhe frosWa nikht. 268 

Dhis wurdh-n h'rnm'-tuur was kald Hyyberd*. 

11. Dhe Martshaunt. 

A Martshaunt* was dher With a fork'ed berd, 

In motlee - and Hai£h on Hors -e sat, 

Upon* -is Heed a Flamrdrcsh beever Hat ; 272 

HJs bootes klaps-ed fair and fee'ttshY. 

H«s ree - suuns* spaak -e ful soolenrnekr, 

SmuWq - alwar dh- enkrees* of ms w«'n - /q - e. 

He wold-e dhe see wer kept for an - n thiq/e 276 

Betwjks'e M«d - eburkh and OoTeweke. 

Weel kuud -e in es - tshaundzh*e shekkes seke. 

Dbis wurdlWt man ful weel -is wit biseke ; 

Dher wi'ske noo wikht dhat -e was m det'e, 280 

Soo staat'hV was Hee of -is guu vernauns'e, 

"W«th h*s bargainz* and with, -is tshee*YMsauns - e. 

For sooth -e was a wurdlru man withal' e, 

But sooth to sain, li n- -oot huu man -im kake. 284 

12. Dhe Klerk. 

A Klerk dher was of Ok^senfoord* aksoo", 

Dhat un - to lodzlWk had - e loq igoo'. 

So leen'e was -is Hors as is a raak'e, 

And Hee n- -as not rikht fat, li undertaak'e. 288 

But look'ed Hokw- and dheertoo soo - berhY. 

Ful threed - baar was -is ovrest kurtepzY, 

For Hee -ad geken -im jet noo benefm'e, 

Ne was soo wurdWY for to Haav oftYs-e. 292 

For nim. was leever Haav at h/s bedz Heed 

Twen'tiY book - es, klad in blak and reed, 

Of Ar/stokl-, and h/s ftrloo*BOO'f«t'e, 

Dhan roob'es rj'tsk or fr'dh'1- or gai sautnre. 296 

281 staatly, so Co., the rest He. Ca. ; yit geten him no P., 

have estaatly, and Ha. alone omits nought geten him yet a Ha., 

his, against the metre. If we read: geten him no, Co. L. 

so estaatly, the first measure will 292 worldly E. He. Co., wordely 

he trissyllabic. Ca., wordly P., werdly L., No 

, ,,_, _. , . was not worthy to haven an 

288 n as, so E. Ca. Co., but was office Ha 

Ha. He. P. and L. 296 g a y J so all MSS> exccpt Ha 

291 geten him yet no, E. which omits it. 

696 text of chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. § l. 

But albe that lie was a philosopher, 
Yet hadd' he but a lytel gold in cofer, 
But al that he might' of his frendes hente, 
On botes and on lerning' he it spente, 300 

And bisily gan for the sowles preye 
Of hem, that yaaf him wherwith to scoleye. 
iii Of studie tok he moost cur' and moost heed. 

Not oo word spaak he more than was need ; 304 

And that was seyd inform and reverence, 

And schort and quik, and ful of heygh sentence. 

Sounrng, 1 in moral vertu was his speche, 

And gladly wold' he lern' and gladly teche. 308 

13. The Sergeawnt of Lawe. 

A Sergeawnt of Lawe, waar and wys, 

That often hadde ben at the parvys, 

Ther was alsoo, ful rich 1 of excellence. 

Discreet he was, and of greet reverence. 312 

He semed' swich, his wordes wer' so wyse. 

Justyc' he was ful often in assyse 

By patent, and by pleyn commissioun, 

For his scienc', and for his heygh renoun; 316 

Of fees and robes hadd' he many oon. 

So greet a pourchasour was no wheer noon. 

Al was fee simpel to him in effect, 
iii His potirchasing ne mighte not ben infect. 320 

iii No wheer so bisy a man as he ther n'as, 
iii And yit he semed' bisier than he was. 

In termes hadd' he caas and domes alle, 
iii That fro the tym' of king William wer' falle. 324 

Theerto he coud' endyV and mak' a thing. 

Ther coude no wight pinch' at his writing'. 

And ev'ry statut coud' he pleyn by rote. 

He rood but hoomly in a medlee cote, 328 

Gird with a ceynt of silk with barres smale ; 

Of his array tell' I no lenger tale. 

297 So the six MSS., the Ha. is ferent line : Al that he spak it was of 
unmetrical. The long vowels in phi- heye prudence. The whole of the 
losopher, gold, coffer, are clerk's character is defective in Ha. 
very doubtful, and it is perhaps more In "Cassell's Magazine" for May, 1869, 
probable that short vowels would be p. 479, col. 1, there occurs the follow- 
correct. ing paragraph : " The following pithy 

298 "a" is only found in Co. If sketch of Oxford life half a dozen cen- 
it is omitted, the first metre becomes turies a g° is frora tne P en of Wycliffe : 
defective. — ^ ne scholar is famed for his logic ; 

„_ . , , ,, Aristotle is his daily bread, but other- 

™lf ?°°a tj ' 8 ° S1X wise his rations a re slender enough. 

Mbb.; heed 11a. The horse he rideg ig a3 lean M £ a 

305 So all the six MSS. (H. has rake, and the rider is no better off. 
spok e), but Ha. has the entirely dif- His cheek is hollow, and his coat 


But al bee dhat -e wer a firloo'soof-er, 

Jet Had -e but a lirt'l goold in koof'er, 

And al dhat Hee mikht of -is frend'es Hent*e, 

On book - es and on lenriq Hee it spent'e, 300 

And biz'ilii gan for dhe sooukes prare 

Of Hem dhat Jaaf -im wheerwith to skolare. 

Of stud'ie took -e moost kyyr and moost heed. 

Not oo word spaak -e moore dhan was need; 304 

And dhat was said in form and ree"verens - e, 

And short and kwik and ful of Hai£h sentens*e. 

Suu - niq* in moo - raal- vertyy was -is speetslre, 

And gladdii wold -e lern, and gladdii teetslre. 308 

13. Dhe Serdzheeaunt" of Lau - e. 

A Serdzheeaunt* of Lau*e, waar and wiis, 

Dhat of -ten Had*e been at dhe parviis - , 

Dher was alsoo - , ful ritsh of ek-selens*e. 

Diskreet - -e was and of greet reewerens'e. 312 

He seenred switsh, -is word'es wer soo wiis'e. 

Dzhyyst'iis" -e was ful oft - en in asiis - e 

Bii paa-tent, and bii plain komis*iuun-, 

For His sirens, and for -is Hai£h renuun* ; 316 

Of feez and roob'es Had -e man - w oon. 

So greet a puurtshaa - suur was noo wheer noon. 

Al was fee sinrp'l too -im in efekt", 

His puurtshaasiq* ne mikht'e not been infekt*. 320 

Noo wheer soo biz'i a man as Hee dher n- -as, 

And jit -e seenred biz'ier dhan -e was. 

7n ternres Had -e kaas and doonres ake, 

Dhat froo dhe tiim of kiq Wikiaanr wer fake. 324 

Dheertoo* He kuud endiit* and maak a thiq. 

Dher kuuxke noo vrilcht pintsh at His rw>iit'iq\ 

And evm staa - tyyt kuud -e plain hii root'e. 

He rood but Hoonrlir in a meddee koot"e, 328 

Gird with a saint of silk with bares smaake ; 

Of His arar tel Ii noo leq - ger taake. 

threadbare. His bedroom is his study. 306 heygh, so the six MSS., 

Over his bed's head are some twenty g r e t Ha. apparently because of h e y e 

volumes in black and red. Whatever in the preceding line of that recension. 

coin he gets goes for books, and those 

who help him to coin will certainly 307 vertu, so the six MSS. 

have the advantage of his prayers for m a n e r e Ha. 

the good of their souls while they live, 

or their repose when they are dead. 310 at the, so all MSS. except 

His words are few, but full of mean- Ha - and P -» see su P ra P- 331 . note - 

ing. His highest thought of life is of 320 infect soall six MSS 

learning and teaching. lhis is ob- suspecte Ha 

viously a modern English translation 

of the present passage. Is there any- 327 pleyn, Fr. pleiu,i\i\\j com- 

thing like it in "Wycliffe ? pare v. 337. 


698 text or chaucer's prologue. chap. VII. § 1. 

14. The Franbeleyn. 

A Frankeleyn was in his companye ; 

Whyt was his herd, as is the dayesye. 332 

Of his complexioun he was sangwyn. 
Weel lov'd he by the morrw' a sop in wyn\ 
To lyven in delyt' was e'er his wone, 
For he was Epicttbtts owne sone, 336 

That heeld opinioun that pleyn delyt 
"Was verraylj felicite perfyt. 
An housholdeer, and that a greet was he ; 
Saynt Juliaan he was in his cuntree. 340 

iii His breed, his ale, was alwey after oon ; 

A bettr' envyned man was no wheer noon, 
iii Without e bake mete was ne'er his hous 

Of fisch' and nesch', and that so plentevous 344 

It snewed in his hous of met' and drinke 
Of alle deyntees that men coude thinke. 
After the sondry sesouns of the yeer', 
So chaivnged' he his met' and his soupser. 348 

iii Ful many a fat partricli hadd' he in meue, 
iii And many a breem and many a luc 1 in steue. 
Woo was his cook, but if his sawee were 
Poynawnt and scharp, and redy al his gere. 352 

His tabel dormawnt in his hall' alwey 
Stood redy cover 'd al the longe clay. 
At sessiouns theer was he lord and syre. 
Ful ofte tym' he was knight of the schyre. 356 

An aulas and a gipseer al of silk 
Heng at his girdel, whyt as morne milk. 
A shyrreev hadd' he been, and a countour. 
Was no wheer such a worthy vavasour. 360 

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. The Habeedascheeb, Caepenteer, Webbe, 
Dyeee, and Tapiceeb. 

An Haberdascheer, and a Carpenteer, 

A AVebb', a Dyeer, and a Tapiceer, 

Wer' with us eek, clothed in oo livree, 

Of a solemn'' and greet fratemite. 364 

Ful fresch and new' her' ger' apyked was ; 

Her' knyfes wer' jchaped not with bras, 

But al with silver wrowght ful clen' and weel 

Her' girdles and her' pouches ev'ry deel. 368 

Weel seemed' ecch of hem a fayr burgeys 

To sittcn in a yeld'hall' on the deys. 

334 sop in wyn, so all six 34S So all six MSS. Ha. reads: 

MSS., sop of wyn Ha. He chaunged hem at mete and at 

soper, which is clearly wrong: 


14. Dhe Fraqk-elain. 

A Fraqk - elain was m -»a kunrpamY'e ; 

WluYt was -is berd, as is dhe dares?Y - e. 332 

Of -is komplek'smun* -e was saqgwmr. 

"Weel luvd -e in dhe morn a sop in w»n. 

To hYven m del-iVt* was eer -is wumre, 

For Hee was Ee'p^Ykyyrus ooun'e suun*e, 336 

Dhat Heeld oo - p«Y - n;'umr dhat plain delut* 

Was veraihY feed/rs/rtee - per'ftYt*. 

An Huus'hooldeer, and dhat a greet was Hee ; 

Saint Dzhyyd/aan - -e was in nis kuntree*. 340 

HYs breed, m's aade, was al'wai after oon ; 

A bet'r- envmred man was noo wheer noon. 

"WYthuut'e baak*e meet-e was neer -is huus 

Of ft'sh, and flesh, and dhat soo plent - evuus 344 

It sneu'ed in -is huus of meet and dr*qk*e 

Of al'e daiirtees dhat men kuude th?'qk - e. 

Aft*er dhe sun 'dm seesuunz- of dhe jeer, 

Soo tshaundzh'ed Hee h/s meet and m's suupeer*. 348 

Fnl man'« a fat partn'tsh' -ad Hee m myye, 

And man - *' a breem and nnrrW a lyys in styye'. 

Woo was -is kook, but it -is saus - e weer'e 

Puin'aunt' and sharp, and reedvY al -is geere. 352 

His taa'b'l dormaunt- m -is Hal alwai- 

Stood red'?Y kuverd al dhe loq-e dai. 

At sesYuunz' dheer was -e lord and siir'e. 

Ful oft'e tiim -e was km'/.ht of dhe sluYre. 356 

An andas and a dzhqrseer al of s«lk 

Heq at -is ga-d'l, whY/t as monre mdk. 

A shY/r-reev Had -e been, and a kun'tuur. 

Was noo wheer sutsh a wurdh'iY vaa'vaasuur*. 360 

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Dhe Hab* erdash' e er, Karpenteer, 
Web'e, Di'reer, and Taa* nii' seer - . 

An HaVerdasrreer and a Karpenteer - , 

A Web, a D/reer, and a Taa-p/rseer, 

Weer w/th us eek, cloodlred in oo l?Y - vree - , 

Of a soodenvn- and greet fraa'ter-n?Ytee\ 364 

Ful fresh and neu -er geer apfYkcd was ; 

Her kmYf-es wer ztshaap'ed not wdh bras, 

But al w/th sdwer rwoukwht ful kleen and weel 

Her girdles and -er puutsh'es evrii deel. 368 

Weel secured eetsh of Hem a fair burdzhais* 

To szt'en in a Jeld'Hal on dhe dais. 

362 dyeer, so the sixMSS., Harl. 365 apyked, so all six MSS., 

deyer, see dyer, p. 643. piked Ha. 



Chap. VII. § 1. 

Ev'rich for the wisdom that he can, 
Was schaaply for to been an alderman. 
For catel hadde they ynough and rente, 
And eek her' wyfes wold' it weel assente ; 
And elles certayn weren they to blame. 
It is fnl fayr to be yclept Madame, 
And goo to vigilyes al bifore, 
And haan a mantel really ybore. 

20. The Cook. 

A Cook they hadde with hem for the nones, 

To boyle chicknes with the mary bones, 

And poudre-marchaivnt tart, and galingale. 

"Weel coud' he know' a drawght of London ale. 

He coude roost', and seeth', and Iroyl', and frye, 

Make mortrewes, and weel bak' a pye. 

But greet harm was it, as it semed' me, 

Tbat on his schinn' a mormal hadde he ; 

For blankmangeer that maad' he with the beste. 

21. The Scrtphak". 






A Schipman was ther, woning' fer by weste ; 

For owght I woot, he was of Dertemouthe. 

He rood upon a rouncy as he couthe, 

In a goun of falding' to the kne. 

A daggeev hanging' on a laas hadd' he 

About' his neck' under his arm adoun. 

The hoote sommer hadd' mad' his hew al broun ; 

And certaynlj he was a good felawe. 

Ful many a drawght of wyn hadd' he ydrawe 

From Bourdeivx-vravd, whyl that the chapman sleep. 

Of nyce consciene' he took no keep. 

If that he fowght, and hadd' the heygher hand, 

By water he sent' hem hoom to ev'iy land'. 400 

But of his craft to recken weel the tydes, 

His stremes and his dawnger's him bisydes, 



371 everich, so all six MSS., 
every man Ha. 

375 weren they, so, or: they 
were, read all the six MSS., hadde 
they be Ha. 

380 mary, ags. mearh, the h be- 
coming unusually palatalised to -y, 
instead of labialised to -we ; the paren- 
thetical remark p. 254, n. 1. is wrong. 

381 p o udr e-mar chawn t, see 
Temp. Pref. to the Six-Text Ed. of 
Chaucer, p. 96. 

386 Prof. Child reads : That on 
his schyne — a mormal hadd' he, supra 

p. 363. The Six MSS. render many 
of the examples there cited suspicious, 
see note on v. 120 for v. 1141. In v. 
1324, He. reads moot, and the line 
may be : Withouten dout' it mote 
stonden so. For v. 1337 all six MSS. 
read : And let him in his prisoun stille 
dwelle. For v. 2286 all six MSS. 
read : But hou sche did' hir' ryt' I 
dar not telle. For v. 2385, E. He. 
Ca. Co. L. read : For thilke peyn' and 
ibilke hote fyr. In v. 2714, E. He. 
Ca. have : Somm' hadden salves and 
soinni' hadden charmes. For v. 1766, 


Evr/tsh for dhe wsVdoom dhat -e kan, 

Was shaapdzY for to been an al'derman. 372 

For kat*el Had'e dhai muukwdv and rent'e, 

And eek -er waYfes wold it weel asent'e ; 

And el-es sert'ain weer-en dhai to blaanre. 

It is ful fair to be eklept* M a a - d a a nr e, 376 

And goo to v»*'dzh**l*V'es al b?foor*e, 

And Haan a man't'l recabY ibooi-e. 

20. Dhe Kook. 

A Kook dhai Had'e -with -em for dhe noon'es, 

To buike tsbik*nes w/th dhe mari boon*es, 380 

And puud're martshaunt' tart, and gaa - liqgaal*e. 

"Weel kuud -e knoou a draukwht of Lurrdun aaPe. 

He kuud'e roost, and seedh, and bruil, and hive, 

Maak - e mortreu'es, and weel baak a pn'e. 384 

Eut greet Harm was it, as it secured mee, 

Dhat on -is shin a mormaaP Had'e Hee ; 

For blaqk*maan'dzheer dhat maad -e with dhe best'e. 

21. Dhe Ship-man. 

A Ship'man was dher, wuurWq fer \>ii west*e ; 388 

For oukwht It woot, He was of Dertemuutlre. 

He rood upon* a ruurrszY as -e kuutlre, 

in a guun of fal'di'q* too dhe knee. 

A dag-eer* Haq*«q on a laas -ad Hee 392 

Abiaut* -is nek un*der -is arm aduun*. 

Dhe Hoot'e sunrer -ad maad -is Heu al bruun ; 

And sertainhY -e was a good fel*au*e. 

Ful man*e a draught of wiin -ad Hee ?'drau*e 396 

From Buurdeus-ward, whul dhat dhe tshap*man sleep. 

Of nm*e kon*s«ens* -e took noo keep. 

It dhat -e foukwht and Had dhe Hai£h*er Hand, 

Bw waa*ter -e sent -em Hoom to erro land. 400 

But of -»s kraft to rek'en weel dhe tud*es, 

H/s streenres and -is daurrdzherz Han b?'s«d*es, 

E. He. Ca. Co. L. read : The trespas MSS. were consulted. Again, in the 

of hem hoth' and eek the cause. For first line cited from Gower, i. 143, we 

v. 4377 (in which read sight for night) see in the example below that two 

E. He. Pe. L. practically agree with MSS. read : he wept' and with ful 

Ha., but it would be easy to conjee- woful teres. The practice is therefore 

ture : Til that he hadd' al thilke doubtful. But final e often remains 

sight' yseyn. For v. 4405, E. reads before he at the end of a line in Go wit. 

rotie in place of rote, but He. Pe. L. supra, p. 361, art. 76, a. Hence the 

agree with Ha. The form rotie, which division in the text is justified. There 

is more ancient, see Stratmann's Diet. is no variety in the readings of the 

p. 467, would save the open vowel. It MSS. 

is possible, therefore, that the other 387 that maad' he, so all 

examples of open e preserved by csesura six MSS. Ha. he mad e. 

in Chaucer, would disappear if more 391 falding, =vestis equi vil- 

702 text of chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. § l. 

His herbergh and his moon', his loodman«^<?, 
Ther was noon swich from Hulle to Cartage. 404 

Hardy he was, and wys to undertake ; 
iii With many a tempest hath his berd been schake. 
He knew weel al the haven's, as they were, 
From Scotland to the caap' of Fynistere, 408 

And every cryk' in Bretayrf and in Spayne ; 
His barg' ycleped was the Ifawdeleyne. 

22. The Doctour of Phistk. 

Ther was also a Doctour of PhisyJc, 

In al this world ne was ther noon him lyk 412 

To spek' of phisylc and of surgery e ; 

For he was grounded in astronomye. 

He kept' his pacient a ful greet deel 

In houres by his magyh natureel. 416 

— "Weel coud' he fortunen th' ascendent 
Of his images for his pacient. 

He knew the caws' of ev'ry maladye, 

Wer' it of coold, or beet', or moyst, or drye, 420 

And wheer engendred and of what humour ; 

He was a verray parfyt practisour. 

The caws 1 yknow', and of his harm the rote, 

Anoon he yaaf the syke man his bote. 424 

-4- Ful redy hadd' he his apotecaryes 
-4- To send' him drogges, and his letuaryes, 

For eech' of hem mad' other for to winne ; 

Her' frendschip' was not newe to beginne. 428 

— Weel knew he th' old' Esculapius, 
And Deiscorfdes, and eek Rf/fus ; 
Oold Ipocras, Haly, and G alien ; 

Serapion, Razys, and Avycen ; 432 

iii Averrois, Damascen, and Constantyn ; 

Bernard and Gatesclen and Gilbertyn. 
iii Of his dyete mesurabel was he, 

For it was of noon superjiuite, 436 

But of greet nouri selling and digestybel. 
iii His studie was but lytcl on the Bybel. 

In sangwyn and in pers he clad was al, 

Zyned with taffata and with sendaV-. 440 

And yit he was but esy in dispence ; 

He kepte that he wan in pestilence. 

For goold in phisyk is a cordial ; 

Thcerfor' he loved' goold in special. 444 

losa, see Temp. Pref. to Six-Text Ed. compare loadstone, loadstar. The -age 

of Ch. p. 99. is a French termination. 

403 loodmanage, pilotage, 415 a ful greet deel, so all 
see Temp. Pref. to Six-Text Ed. of six MSS., wondur ly wel Ha. 
Chaucer, p. 98. A 1 o o d m a n must 425 See Temp. Pref. to the Six- 
have been a pilot, or leading-man, Text Ed. of Chaucer, p. 99. 


BJ's Herberkh and -is moon*, -is lood/manaadzlre, 

Dher was noon swrtsh from Hube too Kartaadzlre. 404 

Hard*n He was, and weYs to urrdertaak'e ; 

With msm'i a tenrpest Hath -is berd been shaak'e. 

He kneu weel al dhe Haa - venz, as dhai weere, 

From Skotland too dhe kaap of F/rn«steere, 408 

And evm krak in Bree'tain and m Spanre ; 

H«s baardzh jklep - ed was dhe Mau'delarrre. 

22. Dhe Dok-tuur of Firziik'. 

Dher was alsoo - a Dok'tuur of F&'ztYk*, 

In al dhe world ne was dher noon -im leVk 412 

To speek of fivziik' and of surdzheru'-e ; 

For Hee was gruund - ed in astroomonnre. 

He kept -is paa - s/ent* a ful greet deel 

In uures bit -is maa'dzlmk naa'tyyreeb. 416 

Weel kuud - Hee fortyynen dh- ascendent' 

Of He's zmaadzlres for -«s paa^sz'ent". 

He kneu dhe kauz of evm maadaad/fe, 

Weer it of koold, or Heet, or muist, or drive, 420 

And wheer endzhen'dred, and of what Hyymuur ; 

He was a verai parfwt prak - tM - suur\ 

Dhe kauz z'knoou - , and of -is Harm dhe root'e, 

Anoon* -e yaaf dhe s?Yk-e man -is boot'e. 424 

Ful red - n Had -e nis apoo tee'kaaTe'es 

To send -im drog'es, and -is let'yyaa - r/es, 

For eetsh of Hem maad udlrer for to wwre ; 

Her frend'slmp was not neu*e too begih'e. 428 

Weel kneu -Hee dh- oold Es-kyydaa-p?us, 

And Dee,/skor'Hlees, and eek Ryyfus; 

Oold /pokras", HaaL'r, and Gaad/een* ; 

Seraa-p^oon 1 , Eaa - z«s" and Aa"v«Yseen > ; 432 

Avero,«'s, Daamaseen - and KonstanUVn*; 

Bernard* and Gaa-tesden- and G/lbert/nr. 

Of ms d«Veet - e mee'syyraa^b'l was 'Hee, 

For it was of noon syyperflyyitee, 436 

But of greet nuuWsln'q/ and d/rdzhes'tz'rb'l. 

H/s studYe was but h'rt'l on dhe B/fb'l. 

In saq'gwz'nr and m pers -e klad was al, 

Limbed w*th tafataa- and w«'th sendah. 440 

And J it -e was but eez ii in d?'spens - e ; 

He kept - e dhat -e wan in pest/lens*e. 

For goold in iirzii'k is a kord/al - ; 

Dheerfoor -e luved goold in spes^aT. 444 

429 Supra p. 341, 1. 2 and 13, I first measure, and to elide the e in the 

treated this as a full line, thinking that regular way, on the principle that ex- 

the e in o 1 d e was to he preserved. ceptional usages should not be un- 

Further consideration induces me to necessarily assumed, 
mark the line as having an imperfect 

704 text of chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. § l. 

23. The Wye of Bathe. 

A good "Wyf was ther of bisyde Bathe, 

But sche was somdeel deef, and that was skathe. 

Of cloothmaking' sche hadde swieh an hawnt, 

Sche passed' hem of Ypres and of Gawnt. 448 

In al the pariscW wyf ne was ther noon, 

That to th' offring' bifoorn her schnlde goon, 
iii And if ther dide, certayn so wrooth was sche, 

That sche was out of alle charite. 452 

Hir' kever chefs ivlfyne wer' of grounde; 
iii I durste swere they weygheden ten pounde 

That on a Sonday wer' upon hir' heed. 

Hir' hosen weren oifyn scarlet reed, 456 

Ful streyt' ytey'd, and schoos ful moysf and newe. 

Boold was hir' faac\ and fayr, and reed of hewe. 

Sche was a worthy woman al hir' lyfe. 

Housbond's at chirche dore sche hadd' fyfe, 460 

"Withouten other company'' in youthe, 

But theerof nedeth nowght to spek' as nouthe. 
iii And thryes hadd' sche been at Jerusaleem ; 
iii Sche hadde passed many a strawnge streem ; 464 

At Rome sche hadd' been, and at Boloyne, 

In Oalic' ', at saynt Jaam\ and at Coloyne. 

Sche couthe moch' of wandring' by the weye. 

Gaat-tothed was sche, sooth'ly for to seye. 468 

Upon an ambleer eselj sche sat, 

Ywimpled weel, and on hir' heed an hat 

As brood as is a boucleer or a targe ; 

A foot-mantel about' hir' hippes large, 472 

And on hir' feet a payr' of spores scharpe. 

In felawschip' weel coud' sche lawgh' and carpe. 
iii Of remedy's of love sche knew parchawnce, 

For sche coud' of that art the oolde dawnce. 476 

24. The Peesotjn. 

A good man was ther of religioun, 

And was a pore Persoun of a toun ; 

But ricK he was of holy thowght and werk', 

He was also a lerned man, a clerk, 480 

That Cristes gospel gladly wolde preche ; 

His parischens devoutly wold' he teche. 

452 was out, so the six MSS., weyedyn Ca. weiden L., hence 
■was thanne out Ha. all but Ha. give the plural e n. 

453 ful fyne -wer', so the six A „ n ■ 
MSS., weren ful fyne Ha. 460 So E. He. Ca att e, Co. Pe., 

att pe L., housbondcs atte 

454 weygheden, weyghede chirche dore hadde sche 
Ha. weyeden E. He. Co. P., fyfe Ha. which is unmetrical. 


23. Dhe Wiif of Baath-e. 

A good wiYf was dher of aisn&'e Baatlre, 

But shee was sunrdeel deef, and dhat was skaatlre. 

Of klootlrmaak'Hr she Had - e swi'tsh an Haunt, 

She pas*ed Hem of /rpres and of Gaunt. 448 

In al dhe parish WiYf ne was dher noon, 

Dhat too dh- ofri'q - bifoonr -er shuld-e goon, 

And if dher di&'e, sertain - so rwooth was shee, 

Dhat shee was uut of al*e tshaaT«Y - tee\ 452 

Hi'i'r kevertshefs ful frYrre weer of gruund'e ; 

li durst'e sweere dhai waUh'eden ten puund/e 

Dhat on a Sun-dai weer upon 1 -iYr heed. 

HiVr Hooz*en weeren of frai skarlet reed, 456 

Ful strait itaid", and shooz ful muist and neu'e. 

Boold was -iYr faas, and fair and reed of Heu # e. 

She was a wurdlriY wunran al -iVr liVf'e. 

Huus-bondz- at tslurtslre doore shee Had f?Yf - e, 460 

"Withuut'en udh-er kunrpamY- m juuth-e, 

But dheerof need - eth nouki^ht to speek as nuutlre. 

And thrives Had she been at Dzheeruirsaleenv ; 

She Had*e passed man-i a straundzh'e streem ; 464 

At Roonre shee Had been, and at Bolooirre, 

in GaadiYs*, at saint Dzhaam, and at Koloohre. 

She kuutlre mutsh of wand'iYq bii dhe ware. 

Gaat-tooth-ed was she, soothdiY for to sai-e. 468 

Upon- an anvbleer ees-eliY she sat, 

-Zwihrpled weel, and on -iVr Heed an Hat 

As brood as i's a bukdeer or a tardzlre ; 

A foot'mantel* abuut* -iix mp'ea lardzlre, 472 

And on -iYr feet a pair of spuures sharp -e. 

In fel'aushiVp weel kuud she laug&'h and karp'e. 

Of renvediYz* of luuve she kneu partshauns'e, 

For shee kuud of dhat art dhe oold*e dauns*e. 476 

24. Dhe Persuun*. 

A good man was dher of rel/rdzh/uun-, 

And was a poore Persuurr of a tuun ; 

But r/tsh -e was of hooWY thoukwht and werk, 

He was alsoo* a lenred man, a klerk, 480 

Dhat Kri'st'es gosp-el gladdiY wolcbe preetsh'e ; 

Hi's pai-i'shenz devuutdiY wold -e teetsb/e. 

465,466. Boloyne, Coloyne. pronunciation assigned is quite con- 

The MSS. are very uncertain in their jectural. The following pronunciations 

orthography. Boloyne, Coloyne, of the termination are also possible: 

appear in Ha. He. Ca., and Boloyne (-oouvie, -oon-e, -uhre, uiq-nc) The 

in P. L., but we find Boloigne, modern Cockneyism (B«biir, Kobin-) 

Coloigne in E. Co., Coloigne points to (-uiu-e). See also note on 

in P., and Coloyngne inL. The v. 634. 

706 text of chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. § l. 

BenygrC he was and wonder dylygent, 

And in adversite ful patient ; 484 

And such he was ypreved ofte sythes. 

Pul looth wer' him to curse for his tythes, 

But rather wold' he yeven out of doute, 

Unto his pore parischens aboute, 488 

Of his offring', and eek of his substawnce. 

He coud' in lytel thing haan suffisaionce. 
iii Wyd was his parisch, and houses fer asonder, 

But he ne lafte not for reyn ne thonder, 492 

In sikness' nor in meschief to visyte 

The ferrest in his imriscW, moch' and lyte, 

Upon his feet, and in his hond a staaf. 

This noVl ensampel to his scheep he yaaf, 496 

That first he wrowght', and after that he tawghte. 

Out of the gospel he tho wordes cawghte, 

And this jigtir' he added' eek therto, 

That if goold ruste, what schuld' yren do ? 500 

For if a preest be foul, on whoom we truste, 

!N"o wonder is a lewed man to ruste ; 

And scham' it is, if a preest take kep', 

A schyten schepperd and a clene scheep ; 504 

Weel owght' a preest ensampel for to yive 

By his cleenness', hou that his scheep schuld' live, 
iii He sette not his benefyce to hyre, 

And left' his scheep encomb'red in the rnyre, 508 

ai And ran to London', unto saynt Powles, 
iii To sekenhim a chawnterye for sowles, 

Or with a bretherheed to been withhoolde ; 

But dwelt' at hoom, and kepte weel his foolde, 512 

-4- So that the wolf ne mad' it not miscarye. 
-f-iii He was a schepperd, and not a mercenarye ; 

And thowgh he holy wer' and vertuous, 

He was to sinful man nowght dispitous, 516 

~Ne of his speche dawngerous ne dygne, 

But in his teching' discreet and benygne. 

493 meschief, so all but Ca., but the omission of the subjunctive e 

which reads myschif, and L. which is harsh. See the same rhyme and 

has m e s c h e f. The old French forms, phrase in the imperative and hence 

according to Roquefort, are meschef, tak not take, 6014, 13766. Only Ca., 

meschief, meschies, meschiez, mescief, which is generally profuse in final e, 

mescies. reads kep schep, in accordance 

499 eek E. He. Co. P., y i t Ha., with a S s ' analo S> T - 

omitted in Ca., L. has eke he ... T , . . . e a. 

hadded. Ca. reads addede, but 504 It is a curious example of the 

no particular value is attachable to J ffcrent fechn ? attached to . word ^ ° f 
its final e's same on o ina l meaning, that 

schyten is banished from polite society, 
503 So all six MSS., if that and dirty (ags. dritan cacare) is used 
Ha. in which case tak' must be read, without hesitation. 


BemYn - -e was and wnncVer d/rkYdzhent*, 

And m adversatee - ful paa's?ent - , 484 

And sutsh -e was zpreeved oft - e sndlres. 

Ful looth wer nim to kurs'e for -is t?Ydb*es, 

But raadh*er wold -e jeeven uut of duut'e, 

Untoo* -is poore par/shenz abuut - e, 488 

Of m's ofWq - , and eek of h*s substauns'e. 

He kuud in k'rt'l thk\ Haan syf - /sauns - e. 

Wild was -is parish, and Huus'es fer asund'er, 

But Hee ne laft'e not for rain ne thund'er, 492 

In se'k'nes nor in mes - tsheef' to vii'ziit'e 

Dhe ferest in -is parish, rnutsh and ltVt'e, 

Upon* -*s feet, and in -is Hond a staaf. 

Dni's noo - bl- ensanvp'l too -is sbeep -e jaaf, 496 

Dhat ft'rst -e rwoukivht, and after dhat -e taukwh'te. 

Hut of dbe gos - pel Hee dho worckes kauk^b'te, 

And dn^'s fivgyjr -e ad - ed eek dhertoo*, 

Dhat if goold rust'e, what shuld wren doo ? 500 

For if a preest be fuul, on wboom we trust'e, 

Noo wund - er is a leu'ed man to rust'e ; 

And shaam it is, if a preest taak-e keep, 

A shorten shep'erd and a kleeme sbeep ; 504 

"Weel oukwht a preest ensanrp'l for to wve 

B« h/s kleen*nes - , huu dbat -is sbeep sbuld bYve. 

He set'e not -is ben - efMS*e to raY're, 

And left -is sbeep enkunrbred in dbe mii've, 508 

And ran to Lun'dun, un'to saa*mt Pooukes, 

To seek'en nin\ a tshaun-tenre for sooukes, 

Or -with a breedh^erHeed to been wrthHookke; 

But dwelt at Hoom, and kepke weel -is fookke, 512 

Soo dbat dbe wulf ne maad it not rmskaWe. 

He was a shep'erd, and not a mersenaWe ; 

And dhooukwh -e Hookn weer and vertyyuus - , 

He was to sm - ful man noukvdit d/s'p/rtuus', 516 

Nee of -is speetslre daun-dzheruus* ne dwire, 

But in -is teetslWq d/s - kreet* and benmre. 

509 saynt, Ha. and Co. add an e, of the difficulty is to be found in the 

thus s e y n t e for the metre, the other occasional dissyllabic use of saynt, see 

five MSS. have no e, and the gram- note on v. 120. Powles, see supra 

matical construction forbids its use. pp. 145, 148. Mr. Gibbs mentions 

Tyrwhitt, to fill up the number of that he knows (Poolz) as an existent 

syllables, rather than the metre, (for Londoner's pronunciation in the phrase 

he plays havoc with the accentual as old as Fowl's, see supra p. 266 for 

rhythm which commentators seem to Chaucer's usage, 
have hitherto much neglected, but 

which Chaucer's ear must have appre- 512 folde, the final e is excep- 

ciated,) changes the first t o into tional, supra, p. 384, col. 1. 
unto, thus : And ran unto London, 

unto Seint Poules, but this is not 514 and not a, so all the six 

sanctioned by any MS. The solution MSS., and no Ha. 

708 text of chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. § l. 

To drawen folk to heven by fayrnesse, 

By good ensampel, was his besinesse ; 520 

But it wer' eny persoun obstinaat, 

"Wbatso be wer' of heygb or low' estaat, 

Him wold be snibbe sobarply for tbe nones, 
iii A bett're preest I trowe ther nowbeer noon is. 524 

iii He wayted! after no pomp' and reverence, 

Ne maked' bim a spyced conscience, 

But Cristes loor', and his apostel's twelve, 

He tawgbt', and first be folwed' it himselve. 528 

25. The Ploughman. 

"With him ther was a Ploughman, was his brother, 
iii That badd' ylaad of dong' ful many a fother. 

A trewe swinker and a good was he, 

Living' in pees and perfyt charite. 532 

God lov'd' he best with al his hole herte 

At alle tymes, thowgh him gam'd' or smerte, 

And than his neyghebour right as himselve. 

He wolde thresch' and therto dyk' and delve, 536 

iii For Cristes sake, for ev'ry pore wighte, 

"Withouten hyr', if it lay in his mighte. 

But tythes payed' he ful fayr' and weel, 

Booth of his prop' re swink', and his catel. 540 

In a tabharoV he rood upon a rneer'. 

Ther was also a reev' and a milleer, 
A somnour and a pardoneer also, 
A mawncip'l and myself, ther wer' no mo. 544 

26. The Milleek. 

The Milleer was a stout carl for the nones, 
Ful big he was of brawn, and eek of bones ; 
That preved' weel, for ov'ral ther he cam, 
At wrastling' he wold' hav' awey the ram. 548 

He was schort schuld'red, brood, a thikke knarre, 
iii Ther n'as no dore that he n'old' heev' of harre 
Or breek' it with a rerming' with his heed. 
His herd as ony sou' or fox was reed, 552 

And theerto brood, as thowgh it wer' a spade. 
Upon the cop right of his noos' he hadde 

519 fayrnesse E. He. Co. P. pare — 

L., clennesse Ha. Ca., with He., Ye schulde be al pacient and meke, 

b y, the rest. And have a swete spiced consciens, 

.„. i n tt r, t. x Siththen ye preche so of Jobes pa- 

520 and E. He. Co. P. L., ne cieng J 60] f 6 y 

Ha. Ca but this would introduce two 529 w \ g h[ ' g0 aU the glx Mgs 

tnssyllabic measures. except Ca>) which has that was 

526 spyced conscience, com- h e s e, introducing a trissyllabic mea- 


To drairen folk to Heven hit fairnes*e, 

Bii good ensanrp'l, was -«s besmes*e ; 520 

But it wer ewii persuun* oVstmaat - , 

"What'soo* -e weer of Hai/^h or loou estaat", 

Hini wold -e sruVe shaip"l*V for dhe noon'es. 

A bekre preest Ii troou*e dher noo wheer noon is. 524 

He waiked afker no pomp and reeverens - e, 

Ne maak - ed Hmi a spiiVed kon'Siens - e, 

But Kr/skes loor, and ros apos - t'lz twelve, 

He taukwht, and first -e f ok wed it Hi'mselve. 528 

25. Dhe Pluukwh'man. 

"With h/hl dher was a Pluukwh-man, was -*s broodlrer, 

Dhat Had i'laad" of duq ful man'j a foodh/er. 

A treire swi'qk'er and a good was Hee, 

LiYv*q m pees and per'fnt* tshaarmtee*. 532 

God luvd -e best with al -ts Hooke Hert'e 

At ake ti'mves, dhoouki^h -mi gaamd or smerke, 

And dhan -is nai£h - ebuur" rikht as -miselve. 

He wolcke thresh and dher 'too duk and delve, 536 

For Rr/skes saak*e, for evm poo - re wikhte, 

"Wi'thuuken mir, if it lai m -is mikht'e. 

But tMcUres pared Hee ful fair and weel, 

Booth of -is prop "re swi'qk and -is kakek. 540 

In a tab - ard - -e rood upon* a meer. 

Dher was alsoo* a reev and a im'keer*, 
A sunrnuur and a pardoneer alsoo - , 
A mamrs/pl- and nmself - , dher weer no moo. 544 

26. Dhe Mt'l'eer. 

Dhe Mikeer was a stuut karl for dhe noon'es, 

Ful big -e was of braun, and eek of boon*es ; 

Dhat preeved weel, for ovrak dheer -e kaam, 

At rwaskliq Hee wold Haav awai- dhe ram. 548 

He was short shukkred, brood, a th/k'e knare, 

Dher n- -as no doore dhat Hee n- -old Heev of Hare 

Or breek it with a ren'i'q - weth -is Heed. 

H?'s herd as on - u suu or foks was reed, 552 

And dheerto brood, as dhooukwh it weer a spaa'de. 

TJpon - dhe kop rikht of -is nooz -e Had'e 

sure; his Ha. against the metre ; the col. 1), to adding a superfluous e to 

omission of the relative that before m i 11 e e r, supra p. 254. The Icelandic 

these words is curious, so that Ca. may mar, Danish meer, Swedish mdrr also 

have the proper reading. omit the e. Chaucer generally uses 

537 for E. Ca. Co. P. L., with the form ware. 

Ha. He. 548 hay' awey, Co. P. L., 

541 meer', I have preferred elid- ber' awey Ha., hav' alwey E. 

ing the essential final e (supra, p. 388, He. Ca. 


A wert', and theeron stood a tuft of heres, 
Reed as the berstles of a soues eres. 556 

His nose-thirles blake wer' and wyde. 
A swerd and boucleer baar he by his syde. 
His mouth as greet was as a greet fomays. 
iii He was ajangleer and a goliardeys, 560 

And that was moost of sinn' and harlotryes. 
"Weel coud' he stele corn, and tollen thiyes ; 
And yet he hadd' a thomb' of goold', parde ! 
A whyt cootf and a blew hood wered he. 564 

A baggepype coud' he blow' and soune, 
And theerwithal he browght us out of toune. 

27. The Hawnctpel. 

iii A gentel Maivncipel was ther of a tempel, 

Of which achatours mighten tak' exempel, 568 

For to be wys in bying' of vitaille. 

For whether that he pay , (T or took by taille, 

Algat' he wayted? so in his achate 

That he was ay bifoom and in good state. 572 

Nou is not that of God a ful fayr grace, 

That swich a lewed mannes wit schal pace 

The wisdom of an heep of lern'de men ? 

Of maysterh hadd' he moo than thiyes ten, 576 

That wer' of law' expert and curious, 

Of which ther wer' a doseyn in that hous', 

Worthy to be stiwards of rent' and londe 

Of any lord that is in Engelonde, 580 

To mak' him lyve by his propre good' 

In honour dettflees, but he were wood, 

Or lyv' as scarslj as he can desyre ; 

And alel for to helpen al a schyre 584 

In auy caas' that mighte fall' or happe ; 
iii And yit this mawncipel sfitt' her' aller cappe. 

28. The Reve. 

iii The Reve was a sclender eolerik man, 

His herd was schav' as neygh as e'er he can. 588 

His heer was by his eres round yschoorn. 

His top was docked lyk a preest bifoorn. 

Ful longe wer' his leggcs aud ful lene, 

Ylyk a staaf, ther was no calf ysene. 592 

"Weel coud' he keep a gerner and a binne, 

Ther was noon awditour coud' on him winne. 

"Weel wist' he by the drought,' and by the reyne, 

The ycelding of his seed' and of his grayne. 596 

559 for nays, see note to v. 202. 569 bying, see supra, p. 285. 

564 a blew, E. He. Ca., Co., a 
blewe P. L., blewe Ha. 572 state bas only a dative e. 


A wert, and dheeron stood a tuft of Heeres, 

Reed as dhe bers'tles of a smres eeres. 556 

H/s nooz - e ttu'rbes blaak'e wer and wmbe. 

A swerd and bukleer baar -e hii -is siid'e. 

His muutb as greet was as a greet fornais*. 

He was a dzhaq/leer and a gooWardais*, 560 

And dbat was moost of sm and Harlotries. 

"Weel kuud -e steebe korn, and toben thr/res ; 

And jet -e Had a thuumb of goold, pardee* ! 

A wlmt koot and a bleu Hood weered Hee. 564 

A bag'ep/rpe kuud -e bloou and suurre, 

And dheerwithab -e broukz^bt us uut of tumre. 

27. Dhe Maun-si'p'l. 

A dzhen"t'l Mauirs/p'l was dher of a tenrp'l, 

Of wh/tsh atshaa-tuurz - m/'/kW/en taak eksenrp'l, 568 

For to be wiis in b«Vq of vataibe. 

For whedlrer dhat -e paid or took hii taibe, 

Algaat - '-e wait'ed soo m h/s atshaat'e, 

Dhat Hee was ai b/foorn* and m good staat'e. 572 

Nuu is not dhat of God a ful fair graas'e, 

Dhat sw?tsh a leu'ed man*es wit shal paas - e 

Dhe w/s'doom of an Heep of lenrcle men ? 

Of mais'terz Had -e moo dhan thr/res ten, 576 

Dhat wer of lau ekspert* and kyyrnius - , 

Of wh/tsh dher weer a dmrzanr in dhat huus, 

"WurdlreY to bee st/wardz" of rent and lond'e 

Of an'ii lord clhat is in Eq/elond-e, 580 

To maak -im luv*e hii -is prop - re good 

In on*uui" det'lees, but -e weere wood, 

Or 1«V as skars - bY as -e kan deszYre ; 

And aa - b'l for to Hehren al a shi/re 584 

In an'ii kaas dhat mi fal or nap'e ; 

And jit dha's maun - s/p'l set -er aber kap*e. 

28. Dhe Reeve. 

Dhe Reeve was a sklend - er kober/k man, 

Hf's berd was shaav as nai/ih as eer -e kan. 588 

Bjs Heer was hii -is eeres ruund tshoorn*. 

BJ's top was dok*ed l»Vk a preest b«'foorn\ 

Ful loq'e weer -is leg - es and ful leen*e, 

Iliik' a staaf, dher was no kalf /seen-e. 592 

"Weel kuud -e keep a genrer and a bare, 

Dher was noon au'dttuur kuud on -im wnre. 

"Weel w/st -e bii dhe druukwht, and hii dhe rahre, 

Dhe jeekWq of -is seed and of -»'s grahre. 596 

578 that, so all six MSS., an Ha. 592 ylyk, so all six MSS., al 

587 sclender, all seven MSS. like Ha., ysene, supra, p. 357, 
agree in the initial scl or ski, art. 61. 

712 text of chaijcer's prologue. Chap. Yll. § 1. 

His lordes scheep, his neet, his deyerye, 
His swyn, his hors, his stoor, and his pultrye, 
"Was hoolly in this reves governing', 

And hy his covenawnf yaf the rek'ning, 600 

Sin that his lord was twenty yeer of age ; 
iii Ther coude no man bring' him in arrerage. 
Ther n'as hallyf, ne herd', ne other hyne, 
That they ne knew' his sleyght and his covyne ; 604 

They wer' adraad of him, as of the dethe. 
His woning was ful fayr upon an hethe, 
With grene trees yschadwed was his place. 
He coude better than his lord purchace. 608 

Ful rich! he was astored privelj, 
His lord weel couth' he plese subtiRj, 
To yeev' and leen' him of his owne good', 
And hav' a thank, and yet a cooV and hood. 612 

In youth' he lemed hadd' a good mesteer ; 
He was a weel good wright, a carpenteer. 
This reve sat upon a ful good stot', 

That was a pomely grey, and highte Scot. 616 

A long mrcoof of pers upon he hadd', 
And by his syd' he baar a rusty blaad. 
Of Northfolk was this reev' of which I telle, 
Bysyd' a toun men callen Baldeswelle. 620 

Tucked he was, as is a, freer' , aboute, 
And e'er he rood the hind' rest of the route. 

29. The Sobtnotjr. 

A Somnour was ther with us in that place, 

That hadd' a fyr-reed cherubynes face, 624 

For sawceflem he was, with eyghen narwe. 
iii As hoot he was, and leccherous, as a sparwe, 

With skalled browes blak', and pyled herd ; 

Of his vysage children wer' aferd. 628 

Ther n'as quiksilver, lytarg\ or brimstoon, 
iii Boras, ceruce, ne oyl of tarter noon, 

Ne oynetnent that wolde clens' and byte, 

That him might helpen of his whelkes whyte, 632 

Nor of the knobbes sitting' on his chekes. 

Weel lov'd' he garleek, oynouns, and eek lekes, 

597 deyerye, the termination 612 so He. Ca. Co. P.; and an 
seems borrowed from the French, for ho ode L., a thank, a cote, and 
dey see Wedgwood's Etym. Diet. 1, 424. eek an h o o d Ha., a thank, yet 

598 stoor, I am inclined to con- a gowne and hood E. 
sider this a form of steer, ags. steor, 

rather than store, as it is usually in- 615 f ul E - Ca. Co. L., wel the 

terpretcd, as the swine, horse, steer, others. 

and poultry go better together. On 618 blaad, supra, p. 259. 

the interchange of (ee) and (oo) see 

supra, p. 476. 623 somnour Ca. P., somp- 


HYs lord/es sheep, -is neet, -is darem'e, 

H/s swnn, -«s Hors, -is stoor, and m's pultrere, 

Was Hool'hY »n dhis reeves guverm'q - , 

And loii -is kuvenaunt - jaaf dhe rek'niq", 600 

Sm dhat -ts lord was twen - tu jeer of aadzlre ; 

Dher kuud'e noo man bn'q -im. in aree"raa - dzhe. 

Dher n- -as baWYf*, nee Heerd, nee udlrer Hmre, 

Dhat dhai ne kneu -«s slaiiht and hj's kov^Yn•e ; 604 

Dhai weer adraad - of mm, as of dhe deeth'e. 

Hz's wuuiWq was ful fair upon* an Heetlre, 

With green'e treez s'shad'wed was -is plaas - e. 

He kuud'e bet - er dhan -is lord pur-tshaas'e. 608 

Ful rt'tsh -e was astoored prrveKf, 

Ejs lord weel kuuth -e pleez - e suh'til'lii, 

To jeev and leen -im of -is ooun'e good, 

And Haav a thaqk, and jet a koot and Hood. 612 

7h juuth -e lerrred Had a good mes - teer - ; 

He was a weel good rivikht, a karpenteer*. 

Dhis reeve sat upon 1 a ful good stot, 

Dhat was a punvekY grai, and mkht'e Skot. 616 

A loq syyrkoot* of pers upon - -e Had, 

And bii -is s^Yd -e baar a rust***' blaad. 

Of Nortlrfolk was dhis reev of whitsh Ii tel'e, 

Bt'sjYd' a tuun men kaken Bakdesweke. 620 

Tuk'ed -e was, as is a freer, abuuke, 

And eer -e rood dhe Hmd'rest of dhe ruuke. 

29. Dhe Sunrnuur. 

A Sunrnuur was dher w?th us in dhat plaas'e, 

Dhat Had a ftYrreed tsheeTubmres faas - e, 624 

For sau - sefl.em -e was, with aiA-lren nar - we. 

As Hoot -e was and letslreruus, as a sparwe, 

"WYth skaked bi'oou'es blaak, and pzYked berd ; 

Of H«s YfYsaa'dzhe tsh/kdren weer aferd*. 628 

Dher n- -as hwik'sil'\er, ltt'tardzh.*, or hnhrstoon*, 

Boraas - , seryys - e, ne uil of tarker noon, 

Ne unrenient dhat wokke klenz and b*Yke, 

Dhat H^'m m?'Aht Help'en of -is whelkes wluYke, 632 

Nor of dhe knob'es sit'iq on -is tsheek'es. 

Weel luvd -e garleek', mrjuunz - , and eek leek'es, 

nour Ha., somonour E. He., 634 oynons Ha. E. He. Co., 

somynour Co. L. See Temp. onyons L., onyounnys Ca., 

Pref. to the Six-Text Ed. of Chaucer, oynyouns P. The pronunciation 

p. 100, under citator. (uirjuunz) is, of course, quite conjec- 

625 sawceflem, from salsum tural, and moulded on the modern 

phlegma, Tyrwhitt's Glossary. sound, though the more common 

629 or Co. P. L. ; this is more oynons might lead to (uin-unz), 

rhythmical than n e Ha. E. He. Ca., which seems hardly probable. Com- 

which would introduce a very inhar- pare the modern vulgar (/q'nz) and 

monious trissyllabic measure. note on v. 465. 


714 text of chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. § 1. 

And for to drinke strong wyn reed as blood. 

Than wold' lie spek' and cry* as he wer' wood. 636 

And whan that he weel dronken hadd' the wyn, 

Than wold' he speke no word but Latyn. 

A fewe termes hadd' he, two or thre, 

That he hadd' lemed out of som decre ; 640 

No wonder is, he herd' it all the day ; 

And eek ye knowe weel, how that &jay 

Can clepe "Wat, as weel as can the pope. 

But whoso coud' in other thing' him grope, 644 

Than hadd' he spent al his philosophye, 

Ay, Qtjestio quid juris ? wold' he crye. 

He was a gentel harlot, and a kinde ; 
iii A bett're felawe schulde men not finde. 648 

He wolde suffer for a quart of wyne 
iii A good felawe to haan his concubyne 

A twelvmoon'th, and excus' him atte fulle. 

And privelj a finch eek coud' he pulle. 652 

And if he fond oowheer a good felawe, 

He wolde techen him to haan noon awe 

In swich caas of the archedek'nes curs, 

But if a mannes sowl wer' in his purs ; 656 

For in his purs he schuld' ypunisch'd be. 

Purs' is the archedek'nes hel, seyd' he. 

But weel I woot he lyeth right in dede ; 

Of cursing' owght eech gilty man to drede ; 660 [ 

For curs wol sle right as assoylmg saveth. ; 
iii And also war' him of a signeficavit. 

In dawnger' hadd' he at his owne gyse 

The yonge girles of the dyocyse, 664 

And knew her' counseyl, and was al her' reed. 

A garland hadd' he set upon his heed, 

As greet as it wer' for an alestake ; 

A boucleer hadd' he maad him of a cake. 668 

30. The Pareoneer. 

With him ther rood a gentel Pardoneer 

Of Eouncival, his freend and his compeer, 

That streyt was comen from the court of Pome. 

Pul loud' he sang, Com hider, love, to me ! 672 

648 not, the six MSS., no wh er 657 ypuni sch' d ; ypunysshed 

Ha. felawe, compare v. 395,650, E. He.,punyssched Ha. Co., pun- 

and 653. Hence it seems best to leave yschede L., ponyschid Ca., 

felawe in 648, although fc law fre- punshedP. The two last readings, 

quently occurs, see supra, p. 383, col. 2. in connection with the modern pro- 

655 such a caas Ha. only. nun ciation (pan - /sht), lead me to adopt 

656 purs, see supra p. 367, art. («puiWsht) for the old pronunciation, 
91, col. 1, 1. 13, it is spelled without notwithstanding the French origin of 
an e in all MSS. but L. the word. Compare note on v. 184. 


And for to dnqk-e stroq w«¥n reed as blood. 

Dhan wold -e speek and krw as B~ee weer wood. 636 

And whan dhat Hee weel druqk'en Had dhe wnn, 

Dhan wold -e speelre noo word but Latun*. 

A feu*e ternres Had -e, twoo or three, 

Dhat Hee -ad lenred uut of sum dekree* ; 640 

Noo wund'er is, -e Herd it al dhe dai ; 

And eek je knoou - e weel, huu dhat a dzhai 

Kan klep*e Wat, as weel as kan dhe poop*e. 

But whoo'soo* kuud in udlrer tbYq -im groop'e, 644 

Dhan Had -e spent al -is fn*loo*BOO*fw*e, 

Ai, Kj^est'j'oo kw«d dzhyyr - es? wold -e km*e. 

He was a dzhen't'l nar-lut, and a kmd'e ; 

A bet-re felau - e shuld-e men not f«nd - e. 648 

He wold'e suf'er for a kwart of wiin-e 

A good felau'e to Haan -is kon'kyybz'nre 

A twelvmoonth, and ekskyyz* -im at - e ful # e. 

And prrveln a fmtsh eek kuud -e puhe. 652 

And if -e fund oowheer a good fekure, 

He wokPe teetsh -im for to Haan noon au*e 

In swe'tsh kaas of dhe artsh-edeekmes kurs, 

But if a man*es sooul weer in -is purs ; 656 

For in -is purs -e shuld «pun'«'sht bee. 

Purs ^s dhe artslredeekmes Hel, said Hee. 

But weel Ii woot -e h'reth xikht in deed-e ; 

Of kurs'eq oukwht eetsh gilt-ii man to dreed'e ; 660 

For kurs wol slee rikht as asuiWq saaveth ; 

And ahsoo waar -im of a s i g n i f i k a a v * t h. 

In damrdzheer Had -e at -*fl ooun'e gns*e 

Dhe juq'e geiPes of dhe dirosiis'e, 664 

And kneu -er kuun'sail, and was al -er reed; 

A gar "land Had -e set upon -is Heed, 

As greet as it wer for an aalestaaVe ; 

A bukdeer Had -e maad -im of a kaak*e. 668 

30. Dhe Par - done er*. 

With nim dher rood a dzhen't'l Par'doneer* 
Of RummVal - , nis freend and h/s konrpeer, 
Dhat strait was kunren from dhe kuurt of Room'e. 
Ful luud -e saq, Kum Hi'd'er, 1 u v e, too me! 

658 seyd', so all six MSS., quoth I love another, and elles were I to 

Ha. blame, 3709. 

662 see supra p. 259. On p. 254, n. 3. I marked the 

663 gyse, so all six MSS., usual reading compame as doubtful, 
assise Ha. and gave tbe readings of several MSS. 

672 to me. To the similar The result of a more extended compa- 

rhymes on p. 31 8, add : rison is as follows : compame Lans. 

As help me God, it wol not be, com, 851, Harl. 1758, Reg. 18. C. ii, Sloane 

ba me ! 1685 and 1686, Univ. Cam. Dd. 4, 24. 

716 text of chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. § l. 

This somnour baar to him a stif burdoun, 

Was never tromp 1 of half so greet a soun. 

This pardoneer hadd' heer as yelw' as wex, 

But smooth' it heng, as dooth a stryk' of flex, 676 

By ounces heng' his lockes that he hadde, 

And theerwith he his schuld'res overspradde, 

Ful thinn' it lay, by colpoun's oon and oon, 

And hood, foxjolite, ne wer'd' he noon, 680 

For it was trussed up in his walet. 

Him thowght' he rood al of the newe get, 

DischeveV ', saw/ his capp', he rood al bare. 

Swich glaring' eyghen hadd' he as an hare. 684 

A vernik'l hadd' he sowed on his cappe. 

His walet lay bifoorn him in his lappe, 

Brerdful of pardoun com' of Bom' al hoot. 

A voys he hadd' as smaal as eny goot. 688 

No herd n' hadd' he, ne never schold' he have, 

As smooth' it was as it wer' laat' yschave ; 

I trow' he weer' a gelding or a mare. 

But of his craft, fro Berwick unto Ware, 692 

Ne was ther swich another pardoneer : 

For in his maaV he hadd' a pilwebeer, 

Which that, he seyde, was our' lady veyl : 

He seyd' he hadd' a golet of the seyl 696 

ai That saynt Peter hadd', whan that he wente 

Upon the se, til Jhesu Crist him hente. 

He hadd' a cros of latoun ful of stones, 

And in a glass' he hadde pigges bones. 700 

But with thys' relyques, whan that he fond 

A. pore persoun dwelling' upon lond', 

Upon a day he gat him mor' money e 

Than that the persoun gat in mon'thes tweye. 704 

And thus with feyned Jlatery' and japes, 
iii He made the persoun and the pep' I his apes. 

But trewely to tellen atte laste, 

He was in chirch' a noVl ecclesiaste. 708 

and Mm. 2, 5, Bodl. 686, Christ ba occurs, in : 

Church, Oxford, MS. C. 6, Petworth, Come ner, my spouse, let me ba thy 

— cupame, Univ. Cam. Gg. 4, 27 — cheke, 6015, 

com pame Harl. 7334, Beg. 17, D. xv, and the substantive ba in Skelton 

Corpus, — come pame, Oxf. Barl. 20, (Dyce's ed. i. 22), where a drunken 

and Laud 600 — com pa me, Hengwrt lover lays his head in his mistress' 

— combame, Trill. Coll. Cam. It. 3, 15, lap and sleeps, while 

Oxf. Arch. Seld. B. 14, New College, With ba, ba, ba, and bas, bas, bas, 

Oxford, MS., No. 314, — come bame She cheryshed hym both cheke and 

Harl. 7335, Univ. Cam. Ii. 3, 26, Trim chyn. 

Coll. Cam. It. 33, Kawl. M S. Poet. To ba basiare (Catullus 7 & 8) was 

141, — cum bame, Bodl. 414. — bame distinct from to kim, osculari, compare : 

Oxf. Hatton 1, — come ba me, Bawl. Thanne kisseth me, syn it may be 

Misc. 1133 and Laud 739. The verb no bett. 3716. 


Dh/s sunvnuur baar to rom a stif burduuir, 673 

Was never trump of Half so greet a suun. 

Dhis pardoneer Had Heer as Jekw- as weks, 

But smoodh it Heq, as dooth a stmk of fleks ; 676 

Bn uns-es Heq -*s lok"es dhat -e Had-e, 

And dheerw^th nee -*s shuld'res oversprad-e, 

Ful th/n »t lai hii kul-puunz oon and oon, 

And Hood, for dzkoWtee*, ne weerd -e noon, 680 

For it was trus'ed up in h«'s wabet\ 

Hem thoukwht -e rood al of dhe neu*e dzket, 

D/shevel, sauf -is kap, -e rood al baare. 

Swe'tsh glaa-r/q aiAh/en Had -e as an Haare. 684 

A vermkl- -ad -e soou'ed on -is kap^e. 

H«s waket* lai b/foorn- -im. on -is lap'e, 

Brerd'ful of parduun kum of Boom al Hoot. 

A vuis -e Had as smaal as en'** goot. 688 

Woo berd n- -ad Hee, ne never sbuld -e Haave, 

As smoodh it was as it wer laat «'shaave, 

Ji troou -e weer a gekWq or a maa're. 

But of -is kraft, fro Berwe'k un-to "Waa-re, 692 

Ne was tker sw2tsh anudlrer pardoneer. 

For in -*s maal -e Had a pj'hwebeer, 

Wh/tsh dhat, -e said'e, was uur la&'&ii vail : 

He said, -e Had a gob'et of dhe sail 696 

Dhat saa - mt Pee'ter Had, whan dhat -e wente 

Upon - dhe see, til Dzhee-syy Kn'st -im. Hent*e. 

He Had a kros of laa-tuun ful of stoon^es, 

And in a glas -e Had'e p/g*es boones. 700 

But we'th dhiiz reWYkes, whan dhat -e fond 

A poo*re persuurr dweWq up*on - lond, 

Up"on* a dai -e gat -?m moor munare 

Dhan dhat dhe persuun* gat in moon-thes tware. 704 

And dhus with, fahred flater/r and dzhaap'es, 

He maad - e dhe per-suun* and dhe pee'pl- -is aap*es. 

But treu - ekV to teben at - e laske, 

He was in tshzrtsh a noo'bl- eklee'sa'ast'e. 708 

Com ba me I was probably the L., culpounnys Ca., colpouws 
name of a song, like that in v. 672, ? Co., modern French coupons. 
or the modern "Kiss me quick and 687 Drer dful, the MSS. have 
$*\ m 7^ 7 e- > ^ is also probable allan unintelligible b r e t ful or 
that Absolon s speech contained allu- bret ful, probably a corruption by 
sions to it and that it was very well the scribes of Orrmin's brerdful = brim- 
known at the time. M brdrd brerd are found ^ gcotch 

677 ounces so all six MSS., see 'j ami eson. 
u n c e s Ha., which probably meant 

the same thing, supra p. 304, and not 697 So all the MSS. Either 

inches. s a y n t is a dissyllable, see note to v. 

679 colpoun's, I have adopted 120, or the line has a defective first 

a systematic spelling, c u 1 p o n s Ha. measure, to which the extremely un- 

P., c o 1 p o n s E. He., culpones acsented nature of that is opposed. 

718 text of chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. § l. 

+ "Weel coud' lie reed' a lessoun or a storie, 
+ But altherbest he sang an offertorie ; 

For weel he wiste, whan that song was songe, 

He moste precW, and weel affyV his tonge, 712 

To winne silver, as he right weel coude ; 

Theerfoor' he sang so mery' and so loude. 

Chawceres Peeyeb. 

Nou hav' I toold you schortly in a clawse 
Th' estaat, th' array, the nombr 1 , and eek the caicse 716 
"Wliy that assembled was this companye 
In Southwerk at this gentel hostelrye, 
That hight the Tabbard, faste by the Belle. 
But nou is tyme to you for to telle 720 

Hou that we baren us, that ilke night, 
"Whan we wer' in that hostelry'' alight ; 
And after wol I tell' of our' vyage, 

And al the remhiawnt of our' pilgrimage. 724 

But first I prey' 1 you of your' curteysye 
That ye ne rett' it nat my vilaynye 
Thowgh that I playnly spek' in this matere, 
To tellen you her' wordes and her' chere ; 728 

Ne thowgh I spek' her' wordes properly. 
For this ye knowen al so weel as I, 
Whoso schal tell' a taal' after a man', 
He moost' rehers\ as neygh as e'er he can, 732 

— Ev'ry word, if it be in his charge, 
Al spek' he ne'er so rudely or large : 
Or elles he moot tell' his taal' untrewe, 
Or feyne thing, or find' his wordes newe. 736 

He may not spare, thowgh he wer' his brother ; 
He moost' as weel sey oo word as another. 
Crist spaak himself ful brood' in holy writ, 
And weel ye woot no vilaynif is it. 740 

Eek' Plato seyth, whoso that can him rede, 
The wordes moot be cosin to the dede. 
Also I prey 1 you to foryeev' it me, 

Al haav' I not set folk in her' degre 744 

Her' in this taal' as that they schulde stonde ; 
My wit is schort, ye may weel understonde. 

711 weel he wiste, so all the follows; compare llmde, murie in the 

six MSS., wel wyst he Ha. Cuckoo Song, supra, p. 427. Hence 

714 so merily P., ful me- the above conjectural reading. 

riely Ha. so meriely Co., the 727 I playnly spek', so all 

murierly E., the muryerly the six MSS., I speke al pleyn 

He., the meryerely Ca., so Ha. 

merely L., the regular form would 733 ev'ry wor d Ha., eueriche 

be merie, as in loude, which word P., the other MSS. insert a, 


"Weel kuud -e reed a les*uun or a stocrne, 

But abdherbest -e saq an ofertocme ; 

For "weel -e w/st-e, whan dhat soq was suq-e, 

He mooske preetsh, and weel aftYk -*s tuq-e, 712 

To wi'n'e sskver, as -e rikht weel kuud-e ; 

Dheerfoor -e saq soo mere and soo luud'e. 

Tshau'seeres Prareer. 

Nuu Haav Ii toold ju shortdw in a klauz-e 

Dh- estaat*, dh- arar, dhe nunrbr-, and eek dhe kauz-e 716 

Whit dhat asenrbled was dlus kumpanw'-e 

In Suuth/werk at din's dzhen-t'l ostelnre, 

Dhat mkht dhe Tab-ard - , faske bii dhe Beke. 

But nuu is tii'me too ju for to teke 720 

Huu dhat we baaren us dhat «lk-e nikht, 

"Whan wee wer in dhat ostelru* alikht ; 

And aft'er wol /*' tel of uur vw'-aadzlre, 

And al dhe renrnaunt - of uur ptTgmnaadzh-e. 724 

But first Ii prai juu of juur kurtaisi're 

Dhat jee ne ret it nat mii vn-lai-ntre, 

Dhoouk^h dhat Ii plain-In speek in dhis matee-re. 

To teke juu -er word-es and -er tshee-re ; 728 

Ne dhooukwh Ii speek -er word-es prop-erkY. 

For dhis je knooiren al so weel as Ii, 

Whoo-soo shal tel a taal aft'er a man, 

He moost reHers-, as nai£h as eer -e kan, 732 

Evrn word, it it bee in -is tshardzh-e, 

Al speek -e neer so ryyd-ehY or lardzh-e ; 

Or ekes Hee moot tel -is taal untreu-e, 

Or faure thiq, or fmd -is word-es neu*e. 736 

He mai not spaare, dhooukwh -e wer -is broodlrer; 

He moost as weel sai oo word as anoodlrer. 

Exist spaak -imself- ful brood in noo-li rwit, 

And weel je woot noo virlai-nir is it. 740 

Eek Plaa-too saith, whoosoo- dhat kan -im reed'e, 

Dhe word-es moot be kuz-in too dhe deed-e. 

Alsoo- Ii prai juu to forjeev it mee, 

Al Haav Ii not set folk in Her degree* 744 

Heer in dhis taal, as dhat dhai shuld-e stond-e ; 

Mm wit is short, Je mai weel urrderstond-e. 

as euerieh a word E., apparently more correct. Orrmin 'writes o\err for 

to avoid a defective first measure. the adjective, and both o\err and o]>]>r 

738 another. I have throughout for the conjunction. That distinction 

pronounced other as (udh-er), because has been carried out in the pronuncia- 

ofthe alternative orthography outher, tionof the Proclamation of Henry III., 

supra, p. 267. This rhyme, however, supra pp. 501-3-5. 
shews that there must have also been a 7-14 not set folk, so all the six 

sound (oodh-er), which is historically MSS., folk nat set Ha. 

720 text of chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. § 1. 

The Hooste akd his Meeth. 

Greet chere maad' our' hoost' us ev'rychoon, 

And to the soupeer sett' he us anoon ; 748 

And served us with vytayl' atte beste. 

Strong was the wyn, and weel to drink' us leste. 

A seem'ly man our' hooste was withalle 

For to haan been a marschal in an halle ; 752 

A large man was he with eyghen stepe, 

A fair' re lurgeys is ther noon in Chepe : 

Boold of his spech', and wys, and weel ytawght, 

And of manhode lacked' him right nawght. 756 

iii Eek theerto he was right a merye man, 

And after soupeer pleyen he bigan, 

And spaak of merth' amonges other thinges, 

"Wnan that we hadde maad our' reckeninges ; 760 

And seyde thus : Lo, lording' s, trewely, 

Ye been to me weelcomen hertely, 

For by my trouth', if that I schul not lye, 
vi iii I ne sawgh not this yeer so mery a company e 764 

At ones in this herbergh, as is nou. 

Fayn wold I do you merthe, wist' I hou, 

And of a merth' I am right nou bithowght, 

To doon you ees\ and it schal coste nowght. 768 

Ye goon to Cawnterbery : God you spede, 

The blisful martyr quyte you your' mede ! 

And weel I woot, as ye goon by the weye, 

Ye schapen you to talken and to pleye ; 772 

For trewely comfort ne merth is noon 

To ryde by the weye domb' as stoon ; 

And theerfoor' wol I make you dispoort, 

As I seyd' erst, and do you som comfort. 776 

iii And if you lyketh alle by oon assent 
— For to standen at my jug gement ; 

And for to werken as I schal you seye, 

To morwe, whan ye ryden by the weye, 780 

Nou by my fader sowle that is deed, 
iii But ye be merye, smyteth of myn heed. 

Hoold up your bond withoute more speche. 

Our' counseyl was not longe for to seche ; 784 

Us thowght' it n'as not worth to maak' it wys, 

And gratvnted him withoute mor' avys, 

And bad him sey' his verdyt', as him leste. 

Lording's, quoth he, nou herk'neth for the beste, 788 

756 lacked' him, this is con- 759 amonges E. He. Co. 

jectural ; lakkede he Ha., him 764 I ne sawgh not, this is 

lackede the six MSS. variously a composite reading; I ne saugh 

spelled, in which case the final e must Ha., I sawgh not the other MSS. 

he pronounced, which is so unusual variously spelled. The Ha. has there- 

that I have preferred adopting the order fore a trissyllabic first measure, which 

of Ha. and the construction of the is unusual and doubtful ; to write both 

other MSS. ne and not introduces an Alexandrine. 


Dhe Oost and Merth. 

Greet tsheere maad uur Oost us evmtshoon*, 

And too dhe suup-eer set -e us anoon ; 748 

And serveth us -with. vH'taiT ake beske. 

Stroq was dhe wiYn, and weel to driqk us leske. 

A seenrkY man uur ooske was we'thake 

For to Haan been a marshal m an Hake ; 752 

A lardzhe man was Hee w«th ai£b/en steeple 

A fairre burdzhais is ther noon in Tsheep - e : 

Boold of -is speetsh, and wiis, and weel «"taukwht*, 

And of man-Hood-e laired nim rikht naukwht. 756 

Eek dheertoo Hee was rikht a mer/e man, 

And afker suup*eer plaren Hee b/gan-, 

And spaak of merth amuq - es udlrer th«res, 

Whan dhat we Had - e maad uur rek'emVres ; 760 

And sakke dhus : Loo, lord^'qz, trcu'eltt, 

Je been to mee weekkunren Hertelu, 

For bn mit truuth, ii dhat Ii shul not lire, 

Ii nee saukwh not dbis Jeer so meW a kumpamre 764 

At oon - es in dh/s Herberkh, as {s nuu. 

Fain wold Ii duu ju mertlre, w/st Ii huu, 

And of a merth Ii am rikht nuu b/thoukwht - , 

To doon juu ees, and it shal koske noukwht. 768 

Je goon to KaunkerberiY: God juu speed - e, 

Dhe bk's-ful martin: kmet'e juu juur meed*e ! 

And weel Ii woot, as jee goon hii dhe wake, 

Je shaap - en juu to talk "en and to plare ; 772 

For treu'elw kumfork ne merth is noon 

To rnd - e hii dhe ware dumb as stoon ; 

And dheerfoor wold Ii maak'e juu dzspoork, 

As Ii said erst, and doo ju sum kumfort*. 776 

And ii ju lnk'eth ake hii oon asenk 

For to stand-en at mii dzhyydzlremenk ; 

And for to werk - en as Ii shal ju sake, 

To morwe, whan je md'en hii dhe ware, 780 

Nuu hii mii faacker soouke, dhat is deed, 

But Jee be merVe, snmketk of miin Heed. 

Hoold up juur nond w/thuuke moore speetslre. 

Uur kuurrsail was not loq - e for to seetslre ; 784 

Us thought it n- -as not worth to maak it wms, 

And graunked mm. wtthxtut'e moor av'Vs - , 

And bad -im sai -is verdwt as -ixa. leste. 

Lord/qz - , kwoth Hee, nuu Herk - neth for dhe beske, 788 

We might read the Ha. I ne sawgh this yere swiche a compagnie, which 

this yeer, as an Alexandrine with is probably conjectural. Seep. 649. 
a defective first measure. Perhaps I 782 smyteth of niyn heed 

is a mistake, and ne sawgh this Ha., I wol yeve you myn heed 

yeer, or this yeer sawgh not, E. He. Co. P. and Sloanc MS. 1685, 

may be correct, but there is no autho- variously spelled, I jeuc j o w e 

rity for it. Tyrwhitt reads : I saw not Mine hede L. But if ye E. 

722 text or chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. § l. 

But taak'th it not, I prey 1 you, in disdeyn, 

This is the poynt, to speken schort and playn ; 

That eech of you to schorte with your' weye, 
iii In this vyage schal telle tales tweye, 792 

To Cawnterbery-ward, I meen' it so, 

And hoomward he schal tellen other two, 

Of aventur's that whylom haan bifalle. 

And which of you that beer'th him best of alle, 796 

That is to seyn, that telleth in this caas 

Tales of best sentenc 1 and moost solaas, 

Schal han a soupeer at your' alther cost 

Heer' in this place, sitting' by this post, 800 

Whan that we com' ageyn from Cawnterbery. 

And for to make you the more mery, 

I wol myselven gladly with you ryde, 

Right at myn ow'ne cost, and be your' gyde. 804 

And whoso wol my juggement withseye 
iii Schal page for al we spenden by the weye. 

And if ye vouchesawf that it be so, 

Tel me anoon, withouten wordes mo, 808 

And I wol erly schape me theerfore. 

This thing was grawnted, and our' othes swore 

"With ful glad hert', and prey' den him also 

He wolde vouchesawf 'for to doon so, 812 

And that he wolde been our' governour, 

And of our' tales Jug' and reportour, 

And sett' a soupeer at a certayn prys ; 

"We wolde rented be at his devys 816 

In heygh and low', and thus by oon assent 

"We been accorded to his juggement. 

And theerupon the wyn was fet anoon ; 

We dronken, and to reste went' eech oon, 820 

Withouten eny leng're tarymge. 

We etden foeth. 

A morwe whan the day bigan to springe, 
Up roos our' hoost, and was our' alther cok, 
And gader'd us togider in a flok, 824 

And forth we ryd' a lytel moor' than paas, 
Unto the watering' of Saynt Thomas. 
And theer our' hoosf bigan his hors areste, 
And seyde, Lordes, herk'neth, if you leste. 828 

• Ye woot your' foorward, I it you recorde, 
If evesong and morwcsong accorde, 

795 -whylom E. He. Co. P. L., -which is unlikely, as they must have 

and so Tyrwhitt, Sloane MS. 1685, all known them; why 1 om' is 

omits the word ; of a ventures suitable for both sets of tales, and a 

that ther han bifalle Ha, word of that kind is wanted. The 

which would refer only to the second Sloane MS. 1685 also spells aven- 

stories and imply that they should toures, see p. 635, note 1. The 

relate to adventures at Canterbury, passage is wanting in Ca. 


But taakth it not, Ii prai juu, in disdain*, 

Dhis is dhe puint, to speek-en short and plain ; 

Dhat eetsh of juu to short'e with juur ware, 

In dhis viraadzlre shal tehe taal-es tware, 792 

To Kaunt-erber-iiward, Ii meen it soo, 

And hoonrward Hee shal teken udh-er twoo, 

Of aa-ventyyrz- dhat whiil-om Haan bifake. 

And whitsh of juu dhat beerth -im best of ake, 796 

Dhat is to sain, dhat tebeth in dhis kaas 

Taal'es of best sentens* and moost soolaas-, 

Shal Haan a suup-eer at juur akdher host, 

Heer in dhis plaas-e, sit'iq* bii dhis post, 800 

Whan dhat we kum again* from Kaurrterberii. 

And for to maak - e juu dhe ruoore nierii, 

Ii wol nu'iselven glad-lii with juu rad'e, 

Bi£ht at miin ooume kost, and bee juur giid'e. 804 

And whoo-soo wol mii dzhyydzh-ement withsare 

Shal pare for al we spend-en bii dhe ware. 

And if je vuutslresauf ■ dhat it be soo, 

Tel me anoon- withuut-en word-es moo, 808 

And Ii wol erlii shaap-e mee dheerfoore. 

Dhis thiq was graunt'ed, and uur ooth-es swoore 

"With ful glad Hert, and prarden H-'m alsoo - 

He wold-e vuutslresauf- for to doon soo, 812 

And dhat -e wold - e been uur guirvernuur, 

And of uur taal-es dzhyydzh and rep-ortuur, 

And set a suup-eer- at a sert-ain- priis; 

We wold-e ryyked bee at His deviis - 816 

in Hai£h and loou ; and dhus bii oon asent" 

We been akorched too -is dzhyydzh'ement - . 

And dheerupon- dhe wiin was fet anoon ; 

We druqk-en, and to rest-e went eetsh oon, 820 

Withuut-en en - ii leq-re tari,iq-e. 

We r i i d* e n forth. 

A mor-we whan dhe dai bigan* to spriq-e, 

Up roos uur oost, and was uur akdher kok, 

And gad-erd us togid*er in a flok, 824 

And forth we riid a InH'l moor dhan paas, 

TJntoo- dhe waa-teriq- of Saint Toomaas*. 

And dheer uur oost bigan* -is Hors arest*e, 

And said - e, Lord-es, Herk - neth, if juu lest*e. 828 

Je woot jur foorward, Ii it juu rekord*e, 

If eevesoq and mor-wesoq akorcbe, 

798 moost, so all the six MSS., sworne, and if the ellipsis he not 

o f Ha. assumed hefore swore it must at 

least occur before p r e y 'd e n. 

810 our' othes swore, Prof. 
Child points out an ellipsis of w e as 824 in a flok He. P. L., Sloanc 

in t. 786, see supra p. 376, art. Ill, MS. 1685, the others have alle in 

Ex. b. The past participle would be a f 1 o c k, with various spellings 

724 text of chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. § l. 

Let see nou who schal telle first a tale. 

As ever' moot I drinke wyn or ale, 832 

"Whoso he rebel to my juggement 
iii Schal page for al that by the wey' is spent. 

Nou draweth cut, eer that we forther twinne ; 

And which that hath the schortest schal beginne. 836 

Sgr' knight, quoth he, my magster and my lord, 

Nou draweth cut, for that is myn accord. 

Com'th neer, quoth he, my lady prgoresse, 

And ye, sgr' clerk, lat be your schamfastnesse, 840 

iii Ne studieth nat ; ley hand to, ev'ry man ! 

Anoon to drawen ev'ry wight bigan, 

And schortly for to tellen as it was, 

~Wer' it by aventur', or sort, or caas, 844 

The sooth is this, the cut fil to the knight', 

Of which ful blyth' and glad was ev'ry wight, 

And tell' he moost' his tal' as was resoun, 

By foorward and by composicioun, 848 

As ye haan herd ; what nedeth wordes mo ? 

And whan this gode man sawgh it was so, 

As he that wys was and obedient 

To kep' his foorward by his fre assent, 852 

iii He seyde : Sin I schal biginne the game, 

What ! Weelcom be the cut, in Goddes name ! 

Nou lat us ryd', and herk'neth what I seye. 

And with that word we ryden forth our' weye ; 856 

iii And he bigan with right a merye cJiere 

His tal' anoon, and seyd' in this manere. 

854 the cut, so all the six MSS., 858 SoE.; his tale and seide 

thou cut Ha. right in this manere Ha.; 

In correcting the proofs of this text and conjectured pronuncia- 
tion of Chaucer's Prologue I have had the great advantage of Mr. 
Henry Mcol's assistance, and to his accuracy of eye and judgment 
is due a much greater amount of correctness and consistency than 
could have been expected in so difficult a proof. 1 Owing to sug- 
gestions made by Mr. Nicol, I have reconsidered several indications 
of French origin. One of the most remarkable is Powles v. 509, 

1 Some trifling errors escaped obser- Abuven, v. 66 Ajahr, v. 71 al, v. 72 

vation till the sheets had been printed dzhen't'l, v. 107 fedlrres, v. 144 sakwh, 

off, which the reader will have no diffi- v. 181, Dhz's, v. 210 kan, v. 241 

culty in correcting, such as e, o, i for evrutsh, v. 265 h?s tuq - e, v. 284 men, 

ee, oo, y, etc. The following are more v. 292 world-hY, v. 334 bit dhe morw-, 

important. Head in Text, v. 15 v. 414 grund-ed, v. 424 jaaf. Read 

specially, v. 69 poorV , v. 123 entuned, in the Footnotes, on v. 60, 1. 3 

v. 152 streyt, v. 208 Frere, v. 260 nob'l, on v. 120, 1.1 saynt, on 

pore, v. 289 soberly, v. 365 fresch, v. 120, last line but three, "all the six 

v. 569 vytayle, v. 570 tayle, v. 599 MSS. except L.", and add at the end 

ffoverning, v. 601 aye. Read in the of the note " and L. omits also," on 

Pronunciation, v. 14 sundm, v. 23 v. 247, 1.1 noon, on v. 305,1. 1 He, 

kum, v, 35 whulz, v. 48 ferre, v. 53 on v. 512, 1. 1, f oolde. 


Let see nuu whoo shal teke first a taake. 

As ever moot Ii driqk - e w«m or aake, 832 

Whoo'soo - be reb*el too m« dzhyydzlrement* 

Shal pare for al dhat hii dhe wai is spent. 

Nuu drau - eth kut, eer dhat we furdlrer twnre ; 

And wh/tsh dhat Hath dhe shortest shal higin-e. 836 

S«r km'&ht, k«?oth Hee, mii maist - er and mn lord, 

Nuu drau - eth kut, for dhat is nxiin akord*. 

Kumth neer, kwoth Hee, m» laa'dn prirores'e, 

And jee, s*Vr klerk, lat bee Jur shaam 'fastness, 840 

Nee stucWeth nat ; lai Hand too, evra man ! 

Anoon' to drau*en evrij wikht b/gan*, 

And shortdu for to teken as it was, 

Wer it hii aawentyyr, or sort, or kaas, 844 

Dhe sooth is dh«'s, dhe kut fil too dhe kru£ht, 

Of wh?tsh ful bhYdh and glad was evrii -wikht, 

And tel -e moost -is taal as was ree - suurr, 

Bn foorward and hii kompoos«Ys"murr, 848 

As Jee naan Herd ; what need'eth word-es moo ? 

And whan dhYs good'e man sauk^h it was soo, 

As Hee dhat wms was and obee'd/ent* 

To keep -is foorward hii -is free asent', 852 

He said/e : Sm It shal higiwe dhe gaanre, 

What ! weekkunv bee dhe kut, in God'es naanre ! 

Nuu lat us rzVd, and Herkmeth what Ii sake. 

And with dhat word we r«d*en forth uur ware. ; 856 

And Hee higan with rikht a meWe tsheere 

His taal anoon-, and said in dbYs man'eere. 

his tale anoon, and seyde MSS. in various spellings. 
as ye may heere, the other 

which seemed to have a French pronunciation, but which ought 
perhaps to be marked P o w ' 1 e s, the form P o w e 1 appearing in 
v. 13938, supra p. 266, a direct derivative from Orrmin's Pa well 
with a long a. The alterations thus admitted affect the calculation 
on p. 651, which was made from the MS. As now printed (making 
the corrections just mentioned), the numbers are as follows : — 

Lines containing no French word . 

. 286, 

per cent. 



only one „ „ 

two French words 

. 359, 
. 179, 




three ,, „ . 
four „ „ . 
five „ „ . 

Lines in Prologue 

. 29, 

• 4, 


. 858 



These numbers are not sensibly different from the former. The 
number of Trissyllabic measures after correction appears as 76, the 
numbers in the six classes on p. 648 being respectively 25, 6, 3, 4, 
29, 9. The number of lines with defective first measures, p. 649, 
remains 13, as before. The number of lines with two superfluous 
syllables, p. 649, is now 8, w. 709, 710, having been added. 

726 JOHAN GOWER. Chap. VII. § 2. 

§ 2. Gower. 

Johan Gower, died, a very old man, between 15 August and 24 
October 1408, having been blind since 1400, the year of Chaucer's 
death. His three principal works are Speculum Meditantis, written 
in French, which is entirely lost ; Vox Clamantis, in Latin, still 
preserved ; and Confessio Amantis, in English, of which there are 
several fine MSS., and which was printed by Caxton in 1483. In 
this edition Caxton calls him : " Johan Cower squyer borne in 
"Walys in the tyme of kyng richard the second." The district of 
Gowerland in S. W. Glamorganshire, between Swansea bay and 
Burry river, a peninsula, with broken limestone coast, full of caves, 
and deriving its name from the Welsh gwyr = (guiryr) oblique, 
crooked, traditionally claims to be his birth place. Now Gower's 
own pronunciation of his name results from two couplets, in which 
it is made to rhyme with power and reposer. The first passage, ac- 
cording to the MS. of the Society of Antiquaries, is 

Sche axe]> me what was my name 

Madame I feyde Johrra Gower. 

Now Johffn quod fche in my power, 

Thou mufte as of pi loue ftonde. iii 353 - • 

The other will be found below, pp. 738-9. The sound was therefore 
(Gmreer), which favours the Welsh theory. The modern form of 
the name is therefore (Gemci), and Gowerland is now called 
(G8u-e.ilaend) in English. 

But the correctness of this Welsh derivation has been disputed. 
Leland had heard that he was of the family of the Gowers of Stiten- 
ham in Yorkshire, ancestors of the present Duke of Sutherland. 
The Duke has politely informed me that the family and traditional 
pronunciation of his patronymic Gower is a dissyllable rhyming 
to mower, grower, that is (Goo'ei). Now this sound could not be 
the descendant of (Gmreer), and hence this pronunciation is a pre- 
sumption against the connection of the two families, strengthening 
the argument derived from the difference of the coats of arms. 3 

He was certainly at one time in friendly relations with Chaucer, 
who, in his Troylus and Cryseyde, writes : — 

moral Gower, this boke I directe 

To the, and to the philosophical Strode, 

To vouchensauf, ther nede is, to correcte, 

Of youre henignites and zeles goode. 5*77 

And Gower, in some manuscripts, makes Yenus send a message to 
Chaucer, as her disciple and poet, which is printed as an example 
below, pp. 738-9. 

The text of Gower has not yet been printed from the manuscripts, 

1 These references throughout are to edition of the Confessio Amantis, and 
Pauli's edition, as explained supra, p. Sir Harris Nicolas' s Notice of Gower, 
256. in the Retrospective Review, N. S., vol. 

2 For other particulars of the life of ii. No weight is to be attributed to his 
Gower, derived from legal papers, shew- calling himself English, when asking to 
in 0- that he was possessed of land in be excused for faults in French, in a 
Kent, see the life prefixed to Pauli's French poem. He would have no 

Chap. VII. $ 2. JOHAN GOWER. 727 

or from any one MS. in particular. Pauli's edition is founded on 
Berthelette's first edition, 1532, " carefully collated throughout" 
with the Harl. MSS. 7184 and 3869. Of the first Pauli says : 
" This volume, on account of its antiquity and its judicious and 
consistent orthography, has been adopted as the basis for the spelling 
in this new edition." Pauli says that he has also used Harl. MS. 
3490, and the Stafford MS. where it was important, and that his 
"chief labour consisted in restoring the orthography and in regu- 
lating the metre, both of which had been disturbed in innumerable 
places by Berthelette." As the result is eminently unsatisfactory, 
it has been thought best, in giving a specimen of Grower, to print 
the original in precise accordance with some MSS. 

The following MSS. of Gower's Confessio Amantis are described 
by Pauli. At Oxford, having the verses to Richard II, and those 
on Chaucer: MS. Laud. 609, Bodl. 693, Selden, B. 11, Corp. Chr. 
Coll. 67 ; — without these verses : MS. Fairfax 3, Hatton 51, Wad- 
ham Coll. 13, New Coll. 266; — with the first and without the 
second, MS. Bodl. 294 ; — dedicated to Henry of Lancaster, and with 
verses on Chaucer; MS. New Coll. 326. In the British Museum, 
Harl. 71-84, 3869, 3490. MS. Stafford, in the possession of the 
Duke of Sutherland. Pauli does not mention the MS. 134, of the 
Society of Antiquaries. 

The MSS. most accessible to me were the four cited supra, p. 253. 
Of these the orthography of Harl. 3869 appeared to me the best, and 
I have therefore printed it in the first column. In the second 
column I have given the text of Harl. 7184, which Pauli professes 
to follow ; and in the third the text of the MS. of the Society of 
Antiquaries, No. 134. 1 The fourth column contains the conjectural 
pronunciation. By this means the diversities of the orthography 
and the uniformity of the text will be made evident. It is the 
former in which we are most interested. The passage selected for 
this purpose is the stoiy of Nebuchadnezzar's punishment, as being 
unobjectionable in detail, and sufficient in length to give a complete 
conception of the author's style. 

But as the Message from Venus to Chaucer possesses great interest 
from its subject, I have added a copy of it according to Harl. MS. 
3869, from which Pauli states that he has taken the copy printed 
in his edition. In the second column I have annexed the same text 
according to the MS. of the Society of Antiquaries, and, since the 
passage does not occur in the other two MSS., in the third column I 
have added my own systematic orthography, and in the fourth column 
the conjectured pronunciation. Por these two last columns a compo- 
site text has been chosen, founded on a comparison of the two MSS. 

In all cases the phonetic transcript has been constructed on the 
same principles as that of Chaucer in the preceding section. 

doubt considered himself an English- between z ?, but writes the guttural 
manias he spoke English and was an with the same z that it uses in Nairn- 
English subject and landowner, even if godonozor, I have used z throughout 
he had been born in Wales. its transcription. 
1 As this MS. makes no distinction 



Chap. VII. $ 2. 


Earl. MS. 3869, folio 493 to 52a. Earl. MS. 7184, folio23,a,l to24,a,2. 

i 136 
Ther was a kinge bat mochel myhte 
Which Nabugodonofor kihte 
Of whom bat .1. fpak hier tofore 
?it in be bible his name is bore 
For al be world in Orient 
Was hoi at his comandement 
As banne of hinges to his liche 
Was non fo myhty ne fo riche 
To his empire and to his lawes 
As who feij? al in bilke dawes 
Were obeiffant and tribut bere 
As bogh he godd of Erbe were 
Wib ftrengbe he putte kynges vnder 
And wroghte of pride many a wonder 
He was fo full of veine gloire 
That he ne hadde no memoire 
That her was eny good bot he 
For pride of his profpmte 
Til bat be hihe king of kinges 
Which feb and knoweb alle binges 
Whos yhe mai nobing afterte 
The priuetes of mannes herte 

i 137 
Thei fpeke and founen in his Ere 
As bogh bei lowde wyndes were 
He tok vengance vpon bis pride 
Bot for he wolde a while a bide 
To loke if he him wolde amende 
To him aforetokne he fende 
And bat was in his flep be nyhte 
This proude kyng a wonder fyhte 
Hadde in his fweuene ber he lay 
Him boght vpon a merie day 
As he behield be world a boute 
A tree fulgrowe he fyh beroute 
Whiche ftod be world amiddes euene 
Whos heihte ftraghte vp to be heuene 
The leues weren faire and large [fol. 50] 
Of fruit it bar fo ripe a charge 
That alle men it mihte fede 
He fih alfo be bowes fpriede 
A boue al Erbe in which were 
The kynde of alle briddes bere 
And eke him boght he fih alfo 
The kyndc of alle beftes go 
Vnder bis tree a boute round 
And fedden hem vpon be ground 
As he bis wonder find and fih 
Him boghte he herde a vois on hih 
Criendc and feide a bouen alle 
Hew doun bis tree and lett it falle 
The leues let defoulc in hafte 
And do be fruit deftruie and wafte 

i 136 

Ther was a king that mochel mijte 
Which Nabugadonofor highte, 
Of whom that I fpak hiere tofore. 
Yit in the bible his name is bore 
For al the world in the orient 
Was holl at his cowniaundement 
And of kinges to his liche 
Was non fo mijti ne so riche 
To his empire and to his lawes 
As who feith all in thilke dawes 
Were obeiffant and tribut bere 
As thouj he god of erthe were 
With ftrengthe he put kinges vnder 
And wroujt of pride many a wonder, 
He was fo full of veingloire, 
That he ne had no memoire, 
That ther was any good but he 
For pride of his profperite 
Til that the high king of kinges 
Which feth and knoweth alle thinges 
Whoz yhe may no thing afterte 
The priuitees of mannes herte 

i 137 

To speke and sounen in his here 
As thou; thei loude wyndes were 
He toke vengeaunce vpon this pride 
But for he wolde a while abide 
To loke if he wolde him amende 
To him afore tokene he fende [fo.23,ar,2] 
And that was in his flep be nijte 
This proude king a wonder fighte 
Hadde in his fweuene ther he lay 
Him thoujt vpon a mery day 
As he behield the world aboute 
A tree full growe he figh theroute 
The which ftode the world amiddes euene 
Whoz heighte ftraught vp to the heuene 
The leues weren faire and large 
Of fruit it bar fo ripe a charge 
That alle men it might fede 
He sigh alfo the bowes spriede 
Abouc all erthe in which were 
The kinde of alle briddes there 
And eke him thoujt he sigh alfo 
The kinde of alle beftes go 
Vnder the tre aboute round 
And fedden hem vpon the ground 
As lie this wonder ftode and figh 
Him thoujte he herde a vois on high 
Criend and feide abouen alle 
Howe doun this tree and let it falle 
The leues let defoule in hafte 
And do the fruit deftroie and wafte 

Chap. VII. § 2. 




Society of Antiquaries, MS. 134, folio 
56, b, 2 to 58, a 2. 

i 136 
There was a kinge hat mochell myzte 
Whiche Nabugodonozor hyzte 
Of whom Ji«t .y. fpak here to fore 
Zit in he bible his name is bore 
For all be orient world in orient 
Was hool at his coniauwdemewt 
As bawne of kinges to his liche 
Was nou« fo myzty ne fo riche 
To his empire and to his lawis 
As who faye}7 all in jnlke dawis 
Were obeyfant and tribute bere 
As Jjouz he god of erj?e were 
With ftrengbe he putte kynges vndir 
And wrouzte of pride many awondir 
He was fo full of vayne glorye 
That he ne hadde no memorye 
That her was eny god but he 
For pr/de of his profperite. 
Till b«t be hyze kinge of kinges 
Whiche see]? and knowe)> all binges 
Whos ye may no bywge afterte 
The pr/uete of mawnis herte 

i 137 

They fpeke and fownew in his ere 
As bouz )>ey loude wyndis were 
He tok ve«iau«ce vp on J^is pride 
But for he wole awhile abyde 
To loke yf he him wolde amerade 
To him a fore token he fende 
And ]>at was in his flepe benyzte 
This proude kywge a wowdir fyzte 
Hadde in his f\veue« \er he lay [fo. 57, 
Him )>ouzte vp on a mery day a, 1] 
As he behelde be world aboute 
A tre full growe he fyze Reroute 
Whiche ftod be world amiddis euene 
Whos heyzte ftrauzte vp to be heuene 
The leuis were;* fayre and large 
Of frute it bare fo ripe a charge 
That all mew it myzte p' fede 
He fyze alfo be bowis fprede. 
Aboue all erbe in whiche were 
The kynde of all briddis here 
And eek him bouzte he fyze alfo 
pe kynde of all beftis goo 
Vndir his tre aboute rounde 
And fedden hem vp on be grounde 
As he his wondir ftod and fyze 
Him bouzte he herde auoys on hyze 
Criende and feyde abouew alle 
Hew douw bis tre and lete it falle 
The leuis let do foule in hafte 
And to he frute destriue and wafte 

Conjectured Pronunciation. 

i 136 
Dher was a keq dhat mutstrel m/£ht-e, 
Wh/tsh Naa - buu - goo - doo-nooz - or nikht'e, 
Of whoom dhat Ii spaak heer tofoore. 
Jet in dhe B//bd- -is naam is boor - e, 
For «1 dhe world m Oor/ent- 
Was hooI at his komaund - ement\ 
As dhan of k/q-es too -is liitsh-e 
Was noon soo m/kht - // nee soo r/tsh-e; 
To his emp//r and too -is lau-es, 
As whoo saith, al in dh/lk-e dau-es 
Wer oo-baisaunt-, and tr/rbyyt beere, 
As dhooukwh -e God of Ertlre weere. 
With streqth -e pute k/q-es mrder, 
And r?^ouk«'ht of pr//-de man-i a wiurder. 
He was so fid of vain - e gloo-r/e 
Dhat Htee ne Had-e noo memoo-n'e 
Dhat dher was en-// God but Hee, 
For pr//d of his prosper - itee-. 
Til dhat dhe uiikh-e K/q of k/q-es, 
Wh/tsh saith and knooireth al-e th/q-es, 
Whoos ire mai noo-th/q- astert-e, — 
Dhe pr/rveteez- of man - es Hert - e, 

i 137 
Dhai speek and sumren m -is eere, 
As dhooukM'h dhai luud-e w/nd-es weere — 
Hee took vendzhauns- upon- dh/s pr//d-e. 
But, for -e wold a whiii ab//d - e 
To look it Hee -ira wold amend-e, 
To Him a fooretook-n- -e send-e, 
And dhat was, in -is sleep hii n/Aht-e, 
Dh/s pruud-e k/q a wun-der s/X;ht-e 
Had, in -is sweevne dheer -e lai. 
Him thoukwht upon - a mer// dai, 
As Hee beHeeld - dhe world abuute, 
A tree fulgroou- -e sifch dheeruut-e 
Wh/tsh stood dhe world am/d-es eevne, 
Whoos HaiAht-e strauk^ht up too dhe Heevne 
Dhe leeves weeren fair and lardzlre, 
Of fryyt it baar soo rap a tshardzlre 
Dhat al-e men it m/£hte feed-e. 
He sikh al-soo- dhe boou es spreed-e 
Abuv al erth, in wh/tslre wee-re 
Dhe kind of al-e br/d-es dhee-re. 
And eek -mi thoukwht -e sikh al-soo* 
Dhe kind of ale beest-es goo 
Un-der dh/s tree abuute round' 
And feed-en Hem upon- dhe grund. 
As Hee dh/s wuirder stood and sikh, 
Him thoukwht -e Herd a vuis on uiikh 
Cr//-end-, and said abuven al-e : 
" Heu duun dh/s tree, and let it fel'6 ! 
" Dhe leeves let del'uul- /n nast - e, 
"And doo dhe fryyt destrui- and wast-e! 




Chap. VII. § 2. 

Sari. MS. 3869. 
i 138 
And let of fchreden euery branche 
Bot a Rote let it ftaunche 
Whan al bis Pride is caft to grounde 
The rote scbal be fafte bounde 
And fcbal no mannes berte bere 
Bot entry luft he fchal forbere 
Of man. and lich an Oxe his mete 
Of gras he fchal pourchache and ete 
Til hat he water of he heuene 
Haue waiffhen him be times feuene 
So hat he be hurgknowe ariht 
"What is he heueneliche myht 
And be mad humble to he wille 
Of him which al mai faue and fpille 
This kynge out of his fwefhe abreide 

And he vpon he morwe it feide 
Vnto he clcrkes which he hadde 
Bot non of hem he fohe aradde 
Was non his fweuene cowhe vndo 
And it ftod hilke time fo 
This kyng hadde in fubiecci'on 
Jude. and of affecc/on 
A boue alle ohie on Daniel 
He loueh. for he cowhe wel 
Diuine ]>at non oher cowhe 
To him were alle hinges cowhe 
As he it hadde of goddes grace 
He was before he kinges face 
Afent. and bode hat he fcholde 
Vpon he point he king of tolde 

i 139 

The fortune of his fweuene expouwde 
As it fcholde afterward be founde 
Whanne Daniel his fweuene herde [fo. 
He ftod long time er he anfuerde 50l>\ 
And made a wonder heuy chiere 
The king tok hiede of his manere 
And bad him telle hat he wifte 
As he to whom, he mochel trifle 
And feide he wolde noght be wroh 
Bot Daniel was wonder loh 
And feide vpon hi fomen alle 
Sire king hi fweuene mote falle 
And nabeles . touchende of this 
I wol he tellen how it is 
And what defefe is to hee fchape 
God wot if hou it fchalt afcape 

The hihe tre which hou haft fein 
Wih lcf and fruit fo wel bcfein 
The which ftod in he world amiddcs 
So hat he beftes and he briddes 
Gouerned were of him al one '. 
Sire king betoknch hi pe/fone 
Which ftant a boue all erhli hinges 
Thus regnen vnder he he kinges 
And al J?e poeple vnto \c louteh 
And al \c world hi pouer doubteh 

Sari. MS. 7184. 
i 138 
And let of fhreden eueri braunche 
But ate roote let it ftaunche 
Whan all his pride is caft to grounde 
The roote (hall be faft bounde 
And fhall no mannes hert bere 
But eueri luft he fhall forbere 
Of man and lich an hoxe his mete 
Of gras he shall purchace and ete 
Til that the water of the heuene 
Haue waffhen him be tymes feuene 
So that he throu? knowe aright 
What is the heuenlich might 
And be mad humble to the wille 
Of him which al may faue and fpille 
This king out of his fweuene abreide 

And he vpon the morwe it feide 
Vnto the clerkes which he hadde 
But non of hem the foth aradde 
Was non his fweuene couthe vndo 
And it stode thilke time foo 
This king had in fubieccion 
Judee. and of affeccion 
Aboue al othir oon Daniell 
He loueth. for he couthe well 
Diuine that non othir couthe [fo. 23, b, 
To him were all thinges couthe 1] 

As he it hadde of goddes grace 
He was before the kinges face 
Afent and bode that he shulde 
Vpon the point the king of tolde 

i 139 

The fortune of his fweuene expounde 
As it shuld aftirward be founde 
Whan Daniel this fweuene herde 
He ftod long tyme or he anfwcrde 
And made a wonder heuy chiere 
The king took hiede of his manere 
And bad him telle that he wifte 
As he to whom that mochel trifle 
And feid he wolde noujt be wroth 
But Daniel was wonder loth 
And feide vpon thi fomen alle 
Sir king thi fweuene mot falle 
And natheles touchend of this 
I wol the tellen hou it is 
And what defefe is to the fhape 
God wot if thou it fhall efcape 

The high tree which thou haft fein 
With lef and fruit fo wel befein 
The which stood in the world amiddes 
So that the beftes and the briddes 
Gouerned were of him alone 
Sir king betokeuetb thi perfone 
Which ftant aboue all ertheli thinges 
Thus reignen vnder the kinges 
And all the people vnto the louteth 
And all the world thi power doubteth 

Chap. VII. { 2. 



Soc. Ant. MS. 134. 
i 138 
And lett of fchredew eue>-y branche 
But at rote lete it staunche. 
"Whan all jns pride is cafte to grounde 
The rote fchall be fafte bounde 
And schall no mawnis herte bere. 
But eue>y lufte he fchall forbere 
Of man and liche an oxe his mete 
Of gras he fchall purchace and ete 
Till pat pe water of pe heuew 
Haue wafchen hi;« be timis seuew. 
So pat hee Jmrgh knowe aryzte 
What is pe heuen liche nryzte. 
And he made vmble to pe wille. 
Of him whiche all may faue and fpille. 
This ky«ge oute of his fweuew 
And hee vp on pe morow it feyde 
Vn to pe clerkis whiche he hadde 
But none of he;» pe fo)>e aradde. 
Was non« his fweuew coujie vndoo. 
And it ftood Julke tynie foo [fo. 57, a, 2] 
This kywge hadde in fubiecciouw 
Jude and of affeccyouw 
Aboue alle oper onu daniell 
He loueji for he cou)>e well 
Diuife pat non« o]>er cou)>e 
To him were all pinges cou)>e 
As he hadde of goddis grace 
He was tofore pe kyngis face 
Afent and bode pat he fchulde 
Vp on J>e poynte pe kynge of tolde 

i 139 

The fortune of his fweue>; exponde 
As it fchulde aftirwarde be fou«de 
"Whan daniell Jus fweuew herde 
He ftood longe tyme er he anfwerde 
And made a wo^dir heuy chere 
pe kynge tok hede of his manere 
And bad him telle pat he wifte. 
And he to whom he mochel trifle 
And feyde he wolde nouzt be wroj? 
But daniel was wondir lojj 
And feyde vp on py fomen alle 
Sere kynge pj fweue« mot falle 
And na)>eles touchende of Jus 
I wol pe tellen how it is 
And what defefe is to pe fchape 
God wot yf. J?tvu . it fchall afchape 
The hyze tre which .pou. haft feyne 
'With leef and frute fo wel be feyne 
The whiche ftod in pe world amiddes 
So pat pe beftis and pe briddis. 
Goutrnid were of him alloue 
Sere kynge bitokene)> )>y pe; fone 
"Whiche ftante aboue all cicely J>ynges 
Thus regnew vndir J^e ]e kynges 
And of pe peple vn to pe loutej? 
And all pe world J>y power doutej? 

Conjectured Pronunciation. 
i 138 
" And let ofshreed-en evm brauntsh-e, 
" But at - e root - e let it stauntslre. 
" "Whan al -is pnYd is kast to grund - e, 
" Dhe root-e shal be faste bund'e. 
"He shal noo mames Herte bee - re, 
" But evm lust -e shal forbee - re 
" Of man, and lu'tsh an oks -is meet*e 
" Of gras -e shal purtshaas - , and eet'e, 
" Til dhat dhe waa - ter of dhe Heevne 
" Haav waish-en uim bii t«7nres seevne, 
" Soo dhat He bee thurk«'h knoou - ari&ht, 
" What is dhe HeevenhYtsb/e mikht, 
" And bee maad unrb'l too dhe wil'e 
u Of H?'m, whj'tsh al mai saav and sp«*l - e." 
Dhi's kt'q uut of -ts sweevn- abraid-e. 

And Hee upon* dhe morw- it said - e 
Untoo* dhe klerk-es wtu'tsh -e Had - e, 
But noon of Hem dhe sooth arad - e, 
"Was noon -is sweevne kuuth undoo - . 
And it stood dh/lk-e t;mre so, 
Dh;'s ktq Had tn subdzhek'smun* 
Dzhyydce-, and of afek'snmn - 
Abuv al udhr- oon Daamieel* 
He luveth, for He kuuth-e wel 
J)i\irne dhat noon udlrer kuutlre. 
To H/m weer al*e thtq'es kuutlre 
As Hee it Had of God'es graase. 
He was befoor dhe k;'q-es faa - se 
Asent - , and bou-de dhat -e sholde 
Upon- dhe puint dhe kz'q of - toold - e, 

i 139 

Dhe for-tyyn* of -is sweevn- ekspumrde, 
As it shold af-terward be fun'de 

"Whan Daame'eel- dhis sweevne Herd*e 
He stood loq tiim eer Hee answerd-e, 
And maad a wumder Hevit tshee-re. 
Dhe k/q took Heed of h;'s manee - re 
And baad -;'m tel - e dhat -e w;'st - e, 
As Hee to whoom -e mutslre tr/st - e, 
And said -e wold - e noukM-ht be rwooth. 
But Daa - n;'eel - was wun-der looth, 
And said : " Upon - dhtt foo-men al - e, 
" Su'r k/q dhtt sweevne moo - te fal'e ! 
" And, naa dhelees, tutsh-end- of dhi's, 
" Ii wol dhee teben huu it is, 
" And what d/seez- is to dhee shaa - pe. 
" God wot if dhuu it shalt eskaape ! 

" Dhe Hi'/ih'e tree whi'tsh dhuu Hast sain 
""With leef ;md fryyt soo wel besain - , 
" Dhe whrtsh stood in dhe world amtd'es, 
" So dhat dhe beest - es and dhe bri'd'es 
" Guvern - ed weer of hhh alooir, 
" Siir k/q, betook - neth dtuV persoon - , 
" Wh/tsh stant abuv al erthdit th/qxs, 
" Dims reeiren un-der dhee dhe kf'q-es, 
"And al dhe peepd- untoo- dhee luufeth, 
" And al dhe world dhu puu'eer- duureth, 



Chap. VII. § 2. 

Earl. MS. 3869. 

So tat wi]? vein honour deceiued 
Thou haft te reuerence weyued 
Fro him which is )>i king a boue 
That tou for drede ne for loue 

i 140 

"Wolt noting knowen of ti godd 
Which now for te ha]? mad a rodd 
Thi veine gloire and pi folie 
With grete peines to chaftie 
And of be vois tou herdeft fpeke 
Which bad te bowes for to breke 
And hewe and felle doun be tree 
That word belonge]? vnto bee 
Thi regne fchal ben ouertrowe 
And tou despuiled for a trowe 
Bot bat te Rote fcholde ftonde 
Be bat bou fchal wel vnderftonde 
Ther fchal a biden of ti regne 
A time ajein whan }>ou fchalt regne 

And ek of tat tou herdeft feie 

To take a mannes herte a weie 

And sette tere a beftial 

So tat he lich an Oxe fchal f 

Pafture . and tat hebe bereined 

Be times fefhe and fore peined 

Til bat he knowe his goddes mihtes 

[fol. 51] 
Than fcholde he ftonde ajein vprihtes 
Al bis betokne)> bin aftat 
Which now wit god is in debat 
Thi mannes forme fchal be laded 
Til seuene jer ben ouerpaffed 
And in be liknefle of a befte 
Of gras fchal be bi real fefte 
The weder fchal vpon be reine 
And vnderftond bat al bis peine 

i 141 

Which tou fchal foffre bilke tide 
Is fchape al only for bi pride 
Of veine gloire and of be finne 
Which bou haft longe fto^den inne 

SO vpon bis condicton 
Thi fweuene ha)> expofic/on 
Bot er bis ting befalle in dede 
Amende bee. bis wolde ,1. rede 
Jif and departe bin almcffe 
Do mercy forb wij> rihtwifneffe 
Befcch. and prei. te hihe grace 
For fo J)Oii miht pi pes purchace 

Wi)> godd. and ftond in good acord 
BOt Pride is lob to lcuc his lord 
And wol noght soffre humilite 
Wit him to ftonde in no degree 
And whan a fchip haj? loft his ftiere 
Is non fo wys ]?at mai him ftiere 

Sari MS. 7184. 

So that with vein honour deceiued 
Thou haft the reuerence weyued 
Fro him which is thi king aboue 
That thou for drede ne for loue 

i 140 

Wolt no thing knowen of this god 
Which now for the hath made a rod 
Thi veingloire and thi folie 
With gret peines to chaftie 
And of the vois thou herdeft fpeke 
Which bad the bowes for to breke 
And hewe and felle doun the tree 
That word belongeth vnto the 
Thi reigne fhall be ouerthrowe 
And thou defpuiled for a throwe 
But that the roote fhall ftonde 
But that thou fhalt wel vnderftonde 
Ther shall a biden of thi reigne 
A tyme ayein whan thou shalt regne 

[fol. 23, b, 2] 
And eke of that thou herdeft feie 
To take a mannes hert aweie 
And fette there a beftiall 
So that he like an oxe (hall 
Pafture. and that he be bereined 
Be tymes fefne and fore peined, 
Till that he knowe his goddes mijtes, 

Than fhuld he ftonde ayein vprightes 
All this betokeneth thine estat 
Which now with god is in debat 
Thi mannes forme fhall be lalTed 
Til fenen yere ben ouerpaffed 
And in the likneffe of a befte 
Of gras shall be thi roiall fefte 
The weder fhall vpon the rayne 
And vnderftonde that all his peine 

i 141 
Which thou fhalt fuffre thilke tide 
Is fhape nil only for thi pride 
Of veingloire and of the sinne 
Which thou haft longe ftonden inne 
So vpon this condicion 
Thi fweuene hath expoficion 
But er this thing befalle indede 
Amende the this wold I rede 
Yif and departe thine aliueffe 
Doth mercy forth with rightwifneffe 
Befeche and praie the high grace 
For so thou ruijt thi pees purchace 

With god and ftonde in good acord. 
But pride is loth to leue his lorde 
And wol not fuffre humilite 
With him to ftonde in no degree 
And whan a fhip hath loft his ftiere 
Is non fo wys that may him ftiere 

Chap. VII. § 2. 



Soc. Ant. MS. 134. 

So J>«t with veyne honours deceyued. 
Thou haft be reuc;-ence weyued 
Fro him whiche is }>y kynge aboue 
That )>ou for drede ne for loue. 

1140 57, M] 

Wolte no }ynge knowew of hy god [fo. 

Whiche now for ]>e ha)> made arod 

Thy vayne glory and }>y folye 

WiJ? gret peynis to chaftye 

And of )>e voyce J'ou herdeft fpeke. 

Whiche bad ]>e bowis for to breke 

And hewe and falle douw be tre 

That worde bilongej) vn to )»e 

Thy regne fchall ben ouer)>rowe 

And J^ou defpuiled for a Jrowe 

Bot bat he rote fchulde ftonde 

Be bat .)>ou. fchalt wel vndirftonde 

Ther fchall abiden of J>y regne 

A tyme azen whan }>o\i fchalt regne 

And eek of bat }>ou herdeft fay. 
To take ama«nis herte awey 
And sette ber a beftiall 
So bat he liche an oxe fchall 
Pasture and bat he be bereynid 
Be tymes feuene and fore peyned 
Till \at he knowe his goddis myztis 

Than fchulde he ftonde azen vpryztis 
All Vis betokened byne aftate 
Whiche now vfith god is indebate 
Thy mawnis forme fchall be laffid 
Til seuew zere ben outrpaffid 
And in he likneffe of abefte 
Of gras fchall be J>y riall fefte 
The wedir fchall vp on be reyne 
And vndirftoxde bat all J>is peyne 

i 141 
Whiche .bou. fchalte fuffre hilke tyde 
Is fchape all only for by pryde 
Of vayne glory and of )>y fynne 
Whiche .Jou. hafte longe ftonden i«ne 

So vp on }>is cowdiciou« 
Thi fweuew haj> expoficiouw 
But er }>is J>y»ge be falle in dede 
Amende >e )>is wolde y rede 
Zif and departe byn almefle 
Do me>-cy forj with ryztwifneffe 
Befeche and preye be hyze grace. 
For fo .bou. myzte >y pees purchace 

[fo. 57, b, 2] 
With god and ftonde in good acorde 

But pn'de is lo}> to leue his lorde 
And wolde nouzt suffre humilite 
With him to ftonde in nodegre 
And whawne a fchip ha}> lofte his ftere 
Is nouw fo wis J>«t may him ftere 

Conjectured Pron unciation. 

" Soo dhat, wrth vam on - uur- desaived, 
" Dhuu Hast dhe reverens - e waived 
"Froo nim, whrtsh is dim k«'q abuve, 
" Dhat dhuu for dreed-e nee for luve 

i 140 

" Wolt noo - th?'q knoou-en of dhis God, 
" Wh/tsh nuu for dhee Hath maad a rod, 
"Dim vain e gloo - r* and dim folme 
" With greet'e panres to tshast; re. 
" And of dhe vuis dhuu Herd'est speek'e, 
" Whrtsh baad dhe boou-es for to breek'e, 
" And Heu and fel'e duun dhe tree, — 
" Dhat word beloq-eth uirto dhee. 
"Dim reen-e shal been overthroou-e, 
" And dhuu despuil-ed for a throou-e. 
" But dhat dhe root-e shold'e stond-e, 
" Bii dhat dhuu shalt wel un-derstond - e, 
" Dher shal abnd'en of dim reen - e 
" A tiim ajain- whan dhuu shalt reen*e. 

" And eek of dhat dhuu Herd'est sai - e, 
" To taak a man-es Hert awai'e, 
" And set-e dheer a bees-t;'aal-, 
" So dhat -e UYk an oks-e shal 
"Pastyyr, and dhat -e bee berain'ed 
"Bii tVmre seevn- and soo-re pain - ed 
" Til dhat -e knoou -is God - es mikht'es, 

" Dhan shold -e stond ajain- upn'Aht'es— 
" Al dhis betook-netk dlmn estaat - , 
" Wln'tsh nuu w/th God is m debaat - , 
" Dhn man-es fornre shal be lasted 
" Til seevne jeer been overpassed, 
" And m dhe luk'nes* of a beest-e 
" Of gras shal bee dim ree - al feest'e 
" Dhe wed-er shal upon - dhee raure. 
" And un-derstond - dhat al dhi's paure 

i 141 
" Whi'tsh dhuu shalt suf-er dh/lk - e tiid'e, 
" Is shaap al oon'hV for dim pr//d*e 
" Of vain-e gloo're and of dhe sm*e 
" Whf'tsh dhuu Hast loq-e stond-en t'n # e. 

" Soo up-on 1 dhis kond/rsumn 
" Dhii sweevn- -ath ekspos/rsmun. 
" But eer dhis thiq befal - in deed - e 
" Amend'e dhee. Dhis wold Ii reed'e, 
" J«'v, and depart'e dhan almes - e, 
" Doo mersiY forth With r/Aht'Wf'snes'e, 
" Beseetslr and prai dhe H('kh - e graas - e. 
" For soo dhuu m/Aht dhn' pees purtshaas-e 

"With God, and stond m good akord - ." 

But pra'd is looth to leev -<s lord, 
And wol nouk«ht suf-r- yymn'ln*teer 
W/th nim to stond »n noo deegree - . 
And when a ship nath lost -('s steer*e 
Is noon soo w<7s dhat mai -mi steer'e 



Chap. VII. § 

Earl. MS. 3869. 

Ajein he wawes in a rage 
This proude king in his corage 
Humilite hah fo forlore 
That for no fweuene he fih tofore 
Ne jit for al hat Daniel 
Him hah confeiled eumdel 
He let it paffe out of his niynde 
Thurgh veine gloire. and as he blinde 
He feh no weie. er him be wo 
And fell wibinne a time fo 
As he in babiloine went 
. pe vanite of pride him hente 

i 142 

His herte aros of veine gloire 

So hat he drowh into meraoire 

His lordfchipe and his regalie 

Wih wordes of Surquiderie 

And whanne hat he him nioft auau«teh 

That lord which veine gloire dauxteh 

Al fodeinliehe as who feith treis [fo. 

Wher hat he ftod in his Paleis 51£] 

He tok him fro he mennes fihte 

Was non of hem. fo war hat mihte 

Sette yhe. wher hat he becom 

And has was he from his kingdon 

Into he wilde Foreft drawe 

Wher hat he mihti goddes lawe 

Thurgh his pouer dede him tranfforme 

Fro man into a beftes forme 

And lich an. Oxe vnder he fot 

He grafeh as he nedes mot 

To geten him his Hues fode 

Tho hoght him colde grafes goode 

That whilom eet he hote fpices 

Thus was he torned fro delices 

The wyn whiche he was wont to drinke 

He tok hanne of he welles brinke 
Or of he pet or of he flowh 
It hoghte him hanne good ynowh 
In ftede of chambres wel arraied 
He was hanne of a buiffh wel paied 
The harde grounde he lay vpon 
For ohre pilwes hah he non 

i 143 

The ftormes and he Reines falle 
The wyndcs blowe vpon him alle 
He was tormented day and nyht 
Such was he hihe goddes myht 
Til feuene jer an ende toke 
Vpon himfelf ho gan he loke 
In ftede of mete gras and stres 
In ftede of handes longe cles 
In ftede of man a beftes lyke 
He feih and hanne he gan to fyke 
For cloh for gold and for perrie 
Which him was wonte to niagnefie 

Sari. MS. 7184. 

Ayein the wawes in a rage 
This proude king in his corage 
Humilite hath so forlore 
That for no fweuene he figh tofore 
Ne yit for all that Daniell 
Him hath counfeiled eueridell 
He let it paffe out of his mynde 
Throuj veingloire and as the blinde 
He feth no weie er him be wo 
And fel withinne a tyme fo 
As he in Babiloine wente 
The vanite of pride him hente 

i 142 

His herte aros of veingloire 

So that he drough into memoire 

His lordfhip and his regalie [fo. 24, 

With wordes of furquideie a, 1] 

And whan that he him moft auaunteth 

That lord which veingloire daunteth 

Al fodeinlich as who feith treis 

Wher that he ftood in his paleis 

He took him fro the mennes fighte 

Was non of hem so war that mijte 

Sette yhe wher that he becom 

And was he from his kingdom 

In to the wilde foreft drawe 

Wher that the mighti goddes lawe 

Throuj his pouer dede him tranfforme 

Fro man in to a beftes forme 

And lich an oxe vnder the fote 

He grafeth as he nedes mote 

To geten him his lyues fode 

Tho thoujt him colde grafes goode 

That whilom eet the hote fpices 

Thus was he torned fro delices 

The wyn which he was wont to drinke 

He took thanne of the welles brinke 
Or of the pit or of the slough 
It thoujt him thanne good Inouj 
In ftede of chambres well arraied 
He was thanne of a buffh wel paied 
The harde ground he lay vpon 
For othir pilwes had he non 

i 143 

The ftormes and the reines falle 
The windes blowe vpon him alle 
He was tormented day and night 
Such was the high goddes mijt 
Til feuene yere. and ende took 
Vpon him felf tho gan he look 
In ftede of mete gras and tres 
In ftede of handes long clees 
In ftede of man a beftes like 
He figh and thanne he gan to fike 
For cloth of gold and of perrie 
Which him was wont to magnifie 

Chap. YII. $ 2. 



Soc. Ant. MS. 134. 

Azen be wawis in a rage 

This proude kynge in his corage 

Humilite hab fo for lore 

That for no fweue« he fyze to fore 

Ne zit for all b«t danieli 

Him hah counfeylid euerj deell 

He lete it paffe oute of his mynde 

Thorow vayne glorye and as he hlynde 

He feet no wele er him be woo 

And fell wi't//inne a tyme foo 

As he in babiloyne wente 

pe vanite of pride hi;« hente 

i 142 

His herte aros of vayne glorye 

So bat he drow in to memorye 

His lordfchipe and his regalye 

Wt'tA wordis of furquidrye 

And whawne b«t he him mod auaunteb 

That lorde whiche vayne glorye dauntej? 

All fodeyneliche as who fayeth treis 

Where b«t he ftood in his paleys 

He toke him fro be me/mis fyzte 

"Was nonw of hem fo war bat myzte 

Sette ye where bat he bicome 

And bus was he from his kingdowm 

In to be wilde forest drawe 

Where bat be myzty goddis lawe 

Thorow his power did hi;» tranfforme 

Fro ma« in to abeftis forme 

And liche an oxe vndir be fote 

He grafeb as he nedis mot 

To gete>; hi;« his livis foode 

Tho bouzte him colde graffis goode 

That whilom eet be hoot fpicis 

Thus was he turnid fro delicis. 

The wyne whiche he was wonte to 

drynke [fo. 58, a, 1] 

He tok bawne of be wellis brynke 
Or of be pitte or of the floghe 
It bouzte hi»i bawne good y nowe 
In ftede of chambris wel arrayed 
He was bawne of a bufche wel payed 
The harde grounde he lay vp on 
For ober pUowis hab he none 

i 143 

The ftormia and be raynis falle 
The wyndis blowe vp on him alle 
He was turme><tid day and nyzte 
Whiche was be hyze goddis myzte 
Til feuex zere an ende tok 
Vp on him felfe bo gan he loke 
In ftede of mete gras and treis 
In ftede of handis longe clees 
In ftede of man a beftis like 
He fyze and bawne he gan to (ike 
For clob for golde and be perry 
Whiche him was wonte to magnifye 

Conjectured Pronunciation. 

Ajain - dhe wau-es m a raadzlre. 

Dh?'s pruud-e ki'q in h«s kooraadzb/e 

Yynm'hYtee* Hath soo forloore, 

Dhat for noo sweevn- -e sikh to foore 

Ne j;'t for al dhat Daa - ni'eel - 

H/m Hath kunsail-ed evrti deel — 

He let it pas uut of -is mmd - e 

Thrukwh vain - e glooT*, and, as dhe blmd-e, 

He seeth noo wai, eer H*'ni be woo. 

And fel w/thm a tiVnre soo, 

As Hee m Babiloo - m'e went 

Dhe vaa'n^tee of pmd -im Hent. 

i 142 

Hi's Hert arooz- of vain-e gloo - n'e, 

So dhat He drooukwh mtoo - memooT/e, 

H?s lord - sh??p, and -is ree'gaahre 

With word'es of syyrk«-deru - e, 

And, whan dhat Hee -im moost avaunt'eth, 

Dhat Lord, whi'tsh vaure gloo'r/e daunt'eth, 

Al sud-ainl? j'tsh', as who saith : Trais ! 

Wheer dhat -e stood in his palais*, 

He took -im froo dhe men - es s;7<ht - e. 

Was noon of Hem soo waar, dhat mikht'e 

Set ire wheer that Hee bekoonr, 

And dims was Hee from m's keq-doonr 

Jntoo - dhe w;'ld - e forest* drau-e, 

Wheer dhat dhe mikht'ii God - es lau*e 

Thurkwh uis pmreer, ded H«'m transforms 

Fro man intoo* a beest - es fornre. 

And ln'tsh an oks mrder dhe foot - e 

He graaz - eth, as -e. need - es moot - e 

To get*en H«m -is l-Vves food - e. 

Dhoo thoukwht -im koold-e gras - es good'e, 

Dhat whul'oom eet dhe Hoot - e spuses, 

Dhus was -e tunred froo dehYs-es. 

Dhe wiin, whrtsh -e was woont to dr-'qk-e, 

He took dhan of dhe wel'es bnqk*e, 

Or of dhe pzt, or of dhe sluukwh. 

It thouktt'ht -im dhan - e good ''nuukw'h\ 

In steed of tshaunrberz wel arared, 

He was dhan of a bush wel pai-ed. 

Dhe Hard*e grund -e lai upon* 

For udlrre p/l-wes Hath -e noon. 

i 143 

Dhe stornres and dhe rain-es fal-e, 
Dhe wmd - es bloou* upon - -im al - e. 
He was torment-ed dai and nikht — 
Sutsh was dhe H-'Alre God - es m/kht — 
Til seevne jeer an end - e took-e. 
Upon* -i'mself - dhoo gan -e look # e. 
In steed of meet'e gras and streez, 
In steed of Hand-es loq-e kleez, 
In steed of man a beest'es l-Yk*e 
He sikh, and dhan -e gan to s-'-Ve 
For klooth of goold and for per/re, 
Whi'tsh Hmi was wont to mairndVre. 



Chap. VII. § 2. 

Marl. MS. 3869. 

Whan he behield his Cote of heres 
He wepte. and with fulwoful teres 
Vp to he heuene he cafte his chiere 
Wepende. and hoghte in his manere 
Thogh he no wordes mihte winne 
Thus l'eide his herte and fpak withinne 
myhti godd hat al haft wroght 
And al myhte briuge ajein to noght 
Now knowe .1. wel. hot al of hee 
This worlde hah no profpmte. 
In hin afpect ben alle liche [fo. 52] 
pe pouere man and ek he riche 
Wihoute hee her mai no wight 
And h«u a boue alle ohre miht 

niihti lord toward my vice 
Thi mercy medle wih iuftice 
And .1. woll make a couenant 
That of my lif he remenant 

i 144 

1 fchal it be hi grace amende 
And in hi lawe so defpende 
That veine gloire I fchal efchiue 
And bowe vnto hin hefte and fiue 

Humilite. and hat .1. vowe 

And fo henkende he gan dounbowe 

And hogh him lacke vois and fpeche 

He gan vp wih his feet a reche 

And wailende in his beftly fteuene 

He made his pleignte vnto he heuene 

He kneleh in his wife and braieh 

To feche merci and affaieh 

His god. whiche made him noting 

"Whan hat he fib his pride change 
Anon as he was humble and tame 
He fond toward his god he fame 
And in a twinklinge of alok 
His mannes forme ajein he tok 
And was reformed to the regne 
In which hat he was wont to regne 
So hat he Pride of veine gloire 
Eucre afterward out of memoire 
He let it paffe. and hus is fchewed 
"What is to ben of pride vnhewed 
Ajein he hiliQ goddes lawe 
To whom nomau mai be felawe. 

Sari. MS. 7184. 

"Whan he behield his cote of heres 
He wepte. and with wo full teres 
Vp to the heuene he caft his chiere 
Wepend and thoujt in this manere 
Thouj he no wordes mijte winne 
Thus faid his hert and fpak withinne 
mighti god that haft all wroujt 
And al mijt bringe ayein to nought 
Now knowe I wel but all of the 
This world hath no profperite [fol. 24, 
In thine afpect ben alle liche a, 2] 
The pouer man and eke the riche 
Withoute the ther may no wight 
And thou aboue all othre mijt 

mijti lord toward my vice 
Thi mercy medle with iuftice 
And I woll make a couenant 
That of my lif the remen««nt 

i 144 

1 shall be thi grace amende 
And in thi lawe fo defpende 
That veingloire I shall efcheue 
And bowe vnto thine hefte and fiue 

Humilite. and that I vowe 

And fo thenkend he gan doun bowe 

And thou; him lacke vois and fpeche 

He gan vp with his feet areche 

And weiland in his beftli fteuene 

He made his pleinte vnto the heuene 

He kneleth in his wife and braieth 

To feche mercy and affaieth 

His god. which made him nothing 

Whan that he figh his pride change 
Anon as he was humble and tame 
He fond toward his god the fame 
And in a twinkeling of a look 
His mannes forme ayein he took 
And was reformed to the regne 
In which that lie was wont to reigne 
So that the pride of veingloire 
Euer aftirward out of memoire 
He let it paffe and thus is fhewed 
What is to ben of pride vnthewed 
Ayein the high goddes lawe 
To whom noman may befelawe. 

Chap. VII. § 2. 



Soc. Ant. MS. 134. 

Whan he bihilde his cote of heris 
He wepte and with fulwofull teris 
Vp to J>e heuew he caftc his chere 
Wepende and )>ouzte in Jus manere 
Thouz he no wordis myzte wy«ne 
Thus feyde his herte and fpak wi't/rinne 
myzty god )>«t all haft wrouzte 
And all myzte brywge azen to nouzt 
Now knowe .1. well but all of )>ee 
This world hah no profpmte 
In byn afpet ben all liche 
pe pouere nie/< and eek }>e riche 
With oute }>e ]>er may no wyzte 
And .}>ou. aboue all o\>er myzte 

myzty lorde towarde my vice 
Thy mercy medle with iustice 
And .1. wol make a couenaunte 
That of my lyf )>e remenauute 

i 144 

1 fchall it be J>y grace amewde 
And in J?y lawe so defpewde 

That vayne glorye .y. fchall efchiue 
And bowe vn to j^yne hefte aud fiue 

[fo. 58, a, 2] 
Humilite and ]>ai .y. vowe 
And fo henkeude he gan dou« bowe 
And j>ouz him lacke voys of fpeche 
He gan vp with his feet areche 
And waylende in his bcftly fteuew 
He made his playnte vn to }>e heuen 
He knelej? in his wife and prayej? 
To feche mercy and affayeth 
His god whiche made hi>« no ]>y«ge 

"When J?«t he fyze his pride chaunge 
Anon?* as he was vnible and tame 
He fonde towarde his god )>e fame 
And in a twynkely«ge of a loke 
His mawnis forme azen he tok 
And was reformid to the regne 
In whiche ]>at he was wonte to regne 
So Tpat £e pryde of vayne glorye 
Euer aftirwarde oute of memorye 
He lete it paffe and ]>us it fchewid 
What is to ben of pro'de vnjewid. 
Azen }>e hyze goddis lawe 
To whow no maw may be felawe. 

Conjectured Pron un elation. 

Whan Hee beHeeld - -is koot of Heeres, 
He wept, and wrth ful woo-ful teeres 
Up too dhe Heevn- -e kast -is tsheere, 
Weep - end - , and thoukwht ni dhis maneere. 
Dhoouk«h Hee noo word - es mdht-e wt'n'e, 
Dhus said -is Hert, and spaak w/thnre. 
" Oo mikht'ii God ! dhat al Hast rwoukwht, 
"And - al mz'&ht bn'q ajaiir to noukifht ! 
" Nuu knoou Ii wel, but nut of -dhee 
" Bhis world -ath noo prosperntee - . 
" In dhiin aspekt - been al - e lutslre, 
" Dhe poovre man, and eek dhe rrtslre. 
" W«'thuut - e -dhee dher - mai noo w«'/tht, 
" And dhuu abuv al udlrre m/Aht. 
" Oo mi/cht-ii Lord, toward - mii v;Ys - e, 
" Dhu mersu med-'l w;'th dzhyst«s - e, 
" And Ii wol maak a kmrvenaunt - , 
" Dhat of mii liii dhe renrenaunt - 

i 144 

" Ii shal it hii dhii graas amend'e, 
" And in dhii lau - e soo despend-e, 
" Dhat vain-e gloo'n Ii shal estshyye, 
" And buu untoo - dhiin Hest, and syye 

" YyimrhYtee - , and dhat Ii vuire ! " 
And soo theqk-end- -e gan duun buu - e, 
And dhooukuh -;'m lak - e vuis and speetslre, 
He gan up w/th -is feet areetslre, 
And wail'eud - m -;'s beest - l;7 steevne, 
He maad -is plaint untoo - dhe Heevne. 
He kneel - eth tn -is yriis and biai - eth, 
To seetslre mersu, and asai - eth 
His God, wlu'tsh maad -im noo'tluq - 

straundzh - e, 
Dhan dhat -e sikh -is pritd'e tshaundzh - e. 
Anoon - as Hee was unrbl- and taanre 
He iund toward - -is God dhe saanre, 
And, tn a twf'qk'h'q - of a look, 
H/s man - es form ajain - -e took, 
And was refornred too dhe reen - e, 
In wli/tsh dhat Hee was woont to reen - e, 
Soo dhat dhe prad of vain - e gloorz'e 
Eer afterward - uut of memooree 
He let it pas. And dhus is sheu - ed 
Whrtt is to been of pmd untheu - ed 
Ajaiir dhe ni/Are God - es lau - e, 
To whoom noo man mai bee fel - au - e. 



CHAr. VII. § 2. 


Earl. MS. 3490, fo. 214, b, 2. 

iii 372 
Myn holy Fader graunt mercy. 
Quod I to hyni. and to the qweene. 
I telle on knees vppon the grene. 
And toke my leue for to wende. 
Bot (he that wolde make an ende. 
As therto with I was mofte able. 
A peire of bedes blakke as fable. 
She tooke and henge my nekke aboute. 
Vppon the gaudes al withoute. 

iii 373 
Was write of golde pour repofir. 
Lo thus fhe feide Johan Gower. 
Now thou art at the lafte cafte. 
This haue I for thyn eafe cafte. 
That thou no more of loue feche. 
Bot my wille is that thou befech. 
And prey here aftir for the pees. 
* ♦ * * 

For in the lawe of my comune. 
"We benot fhapen to comune. 

iii 374 
Thi felf and I neuer aftir this. 
Nowe haue I feide althat ther is. 
Of loue as for thy fynal ende. 
A dieu for I mote fro the wende. 
And grete welle Chaucer whan ye mete. 
As my difciple and my poete. [fo. 215, 
For in the noures of his youth. «, 1] 
In fondry wife as he wel couth. 
Of dytees and of fonges glade. 
The wich he for my fake made. 
The londe fulfilled is ouer alle. 
Wherof to hym in fpecialle. 
Aboue alle othir I am moil holde. 
For thi nowe in his daies olde. 
Thou fhalle hym telle this meffage. 
That he vppon his later age. 
To sett an ende of alle his werke. 
As he wich is myn owne clerke. 
Do make his teftament of loue. 
As thou haft do thie fhrifte aboue. 
So that my court it may recorde. 
Madame I can me wel accorde. 
Quod I to telle as ye me bidde. 
And with that worde it so bitidde. 
Outc of my fiht alle fodeynly. 
Enclofed in a ftcrrie fkyc. 
Vp to the heuene venus ftrauht. 
And I my rilit wey cauht. 
Home fro the wode and forth I wentc. 
"Where as with al myn hole entente. 
Thus with my bedes vpon honde. 
For hem that true loue fonde. 
I thenkc bidde while I lyue. 
Vppon the poynt wich I am fhriff. 

Soc. of Antiquaries MS. 134. fo. 248, a.l. 

iii 372 
Myn holy fadir graunt mercy. 
Quod I to him and to be quene. 
I fel on kneis vp on be grene. 
And took my leue for to wende. 
But fche b«t wolde make an ende 
As berto whiche I was moft able. 
A peyre of bedis blak as fable. 
Sche took and hinge my necke aboute. 
Vp on be gaudis all witA oute. 

iii 373 
"Was write of golde pur repofer. 
Lo bus fche feyde Johan Gower. 
Now bou arte at be lafte casfte 
This have I for Vine efe cafte. 
That bou no more of loue feche. 
But my wille is \at bou bifeche. 
And praye here aftyr for be pees. 
# * * * 

For in be lawe of my comune. [fo. 248, 
"We be not fchapew to comune. a, 2] 

iii 374 
Thi felfe and I neuer aftir Jus 
Now haue I feyde all b«t \er is. 
Of loue as for )>i final ende. 
A dieu for I mot fro be wende. 

And grete wel chaueer whan ze mete. 
As my difciple and my poete 
For in be flouris of his zoube 
In fondry wife as he wel coube 
Of diteis and of fongis glade. 
The whiche he for my fake made. 
The londe fulfilde is oueral. 
Whereof to him in fpeciall. 
A boue alle ober I am most holde. 
For bi now iu his dayes olde. 
Thou fchalt him telle jus meffage. 
That he vp on his latter age. 
To fette an ende of all his werke 
As he whiche is myw owen clerke. 
Do make his testemewt of loue. 
As bou hast do hi fchryfte aboue. 
So b«t my courte it may recorde. 
Madame I can me wel acorde. 
Quod I to telle as ye me bidde. 
And with b«t world it so bitidde. 
Oute of my fyzte all fodenly. [fo. 248, 
Enclofid in a ftcrrid sky. b, 1 J 

Vp to be heucw venus ftrauzte 
And I my ryzt wey cauzte. 
Horn fro be wode and fovJ> I wentc 
Where as wttA all my« hool entente. 
Thus with my bedis vp on honde. 
For hem ]>at trewe love fonde. 
I thenke bidde while I lyue. 
Vp on be poynte which I am fchryue. 

Chap. VII. § 2. 




Systematic Orthography. 

iii 372 
"Myn holy Fader grawnd mercy!" 
Quod I to him, and to the quene 
I fel on knees upon the grene, 
And took my leve for to wende. 
But sche, that wolde mak' an ende, 
Ar theertowith I was most ahel, 
A pair' of bedes blak' as sabel 
She took, and heng my nekk' aboute. 
Upon the gawdes al withoute 

iii 373 
"Was writ of gold' Pour reposer. 
" Lo !" thus she seyde, " John Goueer, 
" Nou thou art at the laste caste, 
" This have I for thyn ese caste, 
" That thou no moor' of love seche, 
" But my will' is that thou biseche, 
" And prey' herafter for thy pees. 
* ' * * * 

" For in the law' of my comune, 
" We be not shapen to comune, 

iii 374 
" Thyself and I, never after this, 
" Nou have I seyd' al that ther is 
" Of lov' as for thy fynal ende. 
" Adieu ! for I moot fro the wende. 
" And greet wel Chawcer, whan ye mete, 
" As my discypl', and my poete. 
" For in the fioures of his youthe, 
" In sondry wys', as he wel couthe, 
" Of dytees and of songes glade, 
" The whicb he for my sake made, 
" The lond fulfil' d is overal. 
" "Wherof to him, in special, 
" Abov' all' oth'r' I am moost holde. 
" Forthy nou in his dayes oolde 
" Thou shalt him telle this message : 
" That he upon his later age 
" To sett' an end' of al his werk, 
" As he which is myn ow'ne clerk, 
" Do mak' his testament of love, 
" As thou hast do thy schrift' above, 
" So that my court it mai recorde." 
" Madam', I can me wel acorde," 
Quod I, " to tell' as ye me bidde." 
And with that word it so bitidde, 
Out of my sight', al sodainly 
Enclosed in a sterred sky 
Up to the heven Venus strawghte. 
And I my righte wey [then] cawghte 
Hoom fro the wod', and forth I wente 
Wheeras, with al myn hool entente, 
Thus with my bedes upon honde, 
For hem that trewe love fonde 
I thinke bidde, whyl' I lyve, 
Upon the poynt, which I am schryve. 

Conjectured Pronunciation . 

iii 372 
"Mem Hoo-lii Faa-der, graund mersii!" 
Eji>od 7* to aim, and too dhe kween-e 
Ii fel on kneez up on* dhe green-e, 
And took mii leeve for to wend-e. 
But shee, dhat wold-e maak an end-e 
As dheer-towith- Ii was most aa-b'l, 
A pair of beed-es blak as saa - b'l 
She took, and Heq nut nek abuut-e. 
Up-on- dhe gaud-es al withuut-e 

iii 373 
Was ricit of goold, Puur reepoo - seer\ 
"Loo!" dhus she said-e, "Dzhon Guu-eer, 
" Nuu dhuu art at dhe last'e kast-e, 
" Dhis Haav Ii for dhiin ee-ze kast-e, 
" Dhat dhuu noo moor of luve seetslre, 
" But mii wel is dhat dhuu biseetsh-e, 
" And prai -eerafVer for dhii pees. 
* * * * 

" For in dhe lau of mii komyyn*e 
" We bee not shaap-en too komyjrre, 

iii 374 
" Dhiself- and Ii, neer aft-er dhis. 
" Nuu Haav Ii said al dhat dber is 
" Of luv', as for dhii fiin-al ende. 
" Adeu- for li moot froo dhe wende. 
" And greet weel Tshau-seer, whan je meet-e, 
" As mii disii-pl- and mii pooeet-e. 
" For in dhe fluures of -is juuth-e, 
" In smrdrii wiis, as Hee wel kuuth'e, 
" Of dw'-tees and of soq - es glaad'e, 
" Dhe wh/tsh -e for mii saak - e maad - e, 
" Dhe lond fulfild - is overal*. 
"Wherof - to Him, in spes-iaal* 
" Abuv al udh-r- Ii am moost Hold"e. 
" Fordhii - nuu in -is dares oold - e 
" Dhuu shalt -im teke dhis mesaa-dzhe : 
" Dhat Hee upon- -is laa-ter aa-dzhe 
" To set an end of al -is werk, 
" As Hee whitsh is miin ooume klerk, 
" Doo maak -is test - ament - of luve, 
" As dhuu Hast doo dhii shrift abuve, 
" Soo dhat mii kuurt it mai rekord - e." 
" Madaam, Ii kan me wel akord-e," 
Ktfod Ii, "to tel as jee me bid'e." 
And with dhat word it soo bitid - e, 
Uut of mii si£ht, al sud'ainlii 
Enklooz - ed in a ster - ed skii, 
Up too dhe Heeven Veemus straukwht'e. 
And Ii mii rikht-e wai [dhen] kaukwh'te 
Hoom froo dhe wood, and forth Ii wenfe, 
Wheeras-, with al miin hool entent-e, 
Dhus with mii beed-es up-on- hond - e, 
For Hem dhat treu-e luve fond - e 
Ii thiqk-e bide, whiil Ii liive, 
Up-on- dhe puint, which Ii am shriive. 



Chap. VII. § 3. 

§ 3. Wycliffe. 

John "Wycliffe bom 1324, died 1384, is supposed to have com- 
menced his version of the Scriptures in 1380, just as Chaucer was 
"working at his Canterbury Tales. We are not sure how much of 
the versions which pass under his name, and which have been 
recently elaborately edited, 1 are due to him, but the older form of 
the versions certainly represents the prose of the xrvth century, 
as spoken and understood by the people, on whose behoof the 
version was undertaken. Hence the present series of illustrations 
would not be complete without a short specimen of this venerable 
translation. The parable of the Prodigal Son is selected for com- 
parison with the Anglosaxon, Icelandic, and Gothic versions already 
given (pp. 534, 550, 561), and the Authorized Version, with modern 
English pronunciation, inserted in Chap. XL, § 3. 

The system of pronunciation here adopted is precisely the same 
as for Chaucer and Cower, and the termination of the imperfect 
of weak verbs, here -ide, has been reduced to (id), in accordance 
with the conclusions arrived at on p. 646-7. 

Older "Wycliffite Version, Luke xv. 11-32. 


11. Forsothe he seith, Sum 
man hadde tweye sones ; 

12. and the jongere seide to 
the fadir, Fadir, jyue to me the 
porcioun of substaunce, elhir 
catel, that byfallith to me. And 
the fadir departide to him the 

13. And not aftir manye dayes, 
able thingis gederid to gidre, the 
jongere sone wente in pilgrym- 
age in to a fer cuntree ; and 
there he wastide his substaunce 
in lyuynge leccherously. 

14. And aftir that he hadde 
endid alio thingis, a strong hun- 
gir was maud in that cuntree, 
and he bigan to haue ncde. 

15. And he wente, andcleuyde 
to oon of the citeseyns of that 
cuntree. And he sente him in 

1 The Holy Bible, containing the 
Old and New Testaments with the 
Aprocryphal books, in the Earliest 
English Versions, made from the Latin 
Vulgate by John Wycliffe and his fol- 
lowers, edited by the Rev. Josiah For- 

Conjectured Pronunciation. 

11. Forsooth' -e saith, Sum 
man Had - e tware suumes ; 

12. and the Jnq - ere said - e to 
dhe faa'd/r, Faa'dir, jeVve to mee 
dhe pors/uun of sukrstauns, 
edlWr kat'eb, dhat bzfabeth to 
mee. And dhe faa*d«r departed 
to mm. dhe sub'stauns. 

13. And not af'ti'r man'j'e 
dares, al*e thtq'ts ged'erid to 
gid're, dhe juq'ere smrne went 
in. pibgrmiaadzh m to a fer 
kurrtree'; and dher -e was't/d -is 
sub'stauns mh'v/qe letsh'erusltV. 

14. And afWr dhat -e Had 
end v /d al'e thtq/ts, a stroq Huq*- 
gir was maad m dhat kun'tree*, 
and -e b;gan* to uaav need'e. 

15. And -e wcnt'c, and 
kleewe'd to oon of dhe sj'Wzainz 
of dhat kun - tree*. And nee sent 

shall, F.R.S., etc., late fellow of Exeter 
College, and Sir Frederic Madden, 
K.H., F.R.S., etc., keeper of the MSS. 
in the British Museum, Oxford, 1850, 
4to., 4 vols. 

Chap. VII. § 3. 




to Lis toun, that he schulde 
feede hoggis. 

16. And he coueitide to fille 
his wombe of the coddis whiche 
the hoggis eeten, and no man 
jaf to him. 

17. Sothli he, turned ajen in 
to him silf, seyde, Hou many 
hirid men in my fadir hous, han 
plente of looues ; forsothe I 
perische here thurj hungir. 

18. I schal ryse, and I schal 
go to my fadir, and I schal seie 
to him, Fadir I haue synned 
ajens heuene, and bifore thee ; 

19. now I am not worthi to 
be clepid thi sone, make me as 
oon of thi hyrid men. 

20. And he rysinge cam to 
his fadir. Sothli whanne he 
was )\t fer, his fadir syj him, 
and he was stirid by mercy. 
And he rennynge to, felde on 
his necke, and kiste him. 

21. And the sone seyde to 
him, Fadir, I haue synned 
ajens heuene, and bifore thee ; 
and now I am not worthi to be 
clepid thi sone. 

22. Forsoth the fadir seyde 
to his seruauntis, Soone bringe 
je forth the firste stoole, and 
clothe je him, and jyue je a 
ring in his hond, and schoon in 
to the feet ; 

23. and brynge je a calf maad 
fat, and sle je, and ete we, and 
plenteuously ete we. 

24. For this my sone was 
deed, and hath lyued ajen ; he 
perischide, and is founden. And 
alle bigunnen to eat plente- 

25. Forsoth his eldere sone 
was in the feeld ; and whanne 
he cam, and neijede to the hous, 

Conjectured Pronunciation. 

-im in to -*s tuun, dhat -e 
shukVe feed - e Hogg's. 

16. And -e kuvafWd to fil -is 
womb-e of dhe kod-is whitsh-e 
dhe Hog"is eet - en, and noo man 
jaav to Him. 

17. Soothd/i nee, tunrid aren* 
in to H«m s*lf, said - e, Huu man'i 
Ett'rid men in mi faa-dir huus, 
Haan plent-e of loo -vis ; for- 
sooth'e Ii peWshe Heer thurkwh 
Huq - g«r. 

18. Ii shal rii-se, and Ii shal 
goo to mi faa - di'r, and Ii shal 
sai-e to Him, Faa-di'r, Ii -aav 
sm - ed ajens' Heevene, and bi- 
focre dhee ; 

19. nuu Ii am not wurdh *ii to 
be klep-id dhii siurne, maa-ke 
mee as oon of thiV mV'rid men. 

20. And Hee, ras iq kaam to 
H«s faa-di'r. Soothdii whan -e 
was Jit fer, Hi's faa-di'r si'kh -i'm, 
and Hee was stiWd hit mersi. 
And Hee, ren'iq to, feld on -is 
nek-e, and ki'st -i'm. 

21. And dhe sturne said-e to 
Hi'm, Faa-di'r, It -aav siired 
ajens* Heevene, and bi'foo're 
dhee ; and nuu Ii am not wurdlrii 
to be klep-id dim suume. 

22. Forsooth 1 dhe faa d/r said*e 
to -is servaurrti's, Soone briq'e 
je forth dhe first e stoode, and 
kloodh'e je Him, and Ji'iv je a 
riq in -is Hond, and shoon in to 
dhe feet ; 

23. and briq-e je a kalf maad 
fat, and slee je, and eede we, 
and plen'tevusli'i ecte we. 

24. For dhis ruii soome was 
deed, and Hath lived ajen ; Hee 
peri'sh-id, and is fund-en. And 
al*e bigun - en to eet-e plen-te- 

25. Forsooth* h/s el"dere suu-ne 
was in dhe feeld ; and whan -e 
kaam, and nai/dvid to dhe huus, 



Chap. VII. § 3. 


he herde a syniphonye and a 

26. And lie clepide oon of 
the seruauntis, and axide, what 
thingis thes weren. 

27. And he seide to him, Thi 
hrodir is comen, and thi fadir 
hath slayn a fat calf, for he re- 
ceyuede him saf. 

28. Forsoth he was wroth, 
and wolde not entre. Th erf ore 
his fadir, gon out, bigan to preie 

29. And he answeringe to his 
fadir, seide, Lo ! so manye jeeris 
I seme to thee, and I brak 
neuere thi comaundement ; thou 
hast neuere jouun a kyde to me, 
that I schulde ete largely with 
my frendis. 

30. But aftir this thi sone, 
which deuouride his substaunce 
with hooris, cam, thou hast 
slayn to him a fat calf. 

31. And he seide to him, Sone, 
thou ert euere with me, and alle 
myne thingis ben thyne. 

32. Forsothe it bihofte to ete 
plenteuously, and for to ioye ; 
for this thy brother was deed, 
and lyuede ajeyn; he peryschidc, 
and he is founden. 

Conjectured Pronunciation. 

ne Herd a siva.-ion.ire and a 

26. And -e klep-e'd oon of dhe 
ser'vamrt/s, and ak-szd, what 
ttuq/f'a dheez wee-ren. 

27. And -e said - e to H«m, Dhu 
broo-der is kminren, and dhu' 
faa-d/r Hath slain a fat kalf, for 
Hee rcsaiWd -im. saaf. 

28. Forsooth- Hee was raooth, 
and wold'e not ent - re. Dheer- 
foo*re h«s faa-d«r, goon uut, 
began - to prai -im. 

29. And Hee aurrsweroq to -is 
faa-d/r, said - e, Loo ! soo man-^'e 
jee-n's Ii serv to dhee, and Ii 
braak nevre dim komaun - de- 
ment; dhuu Hast nevre joo-ven 
a k/d-e to mee, dhat Ii shuld-e 
eet-e laardzkehY with mii 

30. But afWr din's dh*« suu-ne, 
whitsh devuu'nd -is substauns 
w?th Hoo-r/s, kaam, dhuu -ast 
slain to H/'m a fat kalf. 

31. And -e said-e to Htm, 
Suu'ne, dhuu ert evre with 
me, and ahe imrne tlnq-t's been 

32. Forsooth- it bmoofte to 
eete plen-tevushV, and for to 
dzhui-e ; for dh/s dhu broo -do- 
was deed, and livid ajeir ; He 
peWslWd, and -e is fund-en. 



Illustrations of the Pronunciation of English during 
the Sixteenth Century. 


William Salesbury's Account of Welsh Pronunciation, 1567. 

The account which Salesbury furnished of the pronunciation 
of English in his time being the earliest which has been found, 
and, on account of the language in which it is written, almost 
unknown, the Philological and Early English Text Societies decided 
that it should be printed in extenso, in the original Welsh with 
a translation. This decision has been carried out in the next 
section, where Salesbury's treatise appropriately forms the first 
illustration of the pronunciation of that period. But as it explains 
English sounds by means of Welsh letters, a previous acquaintance 
with the Welsh pronunciation of that period is necessary. Fortu- 
nately, the appearance of Salesbury's dictionary created a demand 
to know the pronunciation of Welsh during the author's life- 
time, and we possess his own explanation, written twenty years 
later. The book containing it is so rare, that it is advisable to 
print it nearly in extenso, omitting only such parts as have no 
phonetic interest. Explanatory footnotes have been added, and 
the meaning of the introduced Welsh words when not given by 
Salesbury, has been annexed in Latin, for which I am chiefly 
indebted to Dr. Benjamin Davies of the Philological Society. 
It has not been considered necessary to add the pronunciation 
of the Welsh words as that is fully explained in the treatise, 
and the Welsh spelling is entirely phonetic. A list of all the 
English and Latin words, the pronunciation of which is indicated 
in this tract, will form part of the general index to Salesbury 
given at the end of the next section. 

There are two copies of this tract in the British Museum, one in 
the general and the other in the Grenville library. The book is 
generally in black letter (here printed in Roman type,) with certain 
words and letters in Roman letters (here printed in italics). The 
Preface is Roman, the Introductory letter italic. It is a small 
quarto, the size of the printed matter, without the head line, being 
5| by 3^ inches, and including the margin of the cut copy in the 
general library, the pages measure 7^ by 5^ inches. It contains 
6f sheets, being 27 leaves or 54 pages, which are unpaged and 


unfolioed. In this transcript, however, the pages of the original 
are supposed to have been numbered, and the commencement of 
each page is duly marked by a bracketed number. The title is 
lengthy and variously displayed, but is here printed uniformly. 
In the Roman type (here the italic type) portion, W, vv, are 
invariably used for "W, w, and as there is curious reference to this 
under the letter W, this peculiarity has been retained in the follow- 
ing transcript. Long f is not preserved except in the title. 

[1] A play ne and a familiar Introductio, teaching how to 
pronounce the letters in the Brytifhe tongue, now com- 
monly called Welfhe, whereby an Englyfh man fhall 
not onely wyth eafe reade the fayde tonge rightly : but 
marking the fame wel, it fhal be a meane for hym wyth 
one labour to attayne to the true pronunciation of other 
expedient and most excellent languages. Set forth by 
VV. Salefbury, 1550. And now 1567, pervfed and 
augmeted by the fame. 

This Treatife is most requifite for any man, yea though 
he can indifferently well reade the tongue, who wyl 
be thorowly acquainted with anie piece of tranflation, 
wherein the fayd Salefbury hath dealed. (*) 

Imprinted at London by Henry Denham, for Humfrey 
Toy, dwellyng at the fygne of the Helmet in Paules 
church yarde. The .xvij. of May. 1567. 

[3] To my louing Friende Maister Humfrey Toy. 

[4] . . . Pome exclamed . . . that I had peruerted the whole 
Ortographie of the [English] tounge. "Wher in deede it is not so : 
but true it is that I altered it very litle, and that in very few 
wordes, as shall manifcstlye appeare hereafter in the latter end of 
this booke. No, I altered it in no mo wordes, but in suche as I 
coulde not fynde in my hart to lende my hand, or abuse my 
penne to wryte them, othcrwyse than I haue done. For who 
in the time of most barbarousnes, and greatest corruption, dyd 
euer wryte euery worde as he souded it : As for example, they 
than wrate, Fgo dico tibi, and yet read the same, Fgu deicu teibei, 
they wrate, Agnus Dei qui tollis, but pronounced A a gnus Deei quei 
towllys} And to come to [5] the English tang. "What yong 
Scolcr did euer write Byr Lady, for by our Lady ? or nunlde for 
vnkle ? or mychgoditio for much good do it you ? or sein for signe ? % 

1 These Latin mispronunciations general sound of long o before I, see 

were therefore (eg-u dei - ku tei-bei, supra p. 194. 

Aq'nus Dee i kwei toouWs). Probably 2 The English examples were pro- 

(Dce-i) should be (Dee'ei), but it is bably pronounced (bei'r laa'dt, nuqk-1, 

not so marked. The phonetisation is m/tsh-gud-it-ju, sein). It seems scarce- 

not entirely Welsh. The pronunciation ly probable that an (o) should have been 

(toouWs) was in accordance with the used iu a familiar pronunciation of 


And thus for my good wil molested of such wranglers, shal I con- 
diseend to continue their vnskylful custome .... Or shall I proue 
what playne Dame Truth, appearing in hir owne lykenes can 

woorke against the wrynckled face neme 1 Custome? 

Soiurning at your house in Paules Churchyarde, the 6, of Maij. 
1567. Your, assuredly, welwyller W. Salesbury. 

[6] ^[ To hys louing Friende Maister Richard Colyngborne, 
Wylliam Salesburie wysheth prosperous health and perfect felicitie. 

[These two pages have no interest. They are dated — ] [7] At 
Thauies Inne in Holburne more hastily, then speedily. 1550. 

[8] Wyllyam Salesbury to the Reader. 

[These two pages set forth that after the publication of his 
dictionary persons wanting to know Welsh asked him whether his 
dictionary would serve their purpose, and] [9] .... amongst 
other communication had, they asked, whither the pronounciation 
of the Letters in Welsh, dyd dyffer from the Englysh sounding of 
them : And I sayde very muche. And so they perceiuing that they 
could not profite in buildyng any further on the Welsh, lackyng 
the foundation and ground worke (whych was the Welsh pronoun- 
ciation of the letters) desired me eftsoones to write vnto them (as 
they had herd I had done in Welsh to my Country men, to intro- 
duct them to pronounce the letters Englysh lyke) a fewe English 
rules of the naturall power of the letters in our toungue. 

And so than, in as much as I was not onelye induced wyth the 
premises, but also further perswaded, that neither any inconuenience 
or mischiefe might ensue or grow thereof, but rather the encrease 
of mutual amitie and brotherly loue, and continuall friendship (as 
it ought to be) and some commodity at the least wyle, to suche as 
be desirous to be occupied there aboutes. As for all other, euen as 
it shall neuer woorke them pleasure, so shall it no displeasure. 

Euen therefore at the last, I haue bene so bolde as to enterprise 
(condescending to such mens honest request) to inuent and wryte 
these playne, simple, and rude rudimentes of the Welsh pronouncia- 
tion of the letters, most humbly desiring the Readers to accept them 
with no lesse benouolent humanitie, then I hartily pretended to- 
wardes them, when I went about to treate of the matter. 

[10 Blank.] 

[11] % The pronounciation of the Letters in the Brytysh tungue. 

The letters in the British tungue, have the same figure and 
fashion as they haue in Englysh, and be in number as here vnder- 
neath in the Alphabet appeareth. 

good, you, which was not pronounced in l Thus printed in the original ; the 

the sustained form See p. 165, 1. 24, word h;is not been identified. Wright 

for Cotgrave's account of this phrase. quotes William d» Shoreham for kept 

Salesbury does not recognize (j, w) as neme, pay attention. — Diet, of Obs. 

different from (i, u), but I have always and Prov. English, 
used (j, w), as the difference of ortho- 
graphy is merely theoretical (p. 185). 


746 salesbtjry's WELSH PRONUNCIATION. Chap. VIII. § 1. 

A. b. c. eh. d. dd. e. f. ff. g. 1 h. i. k. 2 1. U. m. n. o. p. 3 r. 
s. t. th. v. u. w. y. 4 

^f w. in auncient bookes hatb the figure of 6 : and perhaps 
because it is the sixt vowell. 5 

% These be the vowels. 

a e i o u w y. 
These two vowels 

a. w. be mutable. 6 

^f The diphthonges be these, and be pronounced 
wyth two soundes, after the verye Greeke pro- 

Ae ai au aw ay 
ei ew 

ia ie io iw 
oe ow oy 
wy 7 
^f These letters be called consonauntes ; 

b. c. ch. d. dd. f. g. ff. k. 1. 11. m. n. o. p. r. s. t. th. v. 
[12] H An aduertisment for Writers and Printers. 
^f Ye that be young doers herein, ye must remember that in the 
lynes endes ye maye not deuide these letters ch, dd, ff, 11, th : for in 
this toungue euery one of them (though as yet they haue not proper 
figures) hath the nature of one entiere letter onely, and so as vn- 
naturall to be deuided, as b, c, d, f, or t, in Englysh. 

^j The pronoxmciation of A. 
A In the British in eueiye word hath y e true pronounciation of a 
in Latine. 8 And it is neuer souwded like the diphthong au, as 

1 Here the modern "Welsh alphabet 7 This is by no means a complete 
introduces «y = (q). list of modern Welsh diphthongs, and 

2 Not used in Modern Welsh. no notice has been taken of the numer- 

3 Here ph (f) is introduced in mo- ous Welsh triphthongs. The Welsh 
dern "Welsh but only for proper names, profess to pronounce their diphthongs 
and as a mutation of p. with each vowel distinctly, but there 

4 Salesbury's explanations give the is much difficulty in separating the 
following values to these letters, — sounds of ae ai au ay from (ai), and itv 
A aa a, B b, C k, CU kh, D d, DD from uw (iu, yu), oe, oy fall into (oi), 
dh, E ee e, F v, FF f, G g, NG q, and ei sounds to me as (ai). In ia ie io 
H h, I ii i, K k, L 1, LL lhh, M m, initial, "Welshmen conceive that they 
N n, oo o, P p, PH f, B, r, S s, T t, pronounce (ja je jo), and similarly in 
TH th, V v, U y, W u, Y y. The wi, wy they believe they say (wi, wy). 
pronunciation of the Welsh U and Y This is doubtful to me, because of the 
will be specially considered hereafter. difficulty all Welshmen experience, at 

6 This is of course merely fanciful. first, in saying ye woo (ji wuu), which 

6 The vowel o is also mutable : they generally reduce to (i uu). 

"Compare the German Umlaut, thus 8 That is the Welsh pronounce Latin 

bardd [sacerdos], pi. beirdd ; com a as their own a. Wallis evidently 

[cornu], pi. cyrn ; dwrn [pugnus], pi. heard the "Welsh a as (sese, ae), supra 

dyrnau. — P.D." p, 66, 1. 18. Compare p. 61, note. 


the Frenchmen sonncle it commyng before m or n, in theyr tonngue, 1 
nor so fully in the month as the Germaynes sound it in this woord 
wagen : 2 Nevther yet as it is pronounced in English, whan it 
commeth before ge, 11, sh, tch. For in these wordes and such other 
in Englyshe, domage, heritage, language, ashe, lashe, watch, calme, 
call, a is thought to decline toward the sound of these diphthonges 
ai, au, and the wordes to be read in thys wyse, domaige, heritaige, 
languaige, aishe, waitche, caul, caulme. 3 But as I sayd before a in 
Welsh hath alwayes but one sound, what so euer letter it folow or 
go before, as in these wordes ap, cap, whych haue the same pro- 
nounciation and signification in both the tongues. 4 

[13 J Much lesse hath a, such varietie in Welshe, as hath Aleph 
in Hebrue (which alone the poynts altered) hath the sound of 
euerye vowell. 5 Howbeit that composition, and deriuation, do oft 
tymes in the common Welsh speache chaunge a into e, as in these 
wordes, vnvveith [semel] seithfed [septimus]. So they of olde tyme 
turned a into e or ai in making their plural number of some wordes 
reseruing the same letter in the termination, and the woord not 
made one sillable longer, as apostol [apostolus], epestyl [apostoli] : 
caeth [servus], caith [servi] : dant [dens], daint [dentes], map 
[filius], maip [filii] ; sant [sanctus], saint [sancti] : tat [pater], 
tait [patres], etc., where in our tyme they extend them thus, apos- 
tolion, or apostolieit, caethion : dannedd or dannedde : maibion, santie 
or seinie : taidie or tadeu. But now in JSbrthwales daint & taid 
are become of the singuler number, taid [avus] being also altered 
in signification Neuertheles e then succeedeth, & is also wrytten 
in the steede of a : so that the Reader shall neuer be troubled 

^f The sound of B. 
B in Welsh is vniuersally read and pronoiiced as it is in Eng- 
lyshe. Albeit whan a woorde begynneth wyth b, and is ioyned 
wyth moe woordes commyng in a reason, the phrase and maner of 
the Welshe speach (muche like after the Hebrue idiome) shal alter 
the sound of that b, into the sound of the Hebrue letter that they 
call Beth not daggessed, or the Greek Veta, 6 either els of v being 
consonant in Latine or English : as thus where as b, in thys 

1 Supra p. 143, 1. 1, and p. 190. The Welsh now sometimes pronounce 

2 Meant to be sounded as (v«<7g-en, si as (sh), as ceisio petere (kai'sho), 
vaahg-en, VAAg - en) ? The ordinary and they use it to represent English 
pronunciation of modern Saxony (sh, tsh; zh, dzh), which sounds are 
sounds to me (bh<?tfglren). wanting in their language. Hence the 

3 Probably (durn-aidzh, Hert'taidzh, passage means (ab ne dzhak-ab), an 
laq*waidzh, aish, waitsh, kaul, kaulm). ape or a Jack-ape, as I learn from Dr. 
For the change to ai see pp. 120, 190 ; Davies. 

for that to au see pp. 143, 194. 5 As aleph is only (t) or (;) in point- 

4 Probably ap means ape; it does ed Hebrew, (p. 10,) it has no relation 
not occur in Salesbury's own diction- to any vowel in particular. 

ary, but he has " ab ne siak ab An ape," 6 The Greek 0, is called (virta) in 

and " kap a cappe." The word siak is modern Greek (pp. 518, 524). Sales- 
meant for (shak),and (shak) for (dzhak). bury seems to have pronounced (vee'ta). 


So doe these welsh words ^Mf* ? 4 lrT°? %V ^f r ' is v the 
emit, cuvicul, vieses, which pnmitiue (or if I should borow the Hebrue 
be deriued of cubitus, cu- terrae) the radical letter, which comming in 
biculum, bisextus. the context of a reason, shall not than be 

calle d b, but v, as in thys text: ei vys his 
finger. And sometyme b shall be turned into m, as for an example : 
vymys my fynger : dengmlvvydd for decblvvydd, ten yeare old. And 
yet for all the alteration of thys letter b, and of diuers other (as 
ye shall perceyue hereafter) whych by their nature be chaungeable 
one for an other, it shall nothyng let nor hynder anye man, from 
the true and proper readyng of the letters so altered. 

For as soone as the ydiome or proprietie of the tungue receyueth 
one lettter for an other, the radicall is omitted and left away : and 
the accessorie or the letter that commeth in steede of the radical, is 
forthwith written, and so pronounced after his own nature and 
power, as it is playne inough by the former example. Whych rule, 
wrytyng to the learned and perfectly skylled in the idiome of the 
tongue, I do not alwayes obserae, but not vnblamed of some, but 
how iustly, let other some iudge. 

Prouided alwayes that such transmutation of letters in speakyng 
(for therein consisteth all the difficultie) is most diligently to be 
marked, obserued, and taken hede vnto, of him that shall delite to 
epeake Welsh a right. 1 

^f How C. is pronounced. 

C maketh k, for look what power hath c in Englishe or in Latine, 
when it commeth before a, o, u, that same shall it haue in 
Welshe [15] before any vowell, diphthong, or consonant, whatsoeuer 
it be. And as M. Melanchthon affirmeth, that c. k. q. had one sound in 
times past wyth the Latines : so do al such deducted wordes thereof 
into the Welsh, beare witnes, as, accen of accent. u, Caisar Ccesare, 
cicut of cicuta, cist of cuta, croc of cruce, raddic of radice, Luc of 
Luca, Hue also of luce, Lluci of Lucia, llucem of lucerna, Mauric of 
Mauricio : natalic of nataliciis. 

How be it some of our tyme doe vse to wryte k. rather than o. 
where Wryters in tymes past haue left c. wrytten in their auncient 
bookes, specially before a, o, u, and before all maner consonantes, 
and in the latter end of wordes. Also other some there be that 

1 The initial permutations in the Welsh (and Celtic languages generally) 
are a great peculiarity. Some consonants have three, some two, and some only 
one mutation, and the occasions on which they have to be used do not seem 
capable of being reduced to a general principle. The mutations in Welsh 
are as follows : — 

radical p t c 

vocal b d g 

nasal mh nh ngh 

aspirate ph th ch 
The (-) indicates the entire loss of g preceding vowel which can be run on 
as gufr goat, dy afr thy goat ; mh nh to the (m n, q), a murmur is inserted 
ngh are not (mh, nh, gh), but (mil nit as ('nm, 'nH 'qH). 
(gii) and consequently if there is no 
















sound now c, as g, in the last termination of a word : Example, oc 
[juventus], coc [moles], Hoc [agger] : whych be most commonly- 
read, og, cog, Hog. 1 

Furthermore, it is the nature of c. to be turned into ch, and other 
whyles into g. But I meane thys, when 

a word that begynneth wyth c. commeth Construct* is taken here 
li 1.1 sy tt < for the loynmg togither of 

m construction as thus: Carvv a Hart, WO rdes otherwise called a 
JSvvic «' Charvv, a Hynde and a Hart. reason. Cam is tha ah- 
Either els when c. or k. (for they be both solut word, 
one in effect) is the fyrst letter of a word 

that shall be compounded, as for an example, Angraff, angred, 
angrist, which be compouded of an and of craff, cred, Christ. 2 

^f The sound of Ch. 

Ch doth wholy agree with the pronounciatio of ch also in the 

Germayne 3 or *Scottyshe 4 toungue, of 

the Greeke Chy, 6 or the Hebrue [16] ? amely as th £ Scotlshe 
„, ., 6 i> l ■ -o tut a a -i Scnueners obserue, as 

Cheth, 6 or of gh in English. 7 And it richt> mycht> &c# 

hath no affmitie at all wyth ch in Eng- 

lysh, except in these wordes, Mychael, Mychaelmas, 8 and a fewe 

such other, ch also when it is the radical letter in any Welsh 

woorde, remayneth immutable in euery place. But note that their 

tongue of Southwales giueth them to sound in some wordes h onely 

for ch, 9 as hvvech, for chvvech [sex], hvvaer for chvvaer [soror]. 

Further ch sometyme sheweth the feminine gender, as well in 

Verbes as in JSownes, as ny thai hon y chodi [non digna ilia quae 

levetur] : y char hi [amator illius mulieris] : for if the meanyng 

were of any other gender, it shuld haue been sayd i godi and 

not i chodi, i gar, and not i char. &c. 

^f The sound of D. 

D is read in "Welshe none otherwyse then in Englyshe, sauyng 

onelye that oftentymes d in the fyrst syllables shalbe turned 

into dd, resemblyng much Daleth the Hebrue d. 10 And sometyme 

1 Mr. E. Jones observes that " this peans confounded as (kh) ; taking the 
is in accordance with a general ten- Arabic pronunciation of the correspond- 
dency in modern Welsh to use the • . th are , h krh)- 

medial for the tenuis. Dr. Davies ° *- S- ax. 

doubts this tendency. 7 This therefore confirms the exist- 

2 The modern Welsh forms are ence of a sufficiently distinct (kh) in 
annghraff hebes, annghred iniidelitas, English, which may have been occa- 
annghrist anti-Christus. sionally (kh). 

3 Where it has really three sounds 8 It is not to be supposed that ch in 
(/th, kh, kwh) dependent on the pre- these words was (kh) at that time. But 
ceding vowel (p. 53). Probably Sales- the text certainly implies that the eh 
bury only thought of (kh). was not (tsh).andwas therefore pro- 

* The Scotch words cited in the mar- bably (k) as at present. All that is 

gin, are pronounced (reAht meAht). meant, then, probably, is that (kh) is 

6 The modern Greek x, according to more like (k) than (tsh). 

one account I received, is always (kh), 9 The modern use in South Wales 

never (kh), but Prof. Valetta (p. 517, is to say (wh) initially for (kith), as 

n. 2) used both (Ah, kh). (whekh) for (k«-hekh). 

6 The Hebrew PI and 3 are by Euro- 10 Hebrew 11 = (d, dh). 


when a word begynnyng wyth d, is compounded wyth an : the d 
shall slyp away, as anavvn [in-donum] of an [in] and davvn 
[donum] ; anoeth [in-doctus] of an [in] and doeth [doctus]. 

Dd is nothing lyke of pronunciation to dd in Englysh or Latine. 
For the double dd in Welsh hath the very same sound of dhelta ' 
or dhaleth, dashed wyth raphe? or of d betwyxt .ij. vowels in the 
Hispanish tongue, 3 eyther els of th, as they be comonly sounded in 
these Englysh wordes, the, that, thys, thyne. 4 Neither do I meane 
nothyng lesse then that dd in Welshe is sounded at any tyme [17] 
after the sound of th these wordes of Englishe, wyth thynne, thanke. 5 
But ye shall fynde in olde wrytten Englysh bookes, a letter hauing 
the fygure of a Romayne y, that your auncesters called dhorn, whych 
was of one efficacie wyth the Welsh dd. 6 And this letter y* I 
speake of, may you see in the booke of the Sermon in the Englyshe 
Saxons tonge, which the most reuerend father in God D. M. P. 
Archbishop of Canturbury hath lately set forth in prynt. 7 And 
ther be now in some countries in England, that pronounce dd euen 
An instrumet * n * nese wordes *addes, fedder, 8 according as they 
of a Cooper be pronoiiced in the Welsh. And ye must note 

that dd, in Welsh is not called double dd, neither 
is it a double letter (though it seemeth so to be) wherefore it doth 
not fortify nor harden the sillable that it is in, but causeth it to 
be a great deale more thycke, soft, and smoothe. For he that first 
added to, the second d, ment thereby to aspirate the d, 9 and signifie 
that it should be more lyghtly sounded, and not the contrary. 

1 Modern Greek 8 is (dh). This, 3 If the Spanish d in this place is 
and the sound given above to (p. 747 not true (dh), it is so like it that 
note 6), shews that the present modern Spaniards hear English (dh) as that 
Greek system of pronunciation (p. 523) sound, and English that sound as (dh). 
was then prevalent in England, see Don Mariano Cubi i Soler, a good 
pp. 529-530 and notes. Sir Thomas linguist, who spoke English remarkably 
Smith's book, advocating the Erasmian well, in his Nitevo Sistema . . . para 
system of pronouncing Greek, was not aprender a leer i pronunciar . . . la 
published till 1568, a year after this lengua inglese, Bath, 1851, gives (p. 8) 
second edition of Salesbury's book. the Spanish deidad deity, as a threefold 

2 " Formerly, when JDugesh was not example of (dh). Yet the Spanish 
found in any of the D23132 letters, a sound may be (c), p. 4. 

mark called ilEn Ba-phe, was placed 4 Pronounced (dhe, dhat, dh/s, dhein). 

above it, in orderto shew that the point s Pronounced (with, thm, thaqk). 

had not been omitted by mistake. 6 Tnis alludes to the common prac- 

With the ancient Svrians this was no- tice of printing y for >, which letter 

thing more than a point made with red is usually called (thorn) not (dhorn), 

ink. The Hebrews probably wrote it tut see p. 541, note 2. 

in the same way: but, as this point 7 As this was first written in 1550, 

might be mistaken for the vowel the Archbishop must have been Cran- 

Kholem, when printed, or, for one of mer - 

the accents, the form of it was altered 8 Addis addice, now written adze, 

for a short line thus (-), which is still is generally called (aedz). Fedder is 

found in the Hebrew manuscripts, perhaps meant for feather (fedhu) but 

though very rarely in printed books." may he father, provincially (fee-dhi). 

8. Zee, Grammar of the Hebrew Lan- 9 The "Welsh has dd, ff, 11 (dh, f, 

guage, 3rd edit. p. 21. Hence T with lhh), all meant as so-called aspirations 

raphe was equivalent to the ordinary of their d, f, I (d, v, 1). Similarly 

1 =(dh). Salesbury has rr for modern rh (infra 


But I thynke it had be easier, more meete, and lesse straunge to 
the Reader, if that he had put h, after the former d, in a signe 
of asperation, than to adde an other d thereto. 

And as it semeth it is not passing three or foure C. yeares ago, 
synee they began to double their d, for before that tyme by lykely- 
hoode they vsed one constant maner of pronounciation of their 
letters euen as the Hebrues did at the beginning. 

[18] Dd also begynning a word, sheweth that it commeth in 
construction : for there is no woord commying absolutely that his 
fyrst syllable begynneth wyth dd. 

Moreouer, dd relateth the masculyne gender, as {Ai ddeuvraich 
ar ei ddwyvron) [illius hominis brachia duo super illius hominis 
pectora duo] for in an other gender, it would be sayd, Ai deuvraich 
ar ei dvvyron [illius mulieris, &c. ut supra]. 

Hoio E ought to be sounded. 

E without any exception hath one permanent pronounciation in 
Welsh, 1 and that is the self pronunciation of Epsilon in Greke, 2 
or of e in Latine, being sounded aryght, or e in Englyshe, as it is 
sounded in these woordes, a were, vvreke, breke, vvreste. 3 

And the learner must take good hede that he neuer do reade the 
said e as it is red in these English wordes, we, beleue : 4 For than 
by so doing shall he eyther alter the signification of the word 
wherin the same e is so corruptly reade, either els cause it to 
betoken nothing at all in that speche. Example : pe [si] signifieth 
in English and if, now, ye rede it pi, than wil it betoken this letter 
p, or the byrd that ye call in Englyshe a Pye. And so gwe is, a 
webbe : but if ye sound e as i reading it gwi, then hath it no signi- 
fication in the Welshe. 

And least peraduenture the foresayd example of the "Welch or 
straunge tong be somwhat obscure, [19] then take this in your 
own mother tong for an explanation of that other : wherby ye shall 
perceiue that the diuersitie of pronounciation of e in these Englysh 
woordes subscribed hereafter, wyll also make them to haue diuers 
signification, and they be these wordes, here, pere, hele, mele. 6 

p. 758) ; and Dan Michel and others heal, (miil) meel = meddle ?, (meel) 

use ss for (sh), (supra, pp. 409, 441) meal, p. 79. Mr. Murray suggests 

which many consider as an aspirate that meal in the sense of food consumed 

of*. Of course there is no aspiration, at one time, German mahl, ags. mael, 

though the writing (dh), as Salesbury Scotch (mfel) may have been (meel), 

goes on to suggest, has arisen from and meal in the sense of flour, German 

this old error. Compare the Icelandic inehl, ags. melu, Scotch (mil) may have 

hj, hi, hn, hr, hv, supra p. 544. been (miil) and that these were the 

1 The modern Welsh e is, and seems two sounds Salisbury meant to distin- 
to have always been (ee, e) and never guish. This is a, priori most likely, 
(ee, e), and hence I so transcribe it. but the orthographies leave the matter 

2 Meaning (e) of course. in great perplexity. Promptorium : 

3 (Weer, wreek rweek, breek, wrest, meel of mete; mele or mete, commestio 
noest). cibatus ; meele of come growndyn', 

* (Wii, biliiv) as appears from what farina far. Palsgrave : meale of come 

immediately follows. farine, meale of meate repast. Levins : 

6 (Biir) bier or beer, (beer) bear, (piir) meale farina, by flock meale minutim, 

peer, (peer) pear, (mil) heel, (Heel) meele ccena, which would seem to indi- 


Neither yet doe we vse in "Welsh at any time to write e in the 
middle or last sillables, & to leaue it vnspoken in reading : as it is 
done by scheua in Hebrue, or as the maner of wrytyng and read- 
yng of the same is accustomed in Englysh, as it shall be more 
manifest by these wordes that followe : golde, sylke, purenes, Chepe- 
syde : wherein (as I suppose) e is not written to the entent it 
might be read or spoken, but to mollifye the syllable that it is 
put in. 1 

But now I am occasioned to declyne and stray somewhat from 

my purpose, and to reueale my phantasie 

An obseruation for to yong wr yters of Englishe, who (me 

S5Sh g in ot ™SS thi » ketl1 ) take ouer muche p a y nes > and 

canot so well be kept bestowe vnrequisite cost (haumg no re- 
spect to the nature of the Englysh ending 
e) in doublyng letters to harden the syllable, and immediatly they 
adde an e, whych is a signe of mittigatyng and softning of the 
syllable, after the letters so doubled, as thus : manne, vvorshippe, 
Godde, vvotte, vvyshe, goodnesse, hemme, uette : 2 whych woordes 
wyth such other lyke, myght with lesse labour, and as well for the 
purpose, be wrytten on thys wyse : maun, vvorshypp. Godd, vvott, 
vvysh, goodness, hemm, nett : or rather thus : man vvorshyp, God, 
vvott, goodnes, hem, net. 

[20] And though thys principle be most true Frustra id fit per 
plura, quod fieri potest per pauciora, that is done in vayne by the 
more, that maye be done by the lesse : yet the Printers in con- 
sideration for iustifiyng of the lynes, as it is sayde of the makers 
to make vp the ryme, must be borne wythall. 3 

How F. is commonly sounded. 

F In Welsh being syngle, and v when it is consonant in "Welsh, 
English, or Latine, be so nygh of sounde, that they vse moste 
commonly to wryte in Welsh indifferently the one for the other. And 
I my selfe haue heard Englysh men in some countries of England 
sound/, euen as we sound it in Welsh. 4 For I haue marked their 
maner of pronounciation, and speciallye in soundyng these woordes : 

cate the difference (meel, miil) in an 3 This may be partly an explanation 

exactly opposite direction, but as Levins of the varieties of orthography in the 

has : eale eel anquilla, beale beel spe- xvi th century in printed books, but 

lunca, deale deele portio, he may have will not explain the nearly equal 

meant to imply that these words were varieties in manuscript. I have noted 

in a transition state. The meaning of at least ten ways of spelling tongue in 

the two words (miil, meel) then, intend- in Salesbury's own book: tongue, 

ed by Salcsbury, must remain doubtful. tonge, tong, toungue, tounge, toung, 

1 The utter extinction of the feeling tungue, tunge, tung, toug ; ags. tunge. 
for the final e is here well shewn. How 

a syllable can be "mollified" without 4 This is west country, still heard in 

any utterance, is not apparent. The Somersetshire and Devonshire. In 

words are (goold, silk, pyyrnes, early English books of the West of 

Tsheepscid). England u is constantly used for/. We 

2 (Man, wurshz'p, God, wot, wt'sh, also find it in Dan Michel's Kentish 
gud-nes, Hem, net), since uette must dialect 1340 (p. 409). The same places 
be a misprint for nette. give also z for s. 


voure, vine, disvigure, vish, vox : where they would say, foure, fiue, 
disfigure, fysh, Fox, &C. 1 

But who soeuer knoweth the sounde of the letter called Digamma 
(whose figure is much lyke E, but ouerwhelmed Eolicum j 
vpsydedowne, as ye see here g) he shall also know 
thereby tbe veiye sounde of the syngle f in Welsh. 2 They of South- 
wales rather vse t;, 3 where Northwales writers commonly occupye /. 

^f The sound of ff. 

ff In "Welsh hath but the same sounde that the syngle / hath in 
Englysh. And they are faine to vse the double ff for the 
syngle /, because [21] they haue abused / in steede of v a conso- 
nant. But in such wordes as haue p for the fyrst letter of their 
originall (for to keepe the orthographie) the Learned wryte ph, and 
not_$ as thus, Petr a? Phavvl, Peter and Paule. 

% The pronounciation of G. 

G In euery word in Welsh soundeth as the Hebrue Gymel\ K 
or g in Dutche, 5 or as g in Englyshe soundeth before a, o, u. 
And marke well that g neuer soundeth in Welshe as it doth in Eng- 
lish in these woordes, George, gynger* G also in Welsh sometyme 
(when it commeth in a reason) shall be turned into ch, and somtyme 
elided or left cleane out of the word as . 

thus, . M , ftm [ac postauam] ^Z^S^X 
tavvn new ad [satisfactio vel sanguis] : koch Gwad Glas 
ne Has [rufus vel viridis]: and not koch 
ne glas : dulas [viridis nigrescens] of du [niger] and glas [viridis]. 

And otherwhyle wordes compounded shall put away g, as these 
do, serloyvv, dulas : whose symple be these, ser [aster], gloyvv 
[purus], du [niger] glas [viridis]. 

Also g is added to the beginning of such words as be deriued 
of the Latine, whych begyn wyth v, as Gvvilim, gvvic, gvvgnt, 
Gvvent, gvvin, gosper of VVilielmus, vicus, ventus, Venta, vinum, 
vesper. 1 

Moreouer, g intrudeth wrongeously into many wordes, namely 
after n, as Llating for Llatin, Katering for Katherin, pring for 
prin [vix]. 

[22] Of the aspiration of H. 

H In euery word that is wrytten in Welshe, hath hys aspiration 

in speakyng also, and is read, euen as in these woordes of 

Englysh, hard, heard, hart, hurt : 8 And therefore whersoeuer h 

is wrytten in Welshe, let it be read wythall, and not holden styll, 

1 (Foour, feiv, disfig-yyr, frsh, foks). in low Dutch or Dutch of Holland = 

2 That is, when the sound of the (gh), or more nearly (grh, r). Supra 
digamma has been previously settled. p. 209, note. 

Was it (f. v, wh, bh) ? See supra 6 (Dzhordzh, dzhardzher.) 

p. 518, note 3. , 1_ . . ' . _ ' , , 

3 "Not now B D " *■ 1S common in irench and 

i a _ (v) j = (o-M ' Italian. In endeavouring to say (wa) 

5 G in high Dutch 'or German gene- the y sa y (g"' a )' and then ^ a )- 
rally =(g) and occasionally = (gh, ^h), b (Hard, Herd, Hard, Hart, Hurt). 

754 salesbury's welsh pronunciation. Chap. VIII. § 1. 

as it is done in French and Englysh, in such wordes as he deriued 
out of Latyne, as these : honest, habitation, humble, habite. 1 &c. 
Except when h is setled betwene two vowels in "Welshe, wordes : 
for then it forceth not greatlye whether h he sounded or not, as 
in these wordes that followe : cleheu [dexteritas], kyhyr [musculus] 
mehein [adept], gvvcheu, heheu, 2 gvvehjdd [textor], gohir [mora]. &c. 
Moreouer, h sometime sheweth the gender, & somtyme the 
number of the word that it is set before, as in this word, Ar y hael : 
vpon her, or their brow. Further, h oftentimes is caused or en- 
gendred of the concourse of vowels, oi hervvydd, for oi ervvydd, 
and sometimes by accenting, as trugarha, for trugard. Then be- 
caus eh is not of the essence of the word, I leaue it for most 
part vnwrytten. 

The sound of I. 

I In Welsh hath the mere pronunciation of i in Latine, as learned 
men in our time vse to soM it, and not as they y* with their 
Iotacisme corrupting the pronunciation make a [23] diphthong of 
it, saying : veidei, teibei for vidi, tibi. But looke how • soundeth in 
Englysh, in these words, singing, ringing, drinking, winking, nigh, 
sight, might, right. 3 So then i in euery syllable in Welshe hath 
euen the same sounde as e hath in Englyshe in these wordes, wee, 
see, three, bee. And i is neuer sounded so broade in Welsh as it is 
in thys English word *I. 4 And besyde that i is neuer consonant 

in Welsh, 5 but euer remaining a vowel, as it doth in y* 
* Ego Germayne tonge, or as Iota in the Greke. And because 

they that haue not tasted of the preceptes of Grammer do 
not lightly vnderstande what thys terme consonant meaneth : I 
wyll speake herein as playne as I can, for to induce them to vn- 
derstand my meanyng. 

Therefore when we say in spellyng ma, ma', i e, ie : 
when i is ^ ^ s f e . ma ieste : or I e, Ie : s u s, sus : Jesus : now 
consonant, ^ £h ese two wordes, maieste, and Jesus, i is consonant, 
when i is But when I spell on thys wyse : i per se i, o r k, ork, 
vowel. and wyth doyng them togyther, reade iork, : then i 

is not called consonant, but hath the name of a vowell. 

1 (On-est, abitee'shun, unvbl, ab"it). 5 That is, never has the sound of t 
See above p. 220. consonant or/ in English, that is, (dzh). 

2 The words gwcheu, heheu, have Salesbury never thinks of (j) as a con- 
not been identified. sonant > bu * onl y * s the vowel (*). This 

must be borne in mind m reading 

3 (S/q-eq, riq-iq, dnqk-tq, wtqktq, what follows, in which a curious ex- 
ntkh, sekht, rm'kht, r/kht). Salesbury amp i e f fa e mo & e f spelling out 
here however means (i) not {i), which wor( j s [ n ld English is presented. Of 
he generally marks by y Welsh. Yet course hi s argument is perfectly worth- 
Welshmen at present do not seem acute i esS- There is a dispute, as already 
in distinguishing (i, i), but use some- mentioned, concerning the Welsh i 
times one sound and sometimes the precedino- another vowel. Mr. E. 
other, supra p. 112, note 1. The Jones am } Dr . Davies both consider 
(n/kht) and not (nei) or (neikht) sound Welsh i to be (j) in such words iawn 
of nigh is here pointed out by the iach ^ Iems- i n English, Smith and 
context. Hart consider (j) and (i) to be the same 

* Meaning (ei). sounds, supra p. 185. 


And therefore if ye lyst to reade ryghtly "Welshe woordes where- 
in i is wrytten, an other vowell immediatlye folowing (for therein 
else is there no hinderaunce for the straunge 
Reader) than must you harken how % (whych } for e -> iu j^. e worc * 
I wryte for y) is sounded in these Englysh ^m^Ay' written 
woordes : i-ane, i-arde, telde, i elk, i elle, telovv, & rea( { as it i s i n 
iere, iok, ionff, iougth, lorke, iou : And thoughe "Welsh. 
theese woordes hee wrytten here [24] now 

wyth i, in the first letter of euery one, yet it is ment that you 
should reade them as the i were y, and as they had been wrytten 
on thys fashion : yane, yarde, yelde, yell, yelovv, yere, yok, yong, 
yougth, yorke, you? 

Now I trust that the dullest witted chylde that neuer read but 
two lynes, perceaueth so familiar a rudiment. 

\ The sound of K. 
K Foloweth the rule of c in euery poynt, and therefore looke for 
the effect of k, where it is treated of the letter c. 

^f The sound of L. 

L Hath no nother differece in soiid in Welsh than in Englysh. 
And note that it neyther causeth a, nor o, when they come 
before it, to sounde anye more fuller in the mouth, than they do 
else where sounde, commyng before anye other letter. 3 And for 
the playner vnderstandyng therereof, looke in the rules that do 
treate of the sounde of a and o. 

And marke whan soeuer ye see / to be the fyrst letter of a worde, 
that eyther the same word commeth in construction, eyther else the 
woord is of an other language, and but vsurped in Welsh. 

A worde beginning wyth I hauyng 11 in hys [25] radical, maketh 
relation of the masculin gender, as yn y law in his hand : for yny 
Haw is in her hand. 

Item thys lysping letter I is now smotheley receyued in some 
wordes, contrary to their original nominations, as temestl for tempest; 
rriscl, trisclyn, for rrisc or rriscyn [cortex] : pymysl or pymystl for 
pemblys [quinque digiti] : so named of the resemblace that the 
rootes haue wyth mans fingers : which is now better knowen by a 
more vnapte name euen Cecut y dwr, and in Englysh Water small- 
edge. 4 

So likewyse to this letter / a loytring place is lent to lurk in this 
English word syllable. 5 And thus much, that the wryters hereafter 
maye be more precise and circumspect in accepting the vnlettereds 
pronunciation by the authority of theyr hand wryting. 

1 I have not met mth this form iye pronunciation of tall, toll as (taul, 
elsewhere, except in the Heng. MS. tooul), supra p. 193-4 

of C. T. v. 10. The sound seems to be 4 Apparently cicuta virosa, "Water 

(ii) as in the Scotch word ee for eye. cowbane, Water Hemlock, now spelled 

2 (Jaun, jard, jiild, jel, jel-oou, jiir, cegid in in Welsh. 

jook, juq, juuth, Jork, juu). The or- b This, in conjunction with the pre- 

thography yougth for youth is peculiar. ceding, is meant to point out the sylla- 

3 This alludes to the old English bic ('1), see p. 195. 



^f Of the straunge sound of double 11. 

LI can not be declared anye thyng lyke to the purpose in wryting, 

but onely by mouth : if ye the wyll learne how it ought to be 

Bounded: For (as it is sayd before of d) so the second I is added 

.„.,„, ,. , in stede of A : 2 but looke how Lambda com- 
Vide Oecolampadium. 1 , „ T , . -. , . ,, ~ . „ 

ming beiore lota is sounded m the (ireeke . 

euen so pronounce we 11 in the Welsh. And if ye could hyt 

kyndely on the right and iust pronounciation of lh thus aspirated : 

not leauyng unsoiided the entire energie, and the whole strength of 

the aspiration : than shoulde not you bee farre dissonant from the 

true [26] sound of our Welsh 11. 

For the Welsh 11 is spoken the tongue bowed by a lyttle to the 

roufe of the mouth, and with that somwhat extendyng it selfe 

betwyxt the fore teeth the lyppes not all touching together )but 

leauing open as it were for a wyndow) the right wyke of the mouth 

for to breathe out wyth a thycke aspirated spirite the same 11. But 

as I sayde before, and if ye wyll haue the very Welsh sounde of 

1 Joannes (Ecolampadius, the Latin- 
ized name of Johann Hausschein, the 
reformer, 1482-1531, who studied 
Greek under both Reuchlin and Eras- 
mus, the teachers of the rival Greek 

2 The Welsh 11 is not (lh) the 
whisper of (1), for in (lh) the breath 
escapes smoothly on both sides of the 
tongue, and the sound may be fre- 
quently heard, with very little escape 
of breath, in French, table (tablh) for 
(tabl') see p. 52, and in Icelandic, p. 
645. But for the Welsh 11, one side 
(generally the left) of the tongue lies 
along the whole of the palate so as 
entirely to prevent the passage of air, 
just as for the English cl'ck {£) p. 11, 
by which we excite horses, and the 
breath is forcibly ejected from the 
right side, making it vibrate, at the 
same time that there is a considerable 
rattle of saliva, thus much resembling 
(kh) or rather (krh), and the sound is, 
perhaps for this reason, conceived as a 
guttural aspirate by Welsh grammar- 
ians. The Welsh 11 is a voiceless or 
whispered consonant which I represent 
by (lhh) p. 6, the second (h) to the right 
typifying the ejection of breath on the 
right side, and the initial (lh) the re- 
semblance of the sound to (lh) which 
when energetic may be substituted for 
it without loss of intelligibility, al- 
though the Welsh ear immediately 
detects the difference. The lips may 
be fully open, or only opened on the 
right ; the effect is entirely due to the 

action of the tongue and is very pecu- 
liar. At a distance llan (lhhan) when 
shouted sounds like (tlan). There 
is no resemblance to (thlan) which 
Englishmen generally substitute for it. 
When the table of palaeotype was 
drawn up I had never heard the voiced 
form of (lhh), which for convenience, 
may be written [lhh). It is possible 
also to have palatalised varieties of 
both, which must then be written (ljhh, 
Zjhh). All these forms with (hh) are 
very awkward, but they are sufficiently 
distinctive, and the sounds are very 
rare. In: II Vangelo di S. Matteo 
volgarizzato in dialetto Sardo Sassarese 
dal Can. G. Spano accompagnato da 
osservazioni sulla pronunzia di questo 
dialetto e su varj punti di rassomigli- 
anza che il medesimo presenta con le 
lingue dette Celtiche, sia ne' cambia- 
menti iniziali, sianel suono della lettera 
L, del Principe Luigi-Luciano Bona- 
parte, Londra 1866, it is stated that 
(lhh, /hh, ljhh) occur in the Sardinian 
dialect of Sassari, and (lhh, lhh) in 
the dialect of the Isle of Man. The 
Prince pronounced all these sounds to 
me, but he laid no stress on their uni- 
lateral character, or rather disowned 
it. In this case (th, dh) were really 
the sounds uttered for (lhh lhh), ac- 
cording to Mr. M. Bell's views, Visible 
Speech, p. 93, and Mr. Bell on hearing 
them, analyzed them thus. 

3 Here Salesbury most probably 
elevated (li) first into (1j) and then 
into (ljh). See also p. 646, n. 1. 


thys letter, gene eare to a Welshma when lie speaketh culltell, 
whych betokeneth a knyfe in Englysh : or ellyll a ghoste. 

The Welshman or the Hispaniarde compose their mouthes much 
after one fashion whan they pronounce their ll, 1 sauyng that the 
Welsheman vttereth it with a more thicker and a more mightier 
spirite. The Englyshe mans toungue when he would sound ll, 
slydeth to tl. 

The Germanes lykewyse, as writeth John Anentin, as we do now, 
did in auncient time aspirate I, but pronouncing it somewhat 
hardish in the throte. And in an other place he recordeth that in 
old Charters he findeth I aspirated, nameelye in proper names, and 
after thys manner H L. 2 Thus you see how tonges though far 
distant, haue som affinitie in one thyng or other. 

The sound of M. 

[27] ^ In "Welsh hath such a sound as ye heare it haue in 
Englysh or Latine : but yet it is one of the letters that be 
channgeable in construction as thus : mvvy, moe, llai tie vvvy, lesse 
ormore, mvryvvvy, more and more : mal hyn, or vol hyn, as 
thus : megis or vegis, as. 

The sound of iV. 

N Is none otherwyse sounded in Welshe then in Englyshe : but 

sometyme, after the Latine maner, whan it commeth before b 

or f in composition, it is than turned into m, as ymblaen [coram], 

which is compounded of yn and blaen : amparch [contumelia] of an 

in] and parch [reverentia] : ampvvyll [impatientia], or an <$f pvvyll 


JV also is often times accessory, I meane such as intrudeth into 
many wordes, namely beginning with c or k, as vyncar [meus 
carus] vy-car, vyndevv [meus deus], for vy-devv, or vynyvv. 

And because in suche woordes it is nothyng of the essence 
thereof, I doe, but not without offence to some Readers, oftentymes 
omit the writing of it, thynckyng that it is not more meete to 
admyt n in our so sounded wordes, than in these Latine vocables 
agnm, magnus, ignis, at what tyme they were thus barbarously 
sounded, a»gnus, mangnus, ingnis. After this sort crept n into 
messanger coming of message. By y e like analogie potanger (which 
I thynke no man doth so write) must be written for potager, and 
so corrupt Portingal for Portugal? 

[28] But I will prescribe nothing herein, least of some Reniissian 
I be termed a Precisian. 

1 The Spanish ll is (lj), so that 3 Compare nightingale ags. nihte- 
Salesbury has elevated it to (Ijh), see gale, Leffrington ags. Leofric, passen- 
preceding note. No doubt in attempt- ger fr. passagier, porringer quasi por- 
ing to imitate it he put his own tongue ridger, Armin^er It. armiger, popinjay, 
into the familiar Welsh position, and old e. popiugay, old fr. papegai. See 
took it for the Spanish. these and other examples of an inserted 

2 On the ags. and Icelandic hi see n in Mdtzncr, Enghsuhe Grammatik, 
Bnpra pp. 513, 546. 18G0, vol. i. p. 174. 


The sound of 0. 

In "Welsh is sounded accordyng to the right sounding of it in 
Latin : eyther else as the sounde of o is in these Englyshe wordes : 
a Doe, a Roe, a Toe : l and o neuer soundeth in "Welsh as it doth in 
these words of Englysh: to, do, two. 2 But marke that o in Welshe 
going before 11, snundeth nothing more boystous, 3 that is to say, 
that it inclineth to the sounde of the diphthong ou (as it doth in 
Englishe) 4 no more than if it had gone before any other letter. 

The sound of P. 

P in Welsh differeth not from the Englysh sound of p, but p com- 
myng in construction foloweth the rules of the Hebrue Phe, 5 

sauing that somtyme it is turned into b, as thus : pedvvar neu hemp 

[quatuor vel quinque], for pemp. And sometyme p in composition 

is chaunged also into b, as whan we say ymbell [longe], for ympell. 

And one whyle it is left out of the compounde woordes : as whan 

these wordes ; kymell, kymorth, be wrytten for hympell [compello], 

kymporth [comporto]. 

And an other whyle our tongue geueth vs to sound it as it were 

an h, as when we say : ymhle [29] ymklvvy, ymhlas for ymple [?], 

ym-plvvy [in plebe] ym-plas [in palatio]. 

But p turned into ph, maketh relation of the feminine gender, 

as OH phlant, of her children, gvvisc i phen, the attire of her head. 

The sound of Q. 

Q, Is not receiued amog the numbre of the letters in Welshe as yet, 
but k supplyeth his rowme, and vsurpeth his office in euery 
place. And the Greekes are fayne to practice the same feate, as 
ye may see done. Luc. ii and Ro. 16. where Kyriniou is written 
for Quirino, Kuartos for Quarto. 6 

The sound of R. 

B Is sounded a like in Welsh and Englysh, but r, in Welsh for the 

most part is pronounced wyth aspiration, especially being the 

first letter of the word. And for the aspiration A, they commonly 

1 (Doo, roo, too). In my observa- Cam. Univ. MS. Dd. 4. 24. has bois- 
tions of Welsh, the long and short o tously,) and in several other places, the 
were invariably (oo, o). The sounds Wycliffite version has bostons, Math. 9, 
(oo, o) seem practically unknown, and 16, as pointed out by Mr. Way on the 
not appreciated by Welchmen. That word in the Promptorium. The origin 
these were also the English sounds in seems to be the Welsh bivyst wildness, 
the xvi th century I inter as in p. 95. bwyst savage, bwystfil wild beast, 

2 (Tu, duu, tuu). bwi/stus brutal ferocious, which ac- 

3 Boystous, probably (buist-us) does count properly for the diphthong in 
not appear to be a misprint, but a the first syllable. Mr. E. Morris re- 
more correct form than the modern fers the word to boast, Welsh bost. 
boisterous. The Promptorium has boy- 4 This again refers to the English 
stows, the Catholicon bustus, the Ortus fo^=(tooul). 

Voc. boystous, Chaucer boystously 8667 5 B = (p), D = (ph) not (f). 

(Wright reads boystrously incorrectly, 6 Luke 2, 2, Kvprfviov, Eom. 16, 23, 

the r not occurring in Harl, 7334, Kovapros. 


put to r, 1 as they play by d and and I, euen thus : rrvvygvvyd 
[fractus], rrodres [vanitas], rringell [miles], Rufain [Roma]. But 
the maner of some is to wryte one great capitall R, (when it is the 
fyrst letter of a woord) for the twoo double rr. Also r serueth the 
turne that n doth in Englysh, that is to wyt, to be put betwene 
vowels meeting together in two sundry wordes, for to stop the 
vncomely gaping in spech, as ye shall perceyue by these woordes 
of both the [30] tongues : yr-avvr : a-n houre : for mother nature 
wyll not admyt that we should pronounce y avvr, or a hour. But 
stepmother Ignorance 2 receyueth both r and n into some places 
where they are abused, as yr Llatin g, for y Llatin. 

^[ The sound of S. 
S Soundeth in "Welsh as it doth in Latin : neither hath it two 
diuers soundes as it hath in Englishe or Frenche, for when it 
commeth betwene two vowels in these two languages, it is so 
remissely and lithly sounded, as it were z, as by these two wordes 
of both the speaches it is manifestly proued, Feisant a Fesant. 3 

% The sound of T. 
T Lykewyse hath but one sounde, and that as the Latines sound it 

in these wordes : atat, tide, tegit : J^eyther do I meane that t in 
"Welsh is sounded at any tyme lyke th, as some barbarous lyspers 
do, who depraue the true Latine pronounciation, reading amath, for 
amat, dederith, for dederit, &c. 4 

Now be it marke well thys exception, that t is neuer read lyke c 
thorowout the Welsh tongue, as it is commonly read 
of Englyshemen in Latine verbales ending in tio, as Exception 
pronunciation electio, subiectio. 

[31] Marke also, that it is the nature of t to be turned into d, 
and sometime into th, and some other tyme it is so lightly spoken, 
that the t is quite left away, and there remayneth but the h in 
steede of the t. But thys is to be vnderstande when t is the fyrst 
letter of a word set in construction to be construed or buylt together 
on thys fashion : Na ihric yuhy dvvy avvr ne dair [_~Ne mane in domu 
duas horas vel tres]. For before they be hewed, squared, and 
ioyned together wyth theyr tenantes and mortesses, they lye in 
rude and vndressed timber after this maner of sort : JYa tryc yn ty 
dvvy avvr ne tair. Furthermore t in deriuation is 
left out of the deriued wordes or turned in n, that The absolute 
they myght sound more pleasaunt to the eare, as ye W01 es 
may take these for an example : chvvanoc or chvvaa 

1 To r, that is, two r's, or rr. The ing the sounds of English words in 

modern form is rh, rather ('ra) than Welsh letters. 

(rh), so that Rhys ('Rh'^s) sounds * Palsgrave says of the French d 

more like (h/s) than (rt's). that he sees "no particular thyng 

* Of course »«« hour" is the old ^ hCTOf ^ warne t^ lernar sane that 

form, and " a" comes from the omission T^ sound <; nat d of «<* m ^ sc word s 

of n before a consonant. The igno- adlllte ? e > adoption adovlcer, like th, as 

ranee is therefore rather in Salesbury. T.- ° m , t0I , lge d ° m these wordeS of 

J Latine ath athiuimndum tor ad adiu- 

3 This occasions difficulties in writ- vandum corruptly." 

760 salesbury's WELSH PRONUNCIATION. Chap. VIII. § 1. 

noc ; gvvnoc or gvvnnroc monvveni or monvvenni : heinieu or heinnieu 
of chvvant [libido], gvvynt [ventus], monvvent [monumentum], 
haint [pestis]. 

^f The sound of Th. 
Th hath, the semblable and lyke sound in Welsh as it hath in 
Englysh in these woordes, thorovve, thycke, and thynne : l but it 
is neuer so lythly spoken as it is commonly sounded in these other 
words : that, thou, thine, this. 2, 

Moreouer th wrytten for the fyrst letter of any worde, sheweth 
the same woord to be than in construction. For there is no Welshe 
woorde standing absolutelye that hath th for hys fyrst letter : but 
t is hys natiue and originall letter, for the [32] which in con- 
struction th is commonly vsed. Neither yet do we vse to wryte th, 
in any woord, and to reade the same as t or d, as is commonlye done 
in these English wordes : Thomas, throne, threasure, Thauies Inne : 

Thauies In which be most uniuersally spoken after this sorte : 
Ibmas, trone, treasure, Dames Inne. 3 

Item th sometyme signifieth the word to perteyne to the feminine 
gender, as Oi thuy of her house, otherwyse said, oi duy, of hys 

The sound of V being consonant. 

V specially being wrytten in thys maner of fashion v, soundeth in 

"Welshe as in Englyshe or Latine, whan it is a consonant. 4 And 

it lightly neuer begynneth a woorde, except 

There is no woorde the woord be constructed and ioyned wyth one 

^nneth 1 tl v 0r m0re wordes - For otner * or m > h ™S the 
being radicall. originall or radicall letter, is transmuted or 

chauged (according to the congruitie of the 
toungue into v a consonant. 

But Latine wordes begynnyng with v, and vsurped in the Welsh, 
shall receyue g to their fyrst letter, as is declared more at large in 
the treatice of the letter G, and sometyme B, as bicar of vicarius. 

^f The sound of u beyng a vowell. 
But u written after this manner u, is a vowel, and soundeth as 
the vulgar English people sound it in these wordes of English : 
trust, bury, busy, Jlu^^berdeu. 5 But know well that it is neuer 
sounded in Welsh, as it is done in any of these two Englyshe wordea 
(notwythstanding the diuersitie of their sound) sure, luc/ce. 6 Also 

1 (Thuroou, th?'k. thtn). remains. Huberden is probably Hu- 

2 (That, dhmi, dhein, dh/s). bertdm, but I cannot find such place. 

3 (Tonras, truun). see next section There is a Hubberston in South Pem- 
under Tli (treev.yyr. Daviz 7ni. broke, which therefore may have the 

4 The use of v is quite discontinued u pronounced in the Welsh manner 
in Welsh, and / is always used in its and an Ibbirton in North Dorset, 
place. These ure the nearest names 1 can find. 

6 No doubt that he meant the sound 6 (Syyr, luk). Bullokar gives 

of (tr/st, btrt, biz't, H/b-crden). (syyer) and he is particular in iden- 

(Tn'st) still occurs in Scotland, (bin) (drying the sound wi;h the French u. 

was even then more usually (bori'i but Hart has (siur) meaning (syyr), p. 167, 

is the common Scotch now, and ^bi'r») and Salesbury wriles suwr, with the 



the sound of n, in French, or ii, wyth two prickes ouer the heade 
in Duch, or the Scottish pronunciation of u x alludeth somwhat 
nere vnto the sound of it in "Welshe, thoughe yet none of them all, 
doeth so exactly (as I thyhk) expresse it, as the Hebraick Xubuts 
doeth. 2 

For the "Welsh u is none other thing, hut a meane sounde be- 
twyxte u and y beyng Latyne vowels. 3 And therefore who so euet 
wyll distinctlye learne the "Welsh sound of u let hym once geue 
eare to a Northen "Welsh man, whan he speaketh in "Welsh, the 
wordes that signifie in English obedient (or) * chaff singlerly : 
whych be these in "Welshe, uvudd, usun.* And this vowell u alone 
amonge all the letters in "Welsh, swarueth in sound from the true 
Latine pronunciation. 

Thys u is more in vre wyth vs of Northwales than wyth theim 
of the South parteis : whose wryters abuse it, whan they wryte 
thus, un yn for yn tin 5 

The sound of W. 

"W In "Welshe and Englyshe hath but one fygure and power, 

though it chaunceth to haue .ij. diuers names : for in English 

ye call it double uu and in Welshe we geue it the [34] name of a 

same meaning, pp. 165, 172, and in- 
deed this passage is sufficient to shew 
that he did not mean (syur). Smith 
and Bullokar both give (luk). 

1 All meant for the sound of (yy), 
although at present there are occasional 
faint differences of sound, but not ac- 
knowledged, French (yy), German (n), 
Swedish (uu), Scotch (<?■?). 

2 This of course means that Sales- 
bury pronounced the Hebrew ^Sp 
(sibbus), generally considered as (u) 
in the same way as "Welsh u ; also he 
shews by writing the name kubuts, that 
he gave the same sound to the first 
vowel in the name, generally identified 
with (i). This serves to shew, in con- 
junction with his opening sentence, 
that his sound of Welsh u did not much 
differ from (i, t), and that where he 
uses it for the representation of English 
sounds, he certainly meant (i) or («'). 

3 It is difficult to determine what 
sounds the "Welshman gave to Latin 
u, y, because these are precisely the 
"Welsh vowels about which there is a 
difficulty. The next sentence but one, 
however, would lead us to suppose that 
his Latin u was (u), as it was different 
from the Welsh ; but what his Latin 
y, properly (y), may have been, cannot 
be said. Assuming, however, that it 
was («'), then the mean sound ought to 

be (i). By the kindness of Dr. Davies 
I had an opportunity of consulting 
three "Welsh students at the Begent's 
Park College about the Welsh u, y. 
The sound of u in Duw appeared to 
be [£), in lleu-yrchu it was not distin- 
guishable from (i), in dechreuad, go- 
leuni, I could not distinguish the diph- 
thong eu from the English (ai), though 
the sound of ai in gair was dis- 
tinctly (ai) and occasionally (aai), 
but ai, ae, an were nearly if not 
quite indistinguishable; at most (ai, 
ae, ai) would mark the distinctions. 
I understood from Dr. Davies that the 
theoretical pronunciation of u was (y), 
and that in solemn declamation an at- 
tempt was made to preserve the sound, 
but that usually u became (ii, i) or 
even («'). This is perfectly similar to 
the common German substitution of 
(ii) for (yy) in the pronunciation of 
their ii, an alteration never made in 
French. In Danish and Swedish the 
y, theoretically (y), becomes (i) or, 
to my ear, practically (*, i). 

4 Theoretically (yyvyih, yysyn), 
practically (n'v/dh iisiu) or even 
(iivv'dh, li'Sua) which latter sounds, 
perfectly easy to English organs, would 
be intelligible throughout Wales. 

fi This refers only to the orthography. 
See below under y. 



syngle u but than soundyng it after the Latine pronuciatio or ells 
as you now sounde your oo. 1 

But the lesser Greeke o ioyned togyther wyth the Greke y made 
a diphthong, 2 or Hebraic Vau cum puncto schureh in ventre, 3 either 
oo in these English vocables : booke, looke, boorde, woorde, 4 shall 
rather expresse hys name, than hys proper nature. 

But hys owne power, and peculier office in "Welshe, shall there 
no letter nor letters more preciselye set it forth than the vv it selfe, 
or oo wyth the Englysh pronunciation. For all thoughe the Ger- 
maynes vse a vv yet in some wordes sounde they it (to my hearing) 
as the forther u were a vowel, and the latter o consonant, 5 wher 
we the Britons sounde both uu wholy togyther as one vowell, wyth- 
out anye seuerall distinction, but beynge alwayes eyther the forther 
or the latter parte of a dyphthonge in Englyshe on thys wyse : 
wyth aw : and in Welshe as thns : wyth, avven. 6 

And though, as I sayd before, I fynde in som auncient writers 
6 for vv, yet in other I find vv in words now vsually written w* v or 
/ as eithavv, for eithav or eithaf. In which kynde of wordes, bycause 
they of Southwales vse yet to kepe y e pronuciatio of it, saying tavoly 
where we saye tavlu or taflu [jacio]), I doe rather vse for the more 
indifferencie to wiyte v than /, eve that they may the more aptly 
resolue [35] it into their woonted vowell vv, and we maye sounde 
the same after our more consonaunt acceptation. But contraryly, 
we saye deunydd where they sound devnydd or defnydd [substantia], 
and some corrupters denvydd. 

The sound of X. 
X Is not founde as yet in the Welshe Alphabet : For the "Welshe 
speache hath no neede of hys office : because that suche "Walshe 
woordes as be deducted of the Latine, turne their x into s, as doe 
these : nos, estenna, escomviun, estran, bicses, escuso, escutio, Sas or 
Sais, which come of nox, extendo, excommunicato, extraneus, bisex- 
ttis, excuso, excutio, Saxo. 

1 Meaning (uu, u). comprehend, and the difficulty is in- 

2 Modern Greek pronunciation (uu) creased hy the misprint o, for u or a. 
for ov. He divides w, as he prints it, into vv, 

3 Hebrew p^-lt^ (shuureeK - ), mean- which he immediately calls u u, but 
in°- -1 = (uu). which of these two letters he considers 

** (Buuk, luuk, buurd, wuurd). Bui- "the forther" and which the "latter," 

lokar and Gill also give (luuk), the short- J s not plain. The best I can make out 

ening of the vowel into (luk) or rather 1S . tliat h e heard German w as (vu), 

(l«k) is quite modern. North country tbus wann = (vuan), nearly (vwan) or 

pronunciation is still (luuk), though perhaps (vttan). The last is not a very 

Mr. Melville Bell and Mr. Murray ™apt way of representing (bhan), and 

consider the difference between the one which I have heard given by many 

Scotch and south country sounds to be persons, as the best means of indicating 

merely qualitative, the former (luk), the sound of initial (bh) to English or 

the latter (l«k). Gill has (wurd), French speakers. 

Butler (wuurd, wurd). Boorde was 6 Here, in wyth, wis in the "forther" 

the spelling at that time for board, as part, and in avven in the "latter" part 

in the Promptoritm, Levins has boord, of the diphthong, which ought to make 

and Butler pronounces (buurd). Salesbury's German vv = (uv), as 

4 The meaning of this is difficult to (uvan), which being dissyllabic is im- 



The englishe Scolers tongues 
be marueilously tormented in 
soudyng of the Greke ypsilb 
and yet atain not to the right 
sound. 3 

^f The sound of Y. 
T Is sounded in "Welsh, as it is in these English wordes : yn, 

synne, ys, thynne, vvynne. 1 Neyther 
yet as it is sounded of the commune 
people in anye of these two woordes 
foHowyng : vvyde, vvynge. 2 Also y 
heyng a woorde, counteruayleth the 
sygnification of. the in Englysh, and 
of Le in Erenche, or of the Articles Ha, Ho, in Hebrue and Greeke, 
as thus : y dyn, whose proper sygnification in Englyshe is not com- 
munlye vsed, except a man shoulde saye, the person : [36] hut 
Le homme shall well declare it to any that shal be skilled in the 
Erench : And bymeanes hereof we vse to expresse the excellencie 
that the Euangelistes attribute to lesus, when they adde the Greeke 
article thereto : whych they seeme aduisedly to do, omitting to 
write it when they speake in the name of the Iewes or Gentiles. 

The sound of Z. 
Z In Welsh is vnknowen, in so muche that it was neuer placed in 

possible. As Salesbury does not recog- 
nize (j) he also does not recognize (w), 
hence wyth aw = with awe, is to him 
(m'th au), not (weth au). It is hope- 
less to look for agreement upon this 
point of theory. Supra p. 513, n. 2. 

1 (In, sin, iz, thm, wm). There 
can be little doubt as to the pronuncia- 
tion of these words because sin, thin, 
win, also occur in Smith. Mr. E. 
Jones remarks : " Thas two sounds in 
Welsh, and it is the only letter that 
has two sounds. In monosyllables as 
dyn it is nearly = reEng. as deen (diin), 
in polysyllables as dynion=u in but 
(dan-ion )." On which Dr. Davies 
observes, "rather i in hint" = (dm ion). 
In the examination of this sound as 
pronounced by tbe Welsh students at 
Regents Park College, (supra p. 761, 
note 3,) the word dynion seemed more 
like (durion) tban (dan-ion), but I 
noted the following pronunciations, ##6? 
(gad), yn y (an a), trwyddo (truuv'dho), 
ynddo (an - dho) bywyd (bau-j'd), sydd 
(siidb), Uewyrchu (lbhewarkh-i'l, tywy- 
llwch (tawalhlrukli) and (taw/lhh-ukh) 
in North Wales ; the words are all in 
John i., 1-5. According to Dr. Davies 
the theoretical sound in all places is (;?), 
which is aimed at in solemn or stately 
style, but in South Wales the universal 
sound is (i, i). In North Wales (a, *), 
or (a, i) are heard. The sound may 
be (y). The sound (a), or (a), is 
quite familiar. Salesbury evidently 
only knew one sound, and it is im- 

portant with regard to his English 
to be sure that he did not know the 
sound (a), which we do not find recog- 
nized in English till the xviith century, 
see p. 174. The following are the 
rules usually accepted for the pronun- 
ciation of Welsh y. In the mono- 
syllables dy, dyd, dyt,fy, myn, y, yd, 
ydd, ym, yn, yr, ys, it is pronounced 
(a), in all other monosyllables (y). In 
final syllables it is always (y). In the 
prefix cyd, and sometimes cyn, as 
cydeistedd, cynoesoedd, and in adjectives 
and adverbs prefixed as cryf-arfog, it 
is also (y). After w it is generally (y) 
as gwynfyd, mwynhuu, bwyta, but to 
this rule there are several exceptions 
especially if w is short or follows a 
vowel, as chwyrnu, ehwysu, llewyrchu, 
tywyllu, azvyddu, eicyllys in which it 
is (a). In all other cases not specified 
in these rules it is (a). 

2 (Weid, weind). The first word 
is clear, but the second is doubtful. 
Wynge should = wing, which was cer- 
tainly called (wf'q). There is a Norfolk 
word winge to shrivel, in Wright's 
Dictionary of Obsolete and Provincial 
English, but that is probably (wmdgh). 
Most likely vvynge is a misprint for 
vvynde, which, even as a substantive, 
is called (weind) by Bullokar, and 
(waind) by Gill. 

3 The Greek v was originally (y), but 
was (i) at the time Salesbury wrote. 
What he alludes to in this marginal 
observation is not clear. 


any "Welshe woord hytherto t 1 Neither needed I once to speake 
of it, but because I would put the reader vtterly out of doubt in 
tbis bebalfe. How be it, z may conueniently hereafter be vsurped 
in woordes borowed of straunge tongues, euen that tbey keeping 
tbeir orthographie, maye the more apparantlye declare them selues, 
at the least, to tbe learned. 

Of the Abbreuiations. 
[This section has no interest.]... [37] 

[38] Annotation. [This also has no interest.] [39] 

[40] A briefe rehersall of all the rules before, with certayne other 
additions thereto pertayning. 

A comparisS of the pronunti- J\_ Is most ynlyke of pronounciation 
ation of the letters in Welshe, to the Hebrues Aleph. 

G°r et TJ7H lei? e -S ™* -£* — *«> the nature 

oi Beth. 
C and K be not vnlyke in sound vnto Caph and Koph. 2 
Ch, chi, cheth and caph wytb raphe, 3 be of one sounde. 
D soundetb as Daleth, Daghessata.^ 
Dd contaynetb tbe power but of one letter, and that of Dhelta, or 

of dhaleth not daggesset. 5 
[41] E is much spoken after the sounde of the vowels Segol or 

.J 1 and Beth wythout the poynt Dagges or the Grek Veta be as one 

in sounde. 7 
ff (or) ph agre in pronunciation with the Greke Phy or the He- 

braick phe not poynted wyth Dages. s 
G is sounde as Gimel or the Dutch g. 9 
H and th' aspiration He be equal iu power. 10 
I in euerye poynt agreeth wyth the Grreke Iota. il 
L Lamedh, and Lambdha, disagre not in sound. 12 
LI countreuayleth Lambda comming before Iota} 3 
If J¥, Mem Mm and My JVy differ not in sound. 14 

1 Hence in his transcript of English as the modern pronunciation of /). 
words the sound of (z) must be given Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte says 
to his s when necessary, as indicated by that this is a mistake, and that the 
other authorities. Constantinopolitan Greeks invariably 

2 3 = (k) in P]3 =(kaph), p =(k) in say (v). See remarks on Icelandic v. 
Pflp = (Kooph). supra, p. 549. 

3 That is D without the dagesh point 8 </> = (f) or (ph) see supra p. 513, 
= (kh). note 2; B = (ph). 

4 "-I = (d). s T = (dh), 5 = (dh). 9 a = (g), German g = (g) generally. 
6 ?13D = (seeghool - ) is the short (e), io h = (h). 

e was the same. n "Except in being occasionally a 

* 2 = (bh), /3 = (v) or (bh), supra p. consonant as (j).— B.LY' 

518. E. A. Sophocles (Romaic Gram- ,,l _„. 

mar accompanied by a Chrestomathy ' — w • 

with a vocabulary, Hartford, U.S. 1842, 13 *'=(li), see above p. 756, note 3, 

and without the vocabulary, London, an ^ p. 757, note 1. 

Triibner 1858) distinctly assigns (bh) u 30 3, /u. y = (m, n). 


and Omega shall sound as one. 1 

P doeth as well imitate Phe and Phy in sound as in other conditions. 2 

R hath a peculiar concinnitie with Rho. z 

S Samech and Sigma may go togyther well inough for their tune. 4 

T soundeth as Teth or Tav dagesset in the Hebrew. 5 

Th hath the very sound of Theta or Tav hauing no Dages. 6 

Fbeyng consonante soundeth as Beth wythoute Dages or as Veta 

doeth. 7 
V beyng vowell is read as Kibiits and not much vnlyke vnto 

Ypsilon. s 
^hath the verye sound Ypsilon? 

^[ What further concinnitie the Letters in Welsh ehaue vvyth the 

Greeke Letters. 

[This only comes to dividing the consonants as follows :] [42] 

The thynne letters be these, c or k, b p 1 1. 
The thycke letters are these, ch ph 11. 
The middle letters be these, g v dd. 

Of the sounde of ch, g, i. 
These thre letters ch, g, i haue neuer the 
but^Sta Hke sounde ** the Welshe tong, as they haue in 
these Englysh wordes, chere, gentle, lacked 

[43] Of contraction vsed in welshe. 
[This section possesses no interest]. 
Of accente. 
The obseruation of accente is it that shall do muche towarde the 
attaynyng of the natiue pronunciaton of any language, in so muche 
that somtyme the alteration of accente shal altere also the significa- 
tion of the word, as in these woordes in Greke : Neos, Tomos, 
pharos, and these in Welshe : gvvydd, gvvyll, gvvyr : and in Eng- 
lishe : these, differ, prouide, denye. &c, 10 

1 n = (oo) in modern English pro- 6 6, n=(th). 

nunciation of Greek, but (oo) in modern 7 Supra p. 747, n. 6, and p. 764, n. 7. 

Greek, supra, p. 523, as in modern 8 Kibiits here is kubxts on p. 761, 

"Welsh, where pob peth is called (poob where see note 2. Greek v = (i), for- 

peeth) not (poob peth), and the older merly (y). 

English, p. 96. 9 (Tsheer, dzhentd, Dzhak). 

2 Phe means S = (p), but what does 10 Ne'os young, pe6s fresh land, fallow 
phy mean ? It should be <p, but that and the Ionic gen. of pads a ship ; to^os 
has been already appropriated to ff = a cut, a piece cut off, toco's cutting, 
(/). Probably phi/ is a misprint for sharp ; <pcipos any large piece of cloth, 
py=ir. . a cloth, sheet, shroud, cloak, <(>dpos 

3 The "peculiar concinnitie" refers lighthouse from the island $dpos. In 
perhaps to the aspirated form p which the first three words the position of the 
Salesbury accepts as his rr, modern rh, accent mark causes a difference in mo- 
now ('m) rather than (rh). dern Greek pronunciation, (ne - os, neos - , 

4 D, o- taken as = (s), as they were to - mos, tomos - ) but both the latter words 
certainly then pronounced though the are (fa-ros). But the accent mark in 
determination of the original sound "Welsh is only used to indicate 
of each letter presents difficulties. length, and is generally omitted both 

5 t3 = (0> fl = (t)> they are generally in printed books (even dictionaries) aud 
confounded. writing. Gwydd (guu-ydh) pasture 



Dd for th 
Ffor V 

Certayne Englishe wordes wher of ye may gather tie Welshe pronun- 
ciation of the letters. 

Archangell, Beynge, Called, Michael, Discomfyted *Dde, Euer 
*Fillaynous. Fend, Grget Him, Itch I-eldynge, Kest, 
Laye, Mellett, Murmurynge, Not Ouer, Freuayled, 
Kauenyng, Horrible, Satan, Tormented, Thorowe, 
Ualiant, Busines, Worthye, Til. 1 

Certaine wordes wherin the letters he most vnlilcely sounded to Welshe 

pronunciation of them. 

[44] All, Combe, Dombe, Ceasse, Cyue, Cbecke, Adder, Ele, 

Fysbe, Gender, Engyn, Humour, Honour, In, Iaundice, Fall, 

*Osyll, Beason, Season, Thomas, Thauies Inne, 

The blacke byrd That, Vncle, Tdle, Synging. 2 

The signification of A. in Welsh. 
[This has no reference to pronunciation.] 

The signification of Y. 
[This has also no reference to pronunciation.] 

looks like mellett, but the I is plainer 
in the Grenville copy, it is possibly 
meant for millet (imTet), murmur- 
ing (nrurmun'q), not (not), over 
(oover, over), prevailed (prevaild - ), 
ravening (ravem'q), horrible, (Horeb'l), 
Satan (saa-tan), tormented (torment-ed), 
thorough (thuru), valiant (val'jant), 
business (b«z - mes), worthy (wurtlri), 
ill (il). 

2 Probably all (aul), comb (kuum) as 
a hill, dumb (dum), cease (sees), sieve? 
" as water in a sine' ' Much ado, act 5, sc. 
1, v. 6, 1623 ed., (s«'v), check (tshek), 
adder (ad-er), eel (ii\), fish (fish), gender 
(dzhend - er), engine (en-dzhm), humour 
(Hyy - mur\ honour (on - ur), in (in) P. 
jaundice (dzhaun-di's),/«W (faul) ; osyll 
is explained in the margin as the black- 
bird, which answers to the ousyll of 
Levins, owsyl of Huloet, the modern 
ousel or otizel (uuz*el) is sometimes used 
for a blackbird merula vulgaris, though 
more commonly for the water ousel, 
dipper, water crow or pyet merula 
aquatica, cinclus aquaticus, reason 
(reez-un), season (seezmn), Thomas 
(Tom - as), Thavles Inn (Dave'z it), that 
(dhat), uncle (uqkd) or perhaps (nuqkd) 
see p. 744, and note 2 ; idle (eid'l), 
(sindzlWq) singeing because (s«q - «q) 
would be like the Welch sound of the 

ground that has been formerly plough- 
ed; a weaver, gwydd (gwyydh) wood, 
or a weaver's loom; gwyll (guu'ylhh) 
a hag, goblin, ghost; gwyll (gwolhh) 
shade ; gu-yr (gnu-yyx) oblique, sloping, 
see supra, p. 726 ; gwyr (gwiir) fresh 
vigorous verdant. The English exam- 
ples are more difficult; differ is pro- 
bably differ defer ; prouide is unintel- 
ligible for only provide occurs, not 
provide, though we have provident. 
Mr. Brock suggests that prouide may 
be meant for proved; denye only occurs 
as deny' , but denier is both denier a 
French coin, accented denier (deneer) 
in Shakspere, Eichard III., act 1, sc. 2, 
last speech, v. 252 — the other two 
passages in which it occurs are in 
prose, — and denier one who denies. 

1 These words seem to be, Archangel 
(ark-an-dzhel), being (biWq), called 
(kauked), Michael (Meik-el ?), dis- 
comfited (df'skunrfited), the (dhe), ever 
(ever), villanous (vt'Ianus), fiend 
(feend),^ (get), him (him), itch (ttsh), 
yielding (jiikWq), kest this is hardly 
likely to be Spenser's word "which 
forth she kest," F. Q. 6, 12, 15, it is 
more probably an error for kist= kissed, 
but the word is doubtful; lay (lai), 
mellett has the second I battered and 

Chap. VIII. § l. salesbtjry's welsh pronunciation. 767 

[45] . . . . ^ A generall rule for the readyng of Welsh. 

T Hough there be diners precepts here tofore wrytten of the "Welsh 
pronunciation, of the letters, I would thinke it not ouermuch dis- 
sonant, nor yet to wyde from the purpose, to admonishe you in 
thys behalfe, that is, that you ought not to reade the Welsh accord- 
ing as ye do the Englyshe or French, hut euen after the reading 
of the latin. For in reading English or French, ye do not rede 
some wordes so fully as they he wrytten. 

And in many other ye seme to sound the sillables more fully 
tha the expressed letters do giue. "Which maner of reading is so 
vtterlye eschued in Welsh, as ye perceyue it to be exactly obserued 
of them that perfitely reade the Latine tonge : Nei[46]ther do I 
meane here to cal them perfite and Latinelike Readers as many as 
do reade angnus, mdgnus, for agnus, magnus, ingnis, for ignis, santus, 
for sanctus, savvl, for sal : sovvl, for sol : and for mihi, meichei : and 
egovv, for ego: tuvv for tu : and quith ligith, in stede of quid legit. &C 1 
Therefore ye must learne to forget such maner of pronunciation, 
agaynst ye prepare your selues to reade y e Welsh. Moreouer, ye 
ought to know, that" these wordes : dringo [scandere], gvvingo 
[calcitrare], kynga [sermo], myngen [juba], anglod [reprehensio], 
angred [infidelitas], and the most part of suche like Welsh wordes, 
hauing ng in them, and being of moe sillables then one, shal be 
red as these English wordes be (but ye must admit them to be red 
now as of two sillables euery word) Kynges, rynges, Iryngeth, syngeth : 
For euen as ye do not rede them Kyn-ges, ryn-ges, bryn-geth, syn- 
geth : but rather in thys wyse, Kyng-es, ryng-es, bryng-eth, syng-eth : 2 
euen so do we sound dring-o, and not drin-go : gvving-o, not 
gvvin-go : myng-en and not myn-gen. Albeit, yet as ng may be 
seuered and parted in this Englysh word syn-geth (but the signifi- 
cation altred) 3 so haue we some wordes in Welsh (when they are 
spoken) in whom the sillables may be seuered in ng, as in these : 
an-gerth, Llan-gvvm, tringyrch, &c. 

[Then follow seven entire pages and two portions of pages of a letter to Mr. 
Collingborn speaking of the advantages to Welshmen of learning English, the 
low state of Welsh literature, &c, with many wordy digressions, and ending thus :] 

[54] But now M. Colingborne, least peraduenture, where I 
thynke my selfe but familiarlye to talke here wyth you, and other 

1 Agnus magnus (aq-nus maq-nus), like mang for magnus in the popular 
ignis (t'q'm's), sanctus (sant-us), sal dialect). This gn forms a part of the 
(saul), sol (sooul), mihi (niei-khei) com- received pronunciation in Swedish, 
pare the present Scotch sound, ego where the frequent combination gn is 
(eg'oou, egu) see p. 744, tu (tyy), quid always assimilated to (qn), forming 
legit (kwj'th lii-dzrth ?). " The Scandi- an accidental analogy with the mn 
navians have lost the sound (qg), both which arises from an original fn, bn 
medial and final . . . Hence (q) is pn ?" — Eapp, Phys. der Spr. 3, 241. 
regularly represented by ng, or by n in 2 (K/qz, ri'qz, brtcreth, stq'eth), 
nk, or by g in gn, according to the 3 (Smdzlreth) = singes, most pro- 
German school tradition (abbreviations bably. 

768 salesbury's English pronunciation. Chap. VIII. § 2. 

my familiars (as my meanyng is none other in deede) some thank- 

les taunter entermeddle and say vnto me, alludyng to that mocke 

of Diogenes, viri Myndi portas occludire, ne quando vrbs vestra 

egrediatur, meanyng this therhy, my good friend haue 

done with your Welsh confabulation, haue done : 

for els your ioly prooemion, and 

your goodly pdrergon shalbe 

longer then all your 

booke besyde. 


therefore at the 

last I make 

an end. 

[The colophon consists of three crescent moons interwoven, , with the word 1J? 
in the central one of the four inner interstices, and the word v2 in each of the 
three outer openings .between the horns of the crescent, evidently referring to 
Psalm 72, v. 7: ITV x2~*lJJ (gad b'lii" jaree-aA), so long as the moon endureth, 
literally, until failure-oi' moon.] 

§ 2. 

William Salesbury's Account of English Pronunciation, 1547. 

The "Welsh text of the Introduction to Salesbury's Dictionary 
is here reproduced literatim with all the errors, misprints, false 
collocations of letters, antique spelling, of the original, but without 
the long f, and in Roman type in lieu of black letter. Those who 
are interested in antiquarian Welsh will prefer seeing it in this 
form, and will be better pleased to set it right for themselves than 
to have it reduced to form and order for them, while the English 
translation will enable the English reader to dispense with the 
"Welsh. English and Foreign words are italicised 

There are two perfect copies of this work in the British Museum, 
one in the general library (628, f, 25), and one in the Grenville 
Library (7512). The volume is a small quarto, 7^ by 5^ inches, 
including tbe margin ; the letter-press, without the headline, mea- 
suring 6-| by 3f inches. It is in black letter, unpaged. The 
signatures are : none to the first sheet, Bi. Bii. Biii. C.i. Cii, and 
then, after a blank leaf, the signatures go from A to S, the last 
letter having only 6 pages. The title occupies the first page, and 
is in English only, as follows : 

A Dictionary in Englyfhe and "Welfhe moche necef- 
fary to all fiiche Welfhemen as wil fpedly learne the 
englyfhe tongue thought vnto the kynges maieilie very 
mete to be fette forthe to the vfe of his graces fub- 
iectes in Wales : wherevnto is prefixed a litle treatyfe of 
the englyfhe pronunciation of the letters, by Wyllyam 


The colophon is 

^f Imprynted at London in Fofter lane, by me Iohn. 
Waley (1547). Cum priuilegio ad imprimendum solum.C,') 

Immediately after the title is a dedication in English only : "To 
the Moost Yictorioufe & Eedowbtede prince Henry theyght by 
the grace of God Kynge of Englande, Fraunce and Irelande de- 
fender of the faythe And of the Churche of Englande and alfo of 
Irelawde in erthe the fupreame Hedde be al profperitye in con- 
tinuall honour." This dedication extends over three pages, and con- 
cludes : " Youre poore and humble fubiecte Wyllyarn Salefburye." 

Then follows the address to the reader, occupying five pages. 
The beginning of each page is marked in the following transcript 
by a black figure in brackets as [5], and in numbering the pages 
of the book I reckon the title as p. 1, and the back of it as p. 2. 
On p. 11 commences the actual treatise on the sounds of the letters, 
and, counting the two blank pages at the end of the third sheet, 
on p. 25 begins the dictionary itself of which the first page is 
annexed as a specimen, shewing the arrangement in four columns 
and the many Welsh words left untranslated. Indeed, as may be 
expected, it is extremely deficient, but it extends to 141 pages. 

The English translation of the "Welsh address to the reader and 
account of English Pronunciation was kindly made by Mr. E. Jones, 
of the Hibernian Schools, Liverpool, and obligingly revised by Dr. 
Benjamin Davies, of Eegent's Park College, London, one of the 
Council of the Philological Society. No attempt has been made to 
imitate Salesbury's quaintness of language, but the meaning of the 
words is given as carefully as possible. In this English translation, 
where Salesbury cites an English word in the spelling of the 
time, it is printed in small capitals, his pronunciation in Welsh 
characters is subjoined in italics, and then the interpretation which 
I give to that phonetic transcript is added in palaeotype in a paren- 
thesis, and when Salesbury gives no phonetic transcript, the con- 
jectured palaeotypic form is given. If Salesbury adds the meaning 
in Welsh this is subjoined also in Italics, and a translation of it 
into Latin is annexed in brackets. When Salesbury gives no trans- 
lation the Latin is still added. Thus: "laddbe lad-dr (lad'er) yscol 
[scala]," give the old English spelling laudke, Salesbury's phonetic 
Welsh transcript lad-dr, the palaeotypic meaning of the same 
(lad-er), the Welsh translation of the original word yscol, and the 
Latin translation of the Welsh translation [scala]. References are 
added throughout to the page in which the passage is quoted or in 
which illustrative remarks occur, and these are inclosed in a paren- 
thesis thus (p. 61), meaning, supra page 61. This will avoid the 
necessity of subjoining footnotes. After the specimen of the dic- 
tionary is added an alphabetical list of all the words of which Sales- 
bury gives or indicates the pronunciation, in this or the foregoing 
tract, with a reference to the different pages in this book where it 
is to be found, supplementing the references in the text. 

770 salesbury's English pronunciation. Chap. VIII. § 2. 

[5] ^f "Wyllyam Salesburi with, y darlleawdr. 

Onid odit ddarlleydd bonheddigaidd nid anghyssylltbell vyssei 
ddangos a datclario pa lesaad pa vudd a phwy broffit a ddelsai 
ir neb a dreuliai ddim amser with ddallen a mefyriaw ar y Uyfer 
hwn Oni byssei ddarfod or blaen i oruwchel- 
Awdurdot y llyuer ^^ awn harglwydd vrenhin ay gyncor 
iurtot y^breniiM^ edrych arnaw ai dderbyn eissoes yn lowedic 
gan dduw. gymradwy o help a chanhorthwy kychwyniad 

tywysogaeth at Iaith saesnaec A chan vod 
hefyd llywadraeth kalon brenhin (vegys y kyttystia rystrythur Ian) 
drwy law ddew, yr hwn a gatwo eu ras yn hirhoedloc lwyddianus 
ffynadwy Amen. Onid bellach i nessau tu ar peth kyfreitiaf a 
chyssonaf yngan a sonio am tanaw yn y vangre hon Sef er mwyn 
Kymbry or nid oes gantunt angwanec o ddyfynder athrowlythyr 
onid medry o vraidd ddew, ddarllen iaith eu marueu ir hai hynny 
yn vnic o chweny chant vegys y dylent vynny kyfrwyddyt i ddarllen 
a deall iaith Saesnec iaith heddyw vrddedic o bob rhyw oreuddysc 
iaith gyflawn o ddawn a buddygoliaeth ac iaith nid chwaith 
anhawdd i dyscy vegys y may pop nassiwn yn i hyfedyr ddyscy eb 
edrych yn Uygat y boen nar gost ac yn angenrheitiach i ni r 
Kymbry no neb wrthei er esceuluset genym am y peth : Ir hai 
an nyscedic hyny meddaf yd yscrifenned hyno wan[6]atra- 
waeth ac nid ir Rai tra chyrTarwydd. Onid atolwg i chwi y 
Rei sydd a mowrddysc genwch ac a wyddoch Rac mor werthfawr 
yw Dyscymwneuthur awch hunain yn ol ddull saint Pawl ympop 
peth i pawp A moeswch hefyd (val y dywaid yr vnrhyw Pawl) 
modd yr abwydir rhai bychain a bara a llaeth borthi o hon- 
awch chwitheu yr anyscedic a mwydion ych goruchelddysc 
ac nid a godido wocrwydd athronddysc. Ac velly os chwchwi ni 
chudddiwch dryssor yr Arglwydd onid i gyfranny yny gyfle ir 
angenogion o ddysceidaetha doethineb ai gyfryw betheu ereill : 
Gobeitho i dyry duw vath ysprydoldeb vddunt hwytheu ac na 
sathrant val moch dim och gemau nach main gwyrthfawr ac na 
chodant ich erbyn val kwn ar vedyr awch brathy/ Eithyr etto 
eilwaith i ymady a chyfeilomson / ac or diweddi ddechreu ar hysbysy 

a silliau hanes ac ystyriaeth y llyfer yma Ac yn 
Ystyriaeth y gymeint nad ynt y llytthyrenneu yn vn ddywediat 

nac yn vn draythiad yn sasnec ac ynghymraec : 

Yn gyntaf dim y ddys yn datkan ac yn honny 
Enwr llyfyr. paddelwy darlleir ac y trayther hwy yn ol 

tafodiad y Sason ac yno esampleu o eirieu kyfaddas 

yn kynlyn/ A chwedy hynny y mae y Gairllyfyr ner Geiriawc 

saesnec yn dechry yr hwn a elwir yn saesnec an Englis dic- 

sionary ys es yw hyny kynullfa o eirieu seisnic/ achos ky- 

T „ nullcidfa o eirieu seisnic yd ywr holl llyfer hayach / 

c-eSieuT ^ n J T nwn os deliwch yn dda arnaw y ddys yn 

kadw order a thrcfyn ynto : o bleit ni chymysced 
dim or geirieu bcndromwnwgyl ynto val y damwyniai vddunt 
syrthio ym meddwll or tro kyntaf : Eithyr ef adfeddylied vyth er 


[5] 1f William Salesbury to the reader. 

Possibly, gentle reader, it would not have been irrelevant to shew 
and declare what advantage, what gain and what profit, would 
result to any one, who should devote any time to reading and study- 
ing this book, but that his majesty, the king, 

together with his council has received it, as an Authorisation of the 
acceptable and suitable help and aid for the JTose authorit^u 
induction of the principality into the English f rom God. 
language, and because the inclining of the 

heart of the king (as shewn by the holy scripture) is from God, who 
I pray may preserve his grace in long life prosperity and success. 
Amen. But now to come to the most important and necessary sub- 
ject to be treated of in this place, that is, for the sake of Welshmen 
who do not possess more learning than the bare ability to read their 
own tongue, and of those only who may, as they ought, desire in- 
struction in reading and understanding the English language, a 
language at present renowned for all excellent learning, full of 
talent and victory, a language moreover not difficult to learn, 
which persons of every nation acquire fluently, without regarding 
trouble and expense, and to Welshmen more necessary than to 
any other people, however much we may neglect it. Eor these 
untaught persons, then, so much elementary teaching was written, 
[6] and not for the well versed. But I desire of you who are 
possessed of higher attainments, and know how valuable is educa- 
tion, that you would after the manner of Saint Paul, make your- 
selves all things to all men, and condescend also (as the same 
Paul says,) since babes are fed with bread and milk, to feed the 
ignorant with the crumbs of your superior knowledge, and not with 
the excellency of high scholarship. And thus if you do not hide 
the treasure of the Lord, but dispense it as opportunity offers, by 
supplying it to those in need of learning and wisdom, and other 
like things, I trust God may grant to them such a spirit, that 
they may not like swine, trample your gems and precious stones 
under their feet, and that they may not rise like 
dogs against you, ready to bite you. But now again Object of the 
to leave all digression and to begin to set forth the whole book, 
object and import of this book. Inasmuch as all the 
letters are not said and sounded alike in English and in Welsh, first 
of all we declare and affirm the mode in which they are read, and 
sounded according to the pronunciation of the English people, with 
examples of suitable words following. After which 
the English Wordbook or Dictionary begins, which Name of the 
means a collection of English words, for the whole Book, 
book is, indeed, a collection of English words. In , , ,, 
which if you carefully notice, order and arrangement Words, 
are kept : for the words are not mixed helter skelter 
in it, as they might happen to tumble to my mind at first thought. 
But with constant reflection, for the sake of the [7] unlearned, 

772 salesbury's English pronunciation. Chap. VIII. § 2. 

mwyn yr a[7]nyscedic gyfryw vodd ac y darfy helkyt pop gair 
(kyd y deuei kof ) yw Yan gyfaddas ckunan : Ac velly yr koll 
eirien ac / a / yn y llytkyren gyntaf oe deckreu a gynulled i gyd ir 
vnlle : A phop gair yn dechry a b / yn yn llytkyr kyntaf o konaw 
a ossodet or nenlltuy / Ar geirieu a c / yn eu deckreuad a wakaned 
kwytkeu or nenlltuy : Ar geirieu a ddeckreant ac ck, a ddidolet 
kwynte ekunain / A rkei ad/ yn i kyckwyn a gasclet ac a ossodet 
mewn man arall / Ac val kyn y rayed y llaill pop vn i sefyll dan 

vaner i Captelytkyr ddeckreuol / Ac wrtk kynny 
Modd y kefir p an cnwe nyckock gafFael Saesnec am ryw air 
r'aec ^ ^ m " kamberaec : Yn gyntaf / edryckwck pa lytkyren 

vo ynneckreu r gair kwnw yn anianol/ o bleit os/ 

a / vydd ki / spiwck am tanaw ynpktk y Restyr 
eirieu a vont yn deckre ac a / ac yn y yan kono ar y gyfer yn y 
rkes o eirieu saesnec y keffwck Saxonaec iddo / Eitkyr gwiliwck 
yn dda rkac yck twyllo yn kam geisio gair allan oe van briod 
gyfaddas/ vegys pe i keisieck vn or geirieu kyn yr ystym ar 
agwedd y maent yn gorwedd yn y penill yma Mae i mi gangen dec 
o xedwen Ackos ni wasnaetka ywck wrtk geisio saesnec am (gangen) 
ckwilio am danaw ymysc y geirieu yn deckreu a g / namyn ymklitk 
y geirieu a vo k yn y deckreu / y dylyeck espio am danaw / ay 
Saesnec vydd gar i vron : Canys y gair kroyw kyssefinydy w Yangen 
ac nid gangen kyd bo r ymadrodd kymraec yn kyfleddfy k yn g / ac 
yn peri sonio t / val d / a b / val v / yn y geiriey kyn dec o yedwen / 
Ac am kyny rkait i ckwi graffy bytk pa lytkyi'en a vo yn deckre 
r gair pan draetker ar y ben ekun allan o ymadrodd vegys y 
dangosseis vckod/ Ac velly yu ol y dadawc naturiol draetkiad y 
mae i ck[8]wi geisio o nrynwck ckwi gael pop gaii' yn y gaiiilyfer 
yma / bleit vegys na ddysgwyl neb onid ynfyd pan el i wiala ir 
koet gaffael gwiail yn tyfy yn vn ystym y byddant wedy r eiKo am 
gledyr y plait / velly r vn modd ni ddiscwyl neb onid rky angcel- 
fyyd gaffael pop rkyw air yn y gairllyfyr yn vn ystym nag yn vn 

agwedd i ddywediat a ckwe dy i bletky ym- 
Kyngor ysmala parwyden ymackodd/ Ac eb law kyn oil a 
11 Y mi y ddywedais ymblaenllaw/ Kymerwckkyn o gyngor 

gyd a ckwi y sawl gymry a ckwenyckock ddyscy 
gartref wrtk tan Saesnec / Nid amgcn no gwybod o konawck na 
ddarlleir ac na tkraetkir pop gair saesnec mor llawnllytkyr ac mor 
kollawl ac yd screfenner Vegys kyn God be wyth you yr kwn a 
draetka r kyffredin / God biwio : A swrn o eirieu ereill a yscrifenir 
kcfyd Ryw sillafeu yntkunt yn vn ffunut eitkyr ni ddarlleir ddim 
konunt or vn ffynyt val y rkai byn or naill ddarlleyad bowe, crowe, 
trowe ar kain a ddarlleir bo bwa : kro / bran : tro/ tybyeid/ A rkai 
kyn kefyd a escrifenir y pen diwaytkaf vdddunt yr vn ffunut ac 
ir llaill or blaen eitkyr i ddarllen a wnair yn amgenack cowe, lowe, 
nowe, narrowe, sparowe y rkai a ddywedir yn gyffredin val kyn 
kow / buwck : low / lowio : now yn awr : narrw kyfing : sparw 
ederyn y to/ Ac am gyfryw ddamwynieu yr kyn y byddei 
ryddygyn ir ddarlleydd i nodi pe doe kof ckwaitk i sciifeny 
mae goreu kyngor a vetrwyf vi ir neb (val y dywedais ymlaen) 


every word (so far as memory served) was chased to its own proper 
position. Thus all the words having a for the first letter were at 
the outset collected into the same place. Then all words beginning 
with b were placed apart. So with c, and ch, and d. Thus also of 
all the rest, every word is ranged under the standard of its captain 
letter. Thus when you require the English for any "Welsh word ; 
First observe what is the first letter naturally ; 
if it is a for example, look for the word under the ^ e m ?^ e 
series a, and having found the word, in the opposite Eno-lkh 11 ^! 
column for English you will get the English for it. Welsh. 
But be very careful not to be misled, to seek amiss 
a word out of its own proper place. For example, if you trace the 
words in the form and aspect in which they lie in the following line 
Mae i mi gangen dec o vedwen [Est mihi ramus pulcher betullae]. 
For it will not serve you to look for the English for gangen 
among words which begin with g, but under 1c, because the pure 
radical word is kangen not gangen, and the English meaning will be 
found opposite the radical word. For it is a peculiarity of the 
"Welsh to soften the initial consonant, as k to g, t to d, b to v, in 
certain positions, as in the words dec o vedwen [ramus betullae]. 
Therefore you must always consider what is the initial letter when 
the word stands alone, out of connection, as I observed above. 
So it is in the normal natural utterance of the word that you are 
to seek, if you wish to find every word in this lexicon. For as 
none but an idiot would expect, [8] when going to gather osiers, 
to meet with rods growing in the form they are seen after being- 
plaited round the frame-work of a basket, in the same manner 
none but an unskilful person will expect to find eveiy word in 
the dictionary in the form and shape in which it is found when 
woven in the partition wall of a sentence. In addition to all 
I have already said observe this further direction, . , . 
such of you, Welshmen, as desire to leam English Welshmen 
at your own firesides. You cannot fail to know that 
in English they do not read and pronounce every word literally 
and fully as it is written. For example, God be wyth rou, which 
the commonalty pronounce God biwio (God birwiro). And a 
heap of other words also are written, as to some of their syllables 
in the same way, but are not pronounced in the same way, as 
the following : bowe, ceowe, trowe which are read bo (boo) bwa 
[arcus], kro (kroo) bran [cornix], tro (troo) tybyeid [opinor]. 
The following also have precisely the same termination as the 
above but are differently read, cowe, iowe, note, naeeowe, 
spabowe, which are usually spoken how (kou) buwch [vacca], low 
(lou) lowio [mugire], novo (nou) yn aivr [nunc], narrw (naru) 
hyfing [angustus], spario (sparu) ederyn y to [passer]. With re- 
gard to such cases as the reader may find too difficult to remem- 
ber, much less write, the best advice I have for such as may 
not be able to go to England (as I have already said), where the 

774 salesbury's English pronunciation. Chap. VIII. § 2. 

or ni ecly angbaffael iddo vyned i loecr lie mae r iaitb yn 
gynenid / ymofyn bonaw ac vn a wypo Saesnec (0 bleit odit o 
blwyf ynkyrubry eb Sasnigyddion yntbo) [9] paddelw y gelwir 
y petb ar peth yn sasnec. Ac yno dal a chraffy pa vodd y traythai 
ef y gair ne r geirieu byny yn saisnigaidd / a cbyd a byny kymeryd 
y llyfer yraa yn angwanec goffaduriaetb yn absen atbrawon / ac 
yn dinic dyscyawdwyr yr iaitb. Dewcb yn acb a 

Dyscwcb nes oesswcb Saesnec 

Doetb yw e dysc da iaith dec. 
^f T gwyddor lytbyrenneu bycbain. 
A a. b. c. cb. d. dd. e. f. ff. g. gb. b. i. k. 1. 11. m. 
n\. n. i\. 0. p. r. £. f. ff. s. ft. t. tb. v. u. w. y. 

^f Egwyddor or llytbreneu kanolic vaint. 
►J- a. b. c. d. e. f. g. gh. b. i. k. 1. m. no. 0. p. q. r. t. 
f. s. t. v. u. x. y. z. ff. ff. ft. w. &. a. 9. 

A. P>. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. K. L. M. K 0. P. Q. E. S. 
T. U. Y. 

^f Gwyddor or vatb vwyaf ar lytbyreu. 


[10] blank 

[11] ^f Natur a sain y llytbyreu vcbod yn Saesnec. 

A- Seisnic sydd vn natur ac (a) gymreic / yal y may yn eglur 
yn y geirieu byn o saesnec ale j aal : ac ymbymraec kwrw : pale 
paal: sale sal: ddieithyr Eyw amser y kaiff/ a/ sain y dipton 
(aw) yn enwedic pan ddel ef vlayn I / ne 11/ val y may yn eglnracb 
drwy y geirieu bynn : balde bawld moel ball bawl, pel : wall wawl 
gwal : Ond yn Eyw eirieu i dodant weithie (a) yn lledsegnr er a 
gyfrifwn a ymarferai oe nertb ebunan / namyn yn bydracb ymritbio 
yn Ptith yn bocal (e) ni a wnae ir darlleydd, val byn ease ies es- 
nrwythdra : leaue lief kenad: sea see mor : yea/ ie/ Ond nitb 
rwystyr vatb eirieu abyn di ond yn anfynecb. 

B. yn sacsonaec a / b / yn Camberaec ynt vnllais val yn y geirieu 
bynn : babe baab / baban : brede bred / bara. Ac ni newidir b, 
seisonic am lytbyren aran val y gwnair a / b / gymberaec. 

C- wrtb i darllen yn sasonaec a cbambraec sydd yn vn lief onid 
vlayn e / i / y / canys vlayn y tair llytbyren byn val s / vydd i son 
vegys bynn Face ffas wyneb gracyouse grasiws / rraddlawn / codicyon 

Ch- n i<l y w <li m tebyc yn sacsonaec ac ymgbamberaec : Ac nid 
oes yngbamraec lytbyren na llytbyrenneu ai kyftlyba yn iawn / eithyr 
may sain / tsi / kyn gyfflypet iddi ar efydd ir aur / val yn y gair bwn 
churche tsurts ecleis. 


language is native, is, let Mm inquire of one who knows English 
(for there is scarcely a parish without some person in it conversant 
with English), [9] and ask how such and such a thing is called 
in English. And observe carefully how he sounds the word or 
words in English, and, in the absence of masters, and lack of 
teachers of the language, take this book, as an additional re- 
minder. Come then and 

Learn English speech until you age ! 
"Wise he, that learns a good language ! 
^[ The Alphabet of small letters. 
A. a. b. c. ch. d. dd. e. f. ft. g. gh. h. i. k. 1. 11. m. 
n\. n. r\. o. p. r. r. f. ff. s. s. ft. t. th. v. u. w. y. 
^[ The alphabet of medium letters. 
•J" a. b. c. d. e. f. g. gh. h. i. k. 1. m. n. o. p. q. r. i. 
f. s. t. v. u. x. y. z. ff. ff. ft. w. & *. 9. 

A. B. C. D. E. E. G. H. I. K. L. H. ff. 0. P. Q. E. S. 
T. U. T. 

^f The Alphabet of Capital letters. 


[10] Hank 

[11] % The nature and sound of the above letters in English. 

A in English is of the same sound as a in Welsh, as is evident 
in these words of English, axe aal (aal) hcrw [cerevisia] ; paxe 
paal (paal) [pallidus], sale sal (saal) [venditio] (p. 61). Except 
sometimes a has the sound of the diphthong aw (au) especially 
when it precedes l or ll, as may be more clearly seen in these 
words : baxde hawld (bauld) moel [calvus], ball bawl (baul) pel 
[pila], wall wawl (waul) gwal [murus] (p. 143, 194). But in 
certain words they place a sometimes, as we should consider it, 
rather carelessly according to our custom, out of its own power and 
rather metamorphosed into the vowel e, as ease ees (eez) esmivythdra 
[otium], leatje leef (leev) ken ad [venia, licentia], sea see (see) mor 
"mare], yea ie (jee) [etiam] (p. 80). But words of this kind will 
not often perplex thee, gentle reader. 

B in English "and b in Welsh have the same sound, as in these 
words : babe baab (baab) baban [infans], beede bred (breed, bred) 
bar a [panis]. And b in English is not changed for another letter 
as is done with b in Welsh. 

C in reading English, as in Welsh, has the same sound, except 
before e, i, t, for before these three letters it is sounded as s (s). 
For example face ffas (faas) wi/neb [facies], gracyoese graskvs 
(graa*si,us) rraddlawn [gratiosus], condicyon condisywn (kondis-am) 

Ch is not at all like in English and in Welsh. And there 
are not in Welsh any letter or letters which correctly represent it, 
but the sound of tsi (tsi, tsj) is as like it as brass is to gold, as in 
the following word churche tsurts (tslurtsh) ecleis [ecclesia]. 

776 salesbury's English pronunciation. Chap. viii. § 2. 

[12] D- ymghamraec a sacsonaee nid amrafaelia i gallu val y 
dyellir yn y geirieu hynn or ddwy iaith : Duke / duwk due : dart 
dart dart. Eithyr nota hyn yn dda pan welych dwy / dd / yn dyfod 
ynghyd yn sasnaec nid val / dd / gymbereic vydd i grym / ond cadw 
awno pop vn i llais gynefinol : Ac nid lleddfy A wnan ond cledy yn 
gledachvegys yny gerieu hyn laddre lad-dr/ yscol bladd' blad-der 
chwyssige. D. hefyd yw terfyn berf amsereu perphaith amper- 
phaith amwy nag amberffaith / val am y gair bwnn loued/ carwn/ 
kereis/ carysswn &c. 

E- a ddarlleir yn sasnaec gweith val / e / gymberaic gwaith val/ i / 
gymberaic / a gweithe ereill yniwedd gair i tau ac i bydd vut val 
scheua yn hebriw neu vegys y gwelwch/ w/ yn diwed' y geirieu 
hynn Camberaec kynddelw/ ardelw/ kefnderw/ syberw/ buddelw/ 
marwnad / catwderw : yny rbain wrth eu darlain ay traythy / w / 
a dawdd ymaitb ac velly y dywedyt a wnair kyndell/ ardel/ 
kefnder/ syber/ budel/ marnad/ catderw/ Velly/ e/ yn diwedyy 
geirieu saesnec a dawdd ymaitb a cbam mwyaf ddiwed pop 
gair wrth i draithy vegys ddiwedd y geirieu bynn emperoure 
emperwr ac nid emperwrey darlleir : yr hwn air sasnec arwyddoka 
ymgbymraec ymerawtr: Ac velly am euermore eferniwor tragowydd. 
Ac yn y ddeuair saesnec vcbot may y ddwy (e / e) gyntaf bob vn 
yn vn llais ac e/ gamberaec/ neu e/ llatin neu epsylon roec. Ar 
e / ddiwaethaf yn tewi / val y may / w / yny geirieu a soniais am 
tanun gynnef. Ond yn enwedic pan ddel /e/ynol/1/ne/r/ 
yniwedd gair sacsonaee [13] ni chlywir dim ywrtbei ar dauod 
sais : ond cblywyt petb ywrthei / kynt y dyfalyt y bot bi o 
vlaen 1/ ne r/ nag oe hoi : val y traytbant bi ar y geirieu yma/ able, 
sable, twyncle, wryncle, thodre, ivondre, yr byn eirieu ac ereill a 
deruynant yn vn odyl a rai byn ni chlywn i sais yni darllain onid 
vegys pe byddem ni yw scriueny drwy adael/ e/ heibo/ val bynn/ 
abl / sabl / twinkl / wrinkl / tbwndr / wndr : neu val pe bay / e / o 
vlayn yr 1 / ne yr r / val hyn saddell, thonder : Ond ni ddylie vot 
chwaith dieithyr vath ddarlleyad a hwnw i ni yr kambry paam onid 
ym nineu yn darllein drwy doddi ymaith dwy ne dair amrafael 
lythyreu vegys y may yn eglur yn y geirieu yma- popl dros popol, 
kwbl dros kwbwl : papr / ac eithr He y dylem ddy wedyt papyr / ac 
eythyr / Ond raid y w madde i bob tafawd i ledlef, a goddef i bob 
iaith i phriodoldeb. Heuyd natur y vocal/ e/ pan orpbenno air 
sacsonaee esmwythau ue veddalhau y sillaf a ddel oe vlayn val 
hynn hope hoop / gobeith : bake, baak / poby : chese / tsis caws. 
Eithyr dal yn graff ar ddywedyat y gair ackw chese, bleit yr 
e / gyntaf sydd vn llais ac, i, on hiaith ni : ar e, ddiwaythaf yn 
sefyll yn vut val y dyweclais or blayn y damwyniai iddi vod ryw 
amser. E, hefyd vlayn s, ynniwedd enweu Uiosawc, sef yw 
hynny ir anyscedic geirieu a arwyddockaant vch pen rhifedi vn 
peth, a ddislanna wrth eu dywedyt val o ddiwedd yr enweu neur 
geirieu hynn kynges, brenhinedd : frendes, kercint : tenles, pepyll/ yr 
hain a ddarlleir kings / frinds / tents. A gwybyddet y darlleydd nad 


[12] D in Welsh and English do not disagree in their powers, 
as may be understood in these words from the two languages : dtjke 
duwk (dyyk) due [dux], dart dart (dart) dart [jaculum]. But note 
this well when you see two dd coming together in English, they 
have not the power of dd in Welsh (dh), but each retains its usual 
sound. And it does not soften, on the contrary it hardens the 
sound, as in the following words : laddee lad-dr (lad*er) yscol 
[scala], bladd' blad-der (blad - er) chwyssigen [vesica]. D also is 
the termination of the perfect, imperfect, and pluperfect tenses, as 
in the word loved (luvd) carwn, kereis, carysswn [amabam, amavi, 

E is pronounced in English sometimes as e "Welsh (e), sometimes 
as i "Welsh (i), and sometimes at the end of words, it is silent or 
mute as sheva in Hebrew, or as you see w at the end of these words 
in Welsh : kynddelw, ardelic, kefnderw syberw, buddelw, marionad, 
catwderw, in which the w is melted away in reading and speaking 
and so they are sounded Icyndell, ardel, kefnder, syber, budel, mamad, 
catderw. Similarly e final in English words is melted away, for 
the most part, from the end of every word in pronunciation, as in 
the following words : empeboube pronounced emperwr (enrperur), 
and not emperwrey (emperuu-rei) which word in Welsh signifies 
ymerawtr [inrperator]. And so euebmoee efermwor (evermoor-, 
evermuur, evermwor) tragowydd [semper]. In the two English 
words above, the two first e, e, of each, has the same sound as the 
Welsh e or Latin e, or the Greek epsylon. And the final e is mute 
as w is in the words I have already mentioned. Moreover especially 
when e final follows l or r, [13] it is not heard from English 
tongues. But if it is heard at all, it is rather before the l or e than 
after, as they pronounce the following words : able, sable, twyncle, 
wbyncle, thondee, wondbe, which words, together with others of 
the same termination, in hearing an Englishman read them, seem 
as if written without the e, thus : abl, sabl, twinlcl, ivrinkl, thwndr, 
wndr, (aa-b'l, saa-b'l, twiqk-'l, wr*qk-'l, thun-d'r, wun'd'r), [potens, 
niger, seintillare, ruga, tonitru, miraculum,] ; or as if the e were 
written before the l or e : thus saddell, thondee (sad'el, thun-der), 
[ephippium, tonitru.] But such pronunciations ought not to be 
strange to us Welshmen, for do we not also in reading melt away two 
or three letters at times, as may be seen in the following : popl for 
popol [populus], hwbl for kwbwl [totus], papr and etthr, where we 
should say papyr [papyrus] and eythyr [sed]. But eveiy tongue 
must be pardoned its peculiarities, and every language allowed its 
idioms. Eurther it is the nature of e final to soften and prolong 
the syllable which precedes it as : hope hoop (Hoop) gobeith [spes], 
bake baak (baak) poby [coquere panem ut pistor], chese tsis (tshiiz) 
caws [caseus]. But observe carefully the word chese, for the first 
E has the sound of •' in our tongue, and the e final is mute as before 
described. E also before s at the end of plural nouns, — that is, (for 
the sake of the unlearned,) names which signify a number of any- 
thing, — disappears in pronunciation, as in the following : kyxges, 
brenhmedd [reges], feendes kereint [amici], tentes pepyll [tentoria], 


778 salesbury's English pronunciation. Chap. viii. § 2. 

yw [14] A gwybyddet y darlleydd nad yw y Ruwl yma yn 
gwasanaythy i bob enw Uiosawc bleit pan ddel c, cb, g, neu e, 
arall ylayn y ddywedetic e, pally a wna y ruwl bon canys yna e, 
a draythir yn vungus neu val yn y, ni : val yn y geirieu bynn 
dyches deitsys / ffossydd : faces : ffaces / wynebeu : oranges, oreintsys / 
afale orayds : trees, triys prenneu. 

f, seicsonic ebun sydd gymeint synnwyr yntbei ac mewn dwy 
f, f, gambereic wedy gwascy eu penneu yngkyd. val hyn : fole, ffwl, 
ffol ne ynuyd 

ff, ac /, yn sasnec a dreytbir yn vnmodd, eytbyr ff, yn ddwyscach, 
ac /, yn yscafnacb a gymerir : /, yn yscafu, val ymay chefe, tsiff 
pennaf / ff, yn ddwysc neu yn drom val yn y gair bwn suffre, 
swffffer cUoddef : 

G, seisnic a cb/ saesnec ynt daran debyc eu sain ie mor debyc i 
son yw gilydd ac yd yscriuena sags ny bo dra dyscedic yn aill yn 
ller llall vegys y damwain yn y gair bwn churge yn lie churehe 
tsiurts eglwys. Eytbyr g/ yn sasnec vlaen, a, 0, u, a gweithe 
vlayn e / neu y, nid adweynir i llais rac g, gambereic, val hyn 
galaunt galawnt/ gelding gelding / plage, plaagpla/ God, dyw/ gutte / 
gwt coluddyn/ Gylhert / gilbert : Ond pan ddel g/ vlaen/ e/ i/ neu 
y/ val ch, seisnic neu tsadde hebrew vydd i lief or rban vrnycbaf 
vegys hyn gynger tsintsir/ sinsir/ Gwilia hyn etto yn dda pan 
ddelont dwy gg/ ynghyd/ kydleisio eulldwyedd ac g/ gamraec a 
wnant val hyn beggynge begging / yn cardota / nagge nag keffylyn / 

[15] Gh, sydd vn lief an ch, ni ond i bot hwy yn traythy yr gh / 
eiddunt yn yscafndec ddieythyr y mwnwgyl a ninneu yn pro- 
nwnsio yr ch / einom eigawn yn gyddwfeu. A vegys y mayn 
anhowddgar gan sacson glywed rhwnck y llytbyr hon gh / velly may 
Kymbry deheubartb yn gwacbel son am ch, ond lleiaf gallant. Can 
ti ay klywy hwy yn dywedyt hwaer a hwech lie ddym ni ogledd 
kymbry yn dywedyt chtoaer a chwech. 

Ac etwa mi an gwelaf nineu yn mogelud traythy ch, yn vynech 
o amser vegys y may yn ddewisach genym ddywedyt (chwegwaith) 
no (chwechgwaitb) a (chwe vgain) na (chwech vgain). Ac im tyb 
i nid hoffach gan y Groecwyr y llytbyr ch, pan ymchwelynt or 
ebryw Johannes yn lie lochanna / ac Isaac dros Iitschack: A 
chyffelyp nad gwell gan y llatinwyr y llytbyr vchot pryd bont 
yn dylyn yr vnwedd ar groecwyr ar drossi yr bebrew ir llatin / ac yn 
dywedyt mi hi a nihil dros michi a nichil Ond i ddibcnny yt / 
kymer y chwrnolat hwnw yn yscafnaf ac y del erot with ddywedyt 
iaith Saxouaec. 

H, s ydd vnwedd yn hollawl y gyd ar Sason a nineu, val y may 
haue baf, bwdc/ hart calon ne carw/ holy holi santaidd/ ne kelyn. 
Onid yn lhyw eirieu llatin wedy sacsnigo nid anedsir h, val yny 


which, are read kings (kiqz), frinds (friindz), tents (tents). [14] 
And be it known to the reader that this rule does not apply to 
every plural, for when c, ch, g, or another e precedes the said e the 
rule fails, for then e is pronounced obscurely or as our y {%), as in 
the following dyches deitsys (deitslWz) ffossydd [fossae], faces ffaces 
(faas*ez) ivynebeu [facies], oranges oreintsys (oreindzlw'z) a/ale orayds 
[aurantia], trees triys (triWz) prenneu [arbores]. 

F in English has singly as much power as two "Welsh /, /, with 
their heads pressed together, thus : fole ffwl (fuul), ffol ne ynuyd 

ff and F in English are pronounced alike but ff harder than f, 
which has a lighter sound, as in chefe tsiff (tshiif ) pennaf [prin- 
ceps] ; ff hard as in suffre swffffer (suffer) dioddef [jp&ti]. 

G is sounded in English very similar to ch, so similar indeed that 
Englishmen not well educated write the one for the other, as in the 
word chtjrge for churche tsiurts (tshertsh) eglwys [ecclesia]. But 
g in English before a, o, tx, and sometimes before e or y is not dis- 
tinguished from g Welsh (g), thus galaunt galawnt (gal-aunt) 
[fortis] (p. 143), gelding gelding (gekkiq) [canterius], plage plaag 
(plaag) pla [pestis], God (god) dyw [deus], gutte gwt (gut) coluddyn 
[intestinum], gylbert gilbert (g«Tbert). But when g comes before 
e, i, or y, it is sounded as ch in English, or as tsadde Y in Hebrew 
for the most part, as gynger tsintsir (dzhm - dzher) sinsir [zinziber]. 
Note well this again when two gg come together, they are sounded 
as one, like g "Welsh, thus : beggynge begging (beg^'q) yn cardota 
[mendicans], nagge nag (nag) keffylyn [mannus], egge eg (eg) icy 

[15] Gh has the same sound as our ch, except that they sound 
gh softly, not in the neck, and we sound ch from the depth of our 
throats and more harshly (p. 210), and as it is disagreeable to the 
English to hear the grating sound of this letter so "Welshmen in 
the South of "Wales avoid it as much as possible. For you hear them 
say hwaer, and hwech (whair, whekh), where we in the North of 
"Wales say chwaer, and chivech (khwair, khwekh ; kwhair, keohekh ?). 

And still I find that even we often avoid pronouncing ch, as we 
prefer saying chwegivaith (kwegwaith) for chwechgwaith (kwheklr- 
gwaith) [sexies], and chwevgain{kwh.crgam, k^hec/gain?) for chivech 
vgain (kwhekh yygain) [centum et viginti]. And in my opinion 
the Greeks were not overfond of this sound when they transferred 
from the Hebrew, Johannes instead of lochanna, and Isaac for litschach. 
And in a similar manner the Latins had no great liking for the 
above letter, for they follow the Greeks in transferring from Hebrew, 
and say mihi and nihil for michi and nichil (mi'Hi nriril, mi/.lri 
niX'h'il). But to conclude you may take this guttural as light in 
speaking English as you can. 

H is precisely the same in English as in "Welsh, as we see in 
hatje haf (nav) hwde [accipe], hart hart (Hart) calon ne carw [cor 
vel cervus], holy holy (nooW, hoH) santaidd ne kelyn [sanctus vel 
aquifolium]. But in some anglicized Latin words h is not sounded 

780 salesbury's English pronunciation. Chap. viii. § 2. 

thain honeste onest/ honoure onor/ anrhydedd/ exhibition ecsibisiwn/ 
kynheilaeth/ prohibition pi'oibisiwn/ gwahardd. Md ynganaf viyn 
bot ni y to yr wrhon mor ddiddarwybot a dywedyt gwydd dros 

[16] I, oe biaith bwy sydd gymeint ar ddwy lytbyren yma ez, 
on iaith ni/ od gwescir y gyd ai dywedyt yn vn sillaf neu dyph- 
thong, val yny gair bwn, i, ei / mi ne myfi. Eythyr pan gydseinio 
i, a bocal arall vn sain vydd ni yna a, g, seisnic, ac acbos eu bot 
hwy mor gyffelypson mi weleis rei ympednister a dowt pa vn ai 
ac, i, ai ynte a, g, yd scriuenynt ryw eirieu ar rain maiestie, gentyll, 
gelousye : a rhai yn scrifenny habreioune ac ereill hebergyn, lluric : 
Ac vclly mi welaf ynghylch yr vn gyffelybrwydd rwng y tair 
llythyren seisnic bynn ch, g, i, a rbwng y plwm pewter ar ariant, 
sef y w hynny, bod yn gynbebyc y w gylydd ar y golwc kyntaf ac 
yn amrafaelio er hyny wrth graffy arnnnt. Esampl 0, i, yn gyd- 
sain Iesu, tsiesuw, Iesu : ' John tsion a sion o lediaith : ac Ieuan 
ynghamroec loyw : ioynt, tsioynt kymal. 

K, yngbymraec a saesnec vn gyneddf yw/ ond yn saesnec an- 
uynychach o beth y dechy air val y gwelwcb yma, boke bwk llyfyr 
buclce bwck bwch : k, yn decbry gair Jcynge king / brenbin : knot 
kwlwm: kent. 

L- yny ddwyaith ddywededic nid amgena ond yn anamylair i 
llais val byn lyly lili / lady ladi arglwyddes lad bachken. 

LI, yn saesnec nid ynt dim tebyc en hansawd in 11. ni : an 11, 
ni ny ddysc bytb yn iawn dyn arallia itb i tbraytby ddiertb yny 

LI, hefyd yn saesnec nid yw yn dwyn enw vn lly thyren eithyr 
dwbyl 1, neu 1, ddyplyc i gelwir : a llais 1, sydd yntbun yn wastat, 
neu lais lambda pan ddel [1 7] vlayn iota / Ond yn rhyw wledydd 
yn lloecr val w, y traythant 1 / ac 11 / mewn rby w eirieu val hyn 
bowd yn lie bold: bw dros bull / caw dros cal. Ond nid yw vath 
ddywediat onid llediaitb / ac nid petb yw ddylyn oni vynny vloysci 
y gyd a bloyscon. 

M, ac n/ kynggany awnant yny ddwyaith einom/ ie ac ympop 
iaith ac i gwn ni ddini o y wrthynt / yn Saxonaec a dwyts val hyn 
man gwr men gwyr. 

0) kymysclef an / ac an w/ ni vydd/ ac nid ar vnwaith nac yn 
yr vn sillaf onid mown vn sillaf yn 0/ mewn arall yn w/ y treythir 
val bynn to to / bys troet : so so velly two tw/ dau/ to tw/ ar at/ i/ 
schole scwl / yscol. 

0, hefyd o vlaen Id / neu 11/ a ddavlleir vegys pe bay w / ryngto 
ac wynt/ mal hyn colde, cowld oer bolle, bowl/ tolle towl toll. 
Eithyr dwy 00 ynghyd yn sasncc a soniant val w/ ynghymraec 
val hyn good, gwd da : poore pwr/ tlawd : 

P, yn saesnec nid yw vn ddeddf a phi yn hebruw yngroec neu 


as hotteste onest (rarest) [honestus], honoure onor (raror) anrhydecld 
[honos], exhibition" ecsibisiwn (eksibis'ijUn) kynheilaeth [expositio], 
prohibition proibisiwn (proo,ibis - i,un) gwahardd [prohibitio]. I 
"will not mention that we are at present so negligent as to say gwydd 
(gwydh) for gwehydd (gw?ee"Hydh) [textor]. 

[16] I in their language is equivalent to the following two 
letters in ours ei (ei), but they are compressed so as to be pronounced 
in one sound or a diphthong, as in that word of theirs I ei (ei, 9i) mi 
[ego] or myfi [egomet]. But when it is joined to another vowel it 
has the sound of g English, and as they are so near alike, I have 
met with some in hesitation and doubt, whether they should write 
certain words with i or with g, as the following: halestie, gextyll, 
gelouste, and some writing habreioune and others hebergyn lluryg 
[lorica]. Thus I observe the same likeness between these three 
English letters ch, g, and i, as exists between pewter and silver, 
that at first sight they appear very like each other, but on close ex- 
amination they differ. For example, Iestj tsiesuw (Dzhee'zyy) Iesa 
[Jesus], Iohn tsion (Dzhon) and sion [Shon] by corrupt pronuncia- 
tion, and Ienan [Iohannes] in pure Welsh, iotnt tsioynt (dzhoint) 
kymal [junctura] (p. 131). 

K has the same power in "Welsh as in English, but it is not so 
frequent at the commencement of words as may be seen in the fol- 
lowing: boke hick (buuk) llyfyr [liber], bucke hock (buk) bwch 
dama mas] : k at the beginning of words kynge king (kiq) brenhin 
rex], knot (knot) kwlwm [nodus] ; Kent. 

L in the two languages does not differ in sound, as lyly lili 
(lil'i) [lilium], lady ladi (laa*di) arglwyddes [domina], lad (lad) 
bachken [juvenis]. 

LI in English is nothing like in sound to our ll (lhh), and our ll 
will no foreigner ever learn to pronounce properly except in youth. 

Ll in English has no distinct name, it is simply called dwbyl I 
(dub^'l el) or twofold l, and it has always the sound of I, or 
of lambda [17] before iota. But in some districts of England it 
is sounded like w (u), thus bowd (boould) for bold [audax], bw 
(buu) for bull [taurus] ; caw (kau) for call [voco]. (p. 194.) But 
this pronunciation is merely a provincialism, and not to be imitated 
unless you wish to lisp like these lispers. 

M and N are of the same sound in the two languages (and 
indeed in every other language I know). In English they are 
spoken thus man (man) gwr [vir], men (men) gwyr [viri]. 

takes the sound of o (o) in some words, and in others the 
sound of w (u); thus to to (too) bys troet [digitus pedis], so so (soo) 
velly [sic], two tw (tuu) dau [duo], to tw (tu) ar, at, i [ad], schole 
scwl (skuul) yscol [schola]. (p. 93.) 

also before ld or ll is pronounced as though w were inserted 
between them, thus colde coicld (koould) oer [frigidus], bolle bowl 
(booul) [crater], tolle towl (tooul) toll [vectigal] (p. 194). But 
two oo together are sounded like to in Welsh (u), as good gwd (gud, 
guud) da [bonus], poore pwr (puur) tlaivd [pauper] (p. 93). 

P in English has not the same rule as phi in Hebrew, Greek, or 

782 salesbury's English pronunciation. Chap. VIII. § 2. 

yngamroec achos yny teirieith hyn y try weithie yn rliyw eirieu 
yn ph : 

Eithyr sain sauadwy sydd iddi yn sasnec ympop gair val : papyr 
papyr/ pappej papp bron gwraic neywd: penne ydyw pinn yscri- 
fenny : Ac val hyn y traytha Sais y llyther p / mewn ymadrodd / 
and ivyth a penne : ac a phinn : ac nid wyth a phenne neu ffenne 
y dywaid ef. 

Q,, llythyr dieythyr ymgamraec yw ac nid mawr gartrefigach yn 
saesnec vn gyfraith a cna k/ [18] y keflir q/ val hynn queue kwin 
brenhines : quarter kwarter chwarter neu pedwerydd ran : quayle 
sofyliar : A gwybydd may u / yw kydymeith q / can ni welir byth 
q / eb u / yw cbynlyn mwy nar goc neb i gwichelll. 

R/ sydd anian yny ddwyiaith hyn eythyr ni ddyblyr ac nid 
hanedlyr E, / vyth yn dechreu gair sasnec val y gwnair yngroec 
ac yncamroec modd hyn 

Rhoma rrufain ne rhufain : Ond val hyn yd yserifenir ac y 
treithir geirie seisnic ac r / ynthunt ryght richt iawn rent rent ros 
ros ne rosim, 

S / yn yr ieithoedd yma a syrth yn vn sain val hyn syr syr/ seasd 
seesyn amser amserawl ne amser kyfaddas : Eythyr pan ddel s / yn 
saesnec rhwng dwy vocal lleddfy neu vloyscy a wna yn wynech 
amser val hyn : muse muwws meuyrio : mase maas madrondot. 

S / o dodir hi cwhanec at diwedd enw vnic / yr enw vnic / 
neur gair vnic hwnw a liosocka ne ai-wyddocka chwanec nac vn peth 
vegys hynn hade hand yw llaw : handes hands ynt llawe ne 
ddwylo : nayle nayl ewin ne hoyl hayarn nayles nayls ewinedd ne 
hoylion heyrn : rayle rayl canllaw : rayles rayls canllaweu / ne 
ederin regen yr yd. 

Sh / pan ddel vlayn vn vocal vn vraint ar sillaf hwn (ssi) vydd 
val hynn shappe ssiapp gwedd ne lun : shepe ssiip dauad ne ddeueid. 

Sh / yn dyfod ar ol bocal yn (iss) y galwant : vegys hyn asshe 
aiss/ onnen : wasshe ivaissl golchi. Ac ym pa ryw van bynac ac air 
i del/ ssio val neidyr gy[l9]ffi'ous a wna/ nid yn anghyssylltpell 
y wrth swn y llythyr hebrew a elwir scMn : Ac mynny chwanec 
hyspysrwydd ynkylch i llais gwrando ar byscot kregin yn dechreu 
berwi damwain vnwaith vddunt leisio. Kymerwch hyn athro 
wlythyr kartrefic rac ofyn na chyrayddo pawp honawch gaffael 
wrth i law tafodioc seisnic yw haddyscy. 

T/ hefyd a wna yr vn wyneb i Sais a chymro val hyn tresure 
tresuwr trysor toure towr twr : top top nen. 

Th / saesnec a chymraec a vydd gyfodyl ac vn nerth ond yn 
rhyw eirieu hi a ddarlleir kyn yscafhed ar dd / einom ni : Eglurdeb 
am gyfio wnllais th/ eiddunt hwy: through thrwch trywodd: thystle 


Welsh, for in these languages it is sometimes changed in words 
to ph. 

But in English it has a permanent sound in every word as papye 
papyr (paa'pir) [papyrus], pappe papp (pap) Iron gwraic ne yicd 
[mamma vel infantium cibus], penne pinn yscrifenny [calamus]. 
And an Englishman pronounces the letter p thus, in the phrase and 
wyth a penne (and with a pen) ac a phinn [et cum calamo], and not 
wtth a phenne or pfenne with double ef {with, a fen). 

Q, is a strange letter in Welsh, and scarcely more at home in 
English. It is the same in sound as k, [18] as quene hoin (kwiin) 
hrenhines [regina], quarter Jcwarter (kwart*er) chwarter [quarta 
pars] ; qtjatee (kwail) sofyliar [coturnix]. And bear in mind that 
tj is the companion of q, for q is never seen without v following 
it, as the cuckoo without her screecher. 

R is of the same nature in the two languages except that e is 
never doubled or aspirated at the beginning of words as in Greek 
and Welsh. 

Rkoma, rrufain or rhufain [Roma], but English words beginning 
with e are thus pronounced: byght richt (rilht) iawn [rectus], 
bent rent (rent) [scissura], eos (rooz) ros ne rosim [rosa]. 

S in these languages is of the same sound, thus sye syr (sir) 
[dominus], season seesyn (seez-m) amser amserawl ne amser kyfaddas 
[tempestas, tempestivus vel occasio]. But when s comes between 
two vowels it has the flat sound, or it is lisped, thus muse muwws 
(myyz) meuyrio [meditari], mase maas (maaz) madrondot [stupor]. 

S when added to the end of a word in the singular, makes it 
plural, or to signify more than one, as hande hand (Hand) is Haw 
[una manus], handes hands (Handz) are llawe ne ddwylo [plures 
vel duae manus], nayle nayl (nail) ewin ne hoyl hay am [unguis 
vel ferreus clavus], nayles nayls (nas'lz) ewinedd ne hoylion heyrn 
[ungues vel ferrei clavi], eayle rayl (rail) canllaw [cancellus], 
eayles rayls (railz) canllawen ne ederin regen yr yd [cancelli vel 
creces pratenses] (p. 119). 

Sh. when coming before a vowel is equivalent to this combination 
ssi, thus shappe ssiapp (shap) gwedd ne lun [species vel forma], 
shepe ssiip (shiip) dauad ne ddeueid [ovis vel oves]. 

Sh coming after a vowel is pronounced iss, thus asshe aiss (ash, 
aish ? ) onnen [fraxinus] ; wasshe waiss (wash, waish ? ) golchi 
[lavare]. And wherever it is met with it hisses, like a roused ser- 
pent, [19] not unlike the Hebrew letter called schin B*. And if 
you wish further information respecting this sound, you should listen 
to the hissing voice of shellfish when they begin to boil. Take this 
as an homely illustration lest you may not all be able to find an 
English tongue at hand to instruct you. 

T also shews the same face to an Englishman as to a Welshman, 
as teestjee tresuwr (trez-yyr) trysor [thesaurus], touee towr (tour) 
twr [turns], top top (top) nen [vertex]. 

Th. in English rhymes with the same combination in Welsh (th), 
but in some words it reads flat like our dd (dh). Examples of the 
Welsh sound of th ; theough thncch (thmukh) trywodd [per], 

784 salesbury's English pronunciation. Chap. VIII. § 2. 

thystl yscall : Eglurwch am th/ val awn dd/ ni this ddys hwn/ hon/ 
ne hyn. vclly ddym nine yn cam arfer yn sathredic dd/ dros th/ 
yny gair yma (ddialaydd) yn lie (dialayth) JNbta hyn hefyd/ y 
darlleant th / val t / yny geirieu hynn Thomas tomas : throne trwn 

JJ/ yn gydson nid amrafailia i rhinwedd yn lloecr mwy nac 
yngymry val hyn vyne vein gwin wydden : vayne vayn gwythen 
ne wac : veluet velfet melfet. Eithyr u/ yn vocal a ettyl bwer y 
ddwy lythyren gamberaechyn, u, w, ai henw kyffredin vydd yn, 
uw, vegys y tystolaytha y geirieu hyn true tnrw kywir : vertue 
vertuw rhinwedd A rhyw amser y kaiffi hiawn enw gantunt ac 
y daiileir yn ol y llatinwyr sef y galwant yn vn llais an w/ ni : 
val yny [20] geirieu hyny/ lucke bwck bwch/ lust lwst chwant 
Eithyr anuynech y kyssona eu bocal u/ hwy an bocal, u, ni/ eissoes 
yn y gair hwn busy busi prysur ne ymyrus. 

"W", seisnic ac w/ gymreic nid amgenant i gallu val hyn/ waioe 
waw tonn ar vor / wyne wein gwin : wynne wynn ennill. Eithyr 
henw y llythyren w/ saesnec vydd dowbyl uw/ sef yw hynny u 
dduplic / Ar sason wrth ddyscy i blant sillafy ne spelio ai kymerant 
hi val kydson ac nid yn vocal ne yn w, per se val y ddym ni yw 
chymryd : Ond y ddym ni ar hynny yw Jiarfer hi or modd hawsaf 
i ieunktit ddyfod y ddarllen yn ddeallus. 

Hefyd distewi a wna w/ wrth ddiweddy llawer gair saesnec 
val yn diwedd y rai hynn / awe, bowe tvowe j y rhain a ddarlleant 
modd hynn : a/ ofyn bo bwa : w/ kary 

X, nid yw chwaith rhy gartrefol yn sacsonaec mwy nac yn 
Camberaec a llais cs / neu gs / a glywir ynthei vegys yny / geirieu 
hjrmjlaxe macs llin axe ags/ bwyall. Geirieu llatin a ledieithantir 
sacsonaec neu ir Gamberaec a newidiant x/ am s / val y geirieu 
hyn/ crnx crosse croes ne crws/ exemplum esampyl/ extendo 
estennaf : exeommunicatus escomyn 

Y f a gaiff yn amyl/ enw y dyphthong (ei) val hynn thyne 
ddein tau ne eiddot : ai enw ehun val yny gair hwn thyme thynn 

y e , a thityl val, e, vach vch i phen a wna the o saesnec val hyn 
y e man dde man, y gwr : y e oxe dde ocs / yr ych 

yt f a chroes vcchan val t, vch i ffen sydd gymeint [21] yn 11a 
wnllythyr a that ddat, hyny ne yr hwn. 

y 1 ^ ac u, uwch i phen a wna thou ddow, ti ne tydi 


thtstle thystl (thzVtl) yscall [carduus]. Examples of th like our 
dd; this ddys (dh«s) kwn hon ne hyn [hie haec vel hoc]. So also in 
familiar conversation we mispronounce dd for th in the word ddialaydd 
for dialayth [sine tristitia,]. Observe also that they read th as t in 
these words: Thomas tomas (Tonvas), throne trwn (truun) pall 

XJ consonant is not distinguished in power in "Welsh and English, 
thus : vyne vein (vein) gwin wydden [vitis], vayne vayn (vam) 
gwythen ne wac [vena vel vanus] (p. 119), veltjet velfet (vel'vet) 
melfet [holosericum]. But u vowel answers to the power of the two 
Welsh letters u, w, and its usual power is uw, as shewn in the fol- 
lowing words true truw (tryy) kywir [verus], vertue verhiw 
(vertyy) rhinwedd [virtus]. And sometimes they give it its own 
proper sound and pronounce it like the Latins, or like our w, as 
[20] in the words bucke hwch (buk) bwch [dama mas], lust Iwst 
(lust) chwant [libido]. But it is seldom this vowel sound corres- 
ponds with the sound we give the same letter, but it does in some 
cases as in busy busi (\>iz-i) prysur ne ymyrus [occupatus vel se 
immiscens] (p. 164). 

W English and w Welsh do not differ in sound, as wawe waw 
(wau) tonn ar vor [unda maris] (p. 143), wyne wein (wein) gwin 
[vinum], Wynne wynn (wm) ennill [pretium ferre]. But the Eng- 
lish name of this letter is dowbyl uw (dou'fol yy), that is double u. 
And tbe English in teaching children to spell, take it as a consonant, 
and not as a vowel, or w per se (u per see) as we take it. But still 
we use it in the most easy mode for youth learning to read intelli- 

Also w is mute at the end of words in English, as in the follow- 
ing awe, bowe, wowe, which we pronounce thus: a (aa) ofyn 
[terror] (p. 143), bo (boo) bwa [arcus] (p. 150), w (uu, wuu?) 
kary [amare, ut procus petere]. 

X Neither is x much at home in English any more than in Welsh, 
and the sound is cs (ks) or gs (gz) as in the words flaxe^^cs (flaks) 
llin [linum], axe ags (agz) bwyall [securis]. Latin words in their 
passage into English or Welsh exchange x for s, as in the words 
crux cbosse croes, or crws, exemplum esampyl, extendo estennaf, excom- 
municatus escomyn. 

Y often has the sound of the diphthong ei (ei, ai), as thyne 
ddein (dhein) tau ne eiddot [tuus vel tibi], and its own sound as in 
the word thynne thynn (thra) teneu [gracilis] (p. 111). 

y e with a tittle like a small e above makes the English, as 
y 6 man dde man (dhe man) y gwr [vir ille], Y e oxe dde ocs (dhe oks) 
yr ych [bos ille]. 

yt with a small cross above it, is equal [SI] at full to that ddat 
(dhat) liyny ne yr hivn [ille vel qui]. 

y u with u above it, signifies thou ddow (thou) ti ne tydi [tu]. 

786 salesburv's English pronunciation. Chap. Yin. § 2. 

Y, ddoedd gan yr hen scrifennyddion sasnec lythyren taran 
debyc i, y, ond nad oedd i throed yn gwyro i vyny val pladur val y 
may troet, y, ac nid antebic i llun yr rhuueinol, y, neu i ypsylon 
groec ne ghayn yn hebrew ac byd y daw im kof ddorn i klywais 
vnwaith ben ddarlleydd o sais yn y be nwi vn allu an dd ni neu ar 
ddelta roec y doedd. Ond nid yw bi arferedic ymplith Sason er 
pan ddoetb keliyddyt print yw mysc onit kymeryd tan vn (y) 
drostei : ar (tb) weitbie yny lie : Ac aros bynny may yn anbaws i 
ddyn arallwlad dreutby eu (tb) hwy yn seisnigaidd o acbos i bot 
ryw amser yn gwasa naytby yn lie yr ben llythyren a elwynt dorn 
val y gwelsocb yn eglur yny geirieu or blayn. Ac velly pan aeth 
y vloysclytbyr wreigaidd honno ar gy feilorn onysc Sason y derby- 
nassom niner Kymbry hihi ac aetbom i vloyscy val mamaethod ac 
y ddywedyt dd dros d, tb dros t, a d dros t, b ac pb, dros p, &c. 
Ond maddeuwcb ym rbac byyd y trawscbwedyl yma a mi a dalfyraf 
yn gynt am y sydd yn ol orllytbyren ereill. 

Z, hefyd o yddynt yn aruer yn vawr o bonei, yn lie s / yn diwedd 
gair val : kyngez kings, brenbinedd. A rbai yw dodi dros m, ac 
eraill (peth oedd vwy yn erbyn i natur) dros gb, yn y cbymeryd : 
val byn ryzt ricbt kyflawn hnyzt knicbt marcbawg vrddol. 

% nid llytbyren yw namyn gair kyfan wedy ddefeisio yn vyrb, 
vail y gwelwcb yma / rbac mor [22] vynecb y damwain ympop 
ymadrodd o bob ryw iaith yr hwn pan yscrifener yn llawnllythr yn 
llatin (et) vydd and yn saesnec : ac (ac) yn Camberaec a arwy- 

^f yn y Gwydbor bon o ddisot y kynwyssir sum a cbrynodeb yr 
boll ruwls vchot : Ac am byny tybeid nad rbait angwauec a addysc 
na mwy o eglurdeb arnei / ir neb a cbwenycb ddarllein y llyfer or 
pen bwy gylydd. 

a, ai c, k tsi d e f ff g c i 1 

¥a be ch d e f ff g gb b i k, 1, 

aw s d i f pb tsi b ei w 

1 o k ssi tb uw fi cs ei, y s and 

11, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, ssi, t, tb, u, v, w, x, y, z, 1 

1 w iss dd/t/ u/ v/ gs i cb/m 

^f Neu val hynn 

ai c k tsi e f tsi cb ei 11 w k 

^a, b, c, cb, d, e, f, g, gh, i, k, 1, 11, m, n, o, p, q, 
aws if iwl o 

iss tb, t u v cs ei, y s and 

r, s, sh, t, tb u, v, w,x, y, z, T; 

ssi dd uw f gs i cb m 


Y, The old English writers had a letter \ very much like y, only 
that the stem was not curved upward as a scythe like the stem of 
the y, and it is not unlike in shape to the Roman y or the Greek 
upsilon T, or the Hehrew ghayn y, and as near as I can remember, 
an old English reader once called the name of it ddom (dhorn), and 
he pronounced it like our dd (dh) or like the Greek delta 8 (dh). 
But it is not in use among the English since the art of printing was 
introduced, but y is sometimes used for it, and sometimes th. And 
on this account it is more difficult for a stranger to pronounce their 
th in English, because it serves sometimes the place of the letter 
they call ddom (dhorn), as may be noticed in the foregoing remarks. 
So that when that effeminate lisping letter was lost from the Eng- 
lish, it was introduced to us the Welsh, and we commenced lisping 
like nursing women, and to say dd (dh) for d (d), th (th) for t (t), 
and d for t, I and ph ( f ) for p &c. But pardon the length of this 
digression of speech, and I will bring my remarks respecting the 
other letters sooner to a close. 

Z was also frequently used instead of s at the end of words as 
ktngez kings (kiqz) hrenhinedd [reges]. Some also used it for m, 
and others (which was more contrary to nature) for gh in the words 
kyzt richt (ri£ht) hjfiawn [rectus], knyzt knicht (knight) marchawg 
vrddol [eques]. 

&. This is not a letter but an abbreviation for a whole word as 
may be seen from the following [22] how frequently it is used'in 
every language. When written in full it is et in Latin, ajsd in 
English, ac in Welsh. 

^f The table below gives a summary and the substance of all the 
above rules : and therefore it was not considered necessary to give 
more explanation or instruction respecting it to any one desirous to 
read the book from beginning to end. 

a, ai c, k tsi d e f ff g c i 1 

*a be ch d e f ff g gh, h, i k, 1, 

aw s d i f ph tsi h ei w 

1 o k ssi th, uw, fi cs ei, s and 

11, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, ssi, t, th, u, v, w, x, y, z & 
1 w iss dd,t u, v gs i ch,m 

f Or like this. 

ai c k tsi e f tsi ch ei 1 1 w k 

^a, b, c, ch, d, e, f, g, gh, i, k, 1, 11, m, n, o, p, q, 


w 1 o 

iss th, t u v cs ei, y s and 

r, s, sh t, th u, v, w, x, y, z, & 

ssi dd, uw f gs i ch,m 

788 salesbury's English pronunciation. Chap. viii. § 2. 

Fiest Page of Salesbhry's Welsh and English Dictionary. 
[23] [24] blank. [25]— 

H Kamberaec 




A. vlaen b. 



Ab ne siak ab 

An ape 


A roude knot 

Ab ne vab 



Abe ne afon 

A ryuer 


Aber ne hafyn 


A. vlaen d. 


The facra- 


Be, agayne 



A byrde 

Abertb efferen 

Saciyng of 


A fouler 

Aberth ne of- 



To folde a- 










A buyldynge 






Adefyn / edau 





A wynge 



Adain py | co- 


Adnabot (dyn 


Abwy burgyn 



A brayde 








A. vlaen c 

Adwy bwlch 

A gappe 






A. vlaen dd. 







Mete, apte 





An acte 


A. vlaen ch. 







Acb diaficah 

Hole, founde 






A vowe 

Index to the English and Latin "Words of -which the Pronunciation 


In the following list the words quoted from the Treatise on 
Welsh pronunciation are given in italics, followed by the old 
spelling there used by Salesbury in small capitals, and the pro- 
nunciation indicated. In that treatise the pronunciation is seldom 
or ever explained in Welsh letters, but some important part of it 
is indicated, and the rest has been added from conjecture. The 
numbers which follow give the pages in this work where the word 
is referred to, (the small upper figure being the number of the foot- 
note,) the bracketed numbers the page of the tract as here printed, 
and the capitals the letters under which the words occur. 

Chap. VIII. § 2. 



The words quoted from the Treatise on English pronunciation 
are in Roman letters, followed by the old spelling in small capitals, 
the Welsh transliteration in italics, the palaeotypic pronunciation 
in ( ), the Welsh interpretation in italics, and its translation into 
Latin in [ ], and finally references as before. 

Latin words are distinguished by a prefixed f. 

adder adder (ad-er). 766 2 , [44] 
addice addes (adb/es) provincial. 750 9 , 

able able all (aa*b'l) [potens]. 62,195 

776, [13, E] 
ale ale aal (aal) kwrw [cerevisia]. 61, 

62, 775, [11, A] 
and and (and). 787 
all all (aul). 766 2 , [44] 
fagnus (aq-nus), erroneous. 62, 744 1 , 

767 1 , [3, 46] 
famat (anvath) barbarous. 759 1 , [30] 
archangel archangell (ark-an - dzhel). 

766 1 , [43] 
ash ashe (aish). 120, 747 3 , [12, A], 

ash asshe aiss (ash, aish ?) onnen 

[fraxinus]. 783, [18, SH]. 
awe aw (au). 143, 762 6 , [34, "W]. awe 

awe a (aa) ofyn [terror]. 143, 785, 

[19, W]. 
axe axe ags (agz) bwyal [securis]. 62, 

785, [20, X] 

babe babe baab (baab) baban [infans]. 

62, 775, [11, B] 
bake bake baak (baak) poby [coquere 

panem ut pistor]. 62, 777, [13, E] 
bald balde bawld (bauld) moel [cal- 

vus]. 143, 194, 775, [11, A] 
ball ball bawl (baul) pel [pila] 143, 

194, 775, [11, A] 
be bee (bii), 754, [23, I] 
bear bere (beer). 79, 751 s , [19, E] 
begging beggyxge begging (beg"iq) 

yn cardota [mendicans]. 80, 112, 779, 

[14, G] 
being beynge (biWq). 766 [43] 
believe beleue (biliiv). 751 4 , [18, E] 
bier bere (biir). 79, 751*, [19, E] 
bladder bladd' blad-der (blad'er) 

chwyssigen [vesica]. 62, 199, 777, 

[12, D] 
bold bold boivd (boould) [audax] pro- 
vincial. 194, 781, [17, LL] 
book boke bwk (buuk) llyfyr [liber]. 

99, 781, [16, K] 
bow bowe bo (boo) bwa [arcus]. 150, 

773, 785, [8. 20, W] 
bowl bolle bowl (booul) [crater]. 194, 

781, [17, O] 
bread bredf. bred (breed, bred) bar a 

[panis]. 79, 775, [11, B] 

break breke (breek). 79, 751 3 , [18 E] 

bringeth brtngeth (bn'q - eth) not 
(bnq-geth). 767 2 , [46] 

buck bucke bwck (buk) bwch [dama 
mas]. 165, 781, 785, [16, K. 20, U] 

bull bull bw (buu) [taurus] provin- 
cial. 165, 194, 781, [17, LL] 

bury bury (bivi) vulgar. Ill, 164, 
7605, [32, U] 

business busines (bi'z - mes). 766 1 , [43] 

busy busy (hiz-i) vulgar. Ill, 164, 
760«, [32, U]. busy busy bust (bivi) 
prysur ne ymyrus [occupatus vel se 
immiscens). 112, 165, 785, [20, U] 

by our lady byr lady (bei'r laa'di). 
744 2 , [5] 

call call (kaul). 747 3 , [12, A], call, 
call caw (kau) [voco]. prov. 194, 
781, [17, LL]. called called (kaul - - 
ed). 766 1 , [43] 
calm calme (caulm). 747 3 , [12, A] 
cease ceasse (sees). 766 2 , [44] 
Cheapside chepesyde (Tsheep'seid). 

752 1 , [19, E] 
check checke (tshek). 766 2 , [44] 
cheese chese tsis (tshiiz) caws [caseus] 

79, 777, [13, E] 
chief chefe tsiff (tshiif) pennaf [prin- 

ceps]. 779 [14, F] 
church churche tsitrts (tsh?rtsh) ecleis 

Eecclesia] : tsiurts (tshf'rtsh) eglwys 
ecclesia]. 165, 199, 775, 779, [11, 

CH. 14, G] 
cold colde cowld (koould) oer [frigidus] 

194, 781, [17, O] 
comb, combe (kuuin ?), 766 2 , [44] 
condition condicyon condisj'wn (kon- 

dis-mn) [conditio]. 99, 112, 191, 215, 

775, [11, C] 
cow cowe kow (kou) buwch [vacca]. 

773, [8] 
crow crowe kro (kroo) bran [cornix]. 

150, 773, [8] 

damage domage (dom-aidzh). 120, 747 3 , 

[12, A] 
dart dart dart (dart) dart [iaculum]. 

777, [12, D] 
fdtderit (ded - erith) barbarous. 759 4 , 

[30, T] 
defer differ (difer ?) 765 10 , [43] 



Chap. Till. § 2. 

+Dei (dee-ei). 80, 111, 744 1 , [4] 
deny dente (dinei- ?) 765 10 , [43] ; the 

second word meant by dente, has 

not been identified. 
fdieo (dei-ku). Ill, 744 1 , [4] 
differ differ (dtf-erf) 765 10 , [43] 
discomfited discomfyted (d^skunrfit- 

ed). 766 ' [43] 
disfigure (dt'sv/g - yyr) provincial. 753', 

. [20, F] 
ditches dyches deitsys (deitslWz) ffos- 

sydd [fossae]. Ill, 779, [14, E] 
do do (duu). 93, 758 2 , [28, 0] 
doe doe (doo). 93, 758 1 , [28, 0] 
double 1 dwbyl I (dub-il el). 781, [17, 

LL]. double u doivh/l mo (dou-bd 

yy). 150, 785, [20, W] 
drinking drinking (driqWq). 754 3 , 

[23, I] 
duke duke duwk (dyyk) due [dux]. 165, 

777, [12, D] 
dumb dombe (dum). 766 2 , [44] 

ease ease ies, ees ? (jeez, eez ?) esmyth- 
dra [otium]. 80, 775, [11, A] 

eel ele (iil). 766 2 , [44] 

egg egge eg (eg) wy [ovum]. 80, 779, 
[14, G] 

fego (eg-u). 80, 744 1 , [4] 

emperour emperoure emperivr (enr- 
perur) ymerawtr [imperator]. 150, 
199, 777, [12, E] 

engine engyn (en - dzhm). 766 2 , [44] 

ever euer (ever). 766 1 , [43] 

evermore euermore efermwor (ever- 
muur, evermwor ?) tragou-ydd [sem- 
per]. 79,99, 199, 777, '[12, E] 

exhibition exhibition ecsibisiivn (eksi- 
bis'i,un) kynheilaeth [expositioj. 99, 
112, 191, 215, 781, [15, fl] 

face face ffas (faas) ivy neb [fades]. 62, 

775, [11, C]. faces faces ffaces ffases ? 

(faas - ez) wynebeu [faciesl. 779, [14, 

fall fall (faul). 766 2 , [44] 
father ? fedder ? (fedlrer) provincial. 

750 8 , [17, D] 
fiend ¥est> (feend). 766 1 [43] 
fish fysh, fyshe (ft'sh, vj'sh) provin- 
cial. 753 1 , 766 2 , [20, F. 44] 
five fiue (veiv) provincial. 753 1 , [20,F] 
flax vlaxe ffacs (flaks) llin [linum].62, 

785, [20, X] 
fool fole ffwl (fuul) ffol ne ynuyd 

[stultus]. 99, 779, [14, F] 
four foure (vour) provincial. 753 1 , 

[20, F] 
fox fox (voks) provincial. 753 1 , [20, F] 
friends, frendes frinds (friindz) 

hereint [amici]. 79, 80, 777, 779, 

[13, E] 

gallant, galaunt galaivnt (gal-aunt) 

[fortis]. 62, 143, 190, 779, [14, G] 
gelding, gelding gelding (geld-iq) 

[canterius]. 80, 112, 779, [14, G] 
gender gender (dzhend^er). 766 2 , [44] 
gentle gentyll. 781, [16, I] 
George george (Dzhordzh). 753 6 , [21, 

get gget (get). 766 1 , [43] 
Gh Gh eh (kh). 779, [15, GH] 
Gilbert, Gylbert gilbert (g*l - bert). 

80, 112, 199, 779, [14, G] 
^eM^TGYNGER(dzhm-dzher). 80, 753 8 , 

[21, G] ; tsintsir (dzhm'dzher) sinsir 

[zinziber]. 80, 112, 199, 779, [14, G] 
God Godde (God). 752 2 , [19, E]. God, 

God (god) dyw [deus]. 99, 779, [14, 

G] God be with you, God be wyth 

you, God biwio (God birwijo). 112, 

773, [8] 
gold golde (goold). 752 1 , [19, E] 
good good gwd (gud guud) da [bonus]. 

93, 99, 781, [17,0] 
goodness goodnesse (gud'nes). 752 2 , 

[19, E] 
gracious gracyouse grasiws (graa - - 

si,us) rraddlawn [gratiosus]. 62, 112, 

150, 215, 775, [11, C] 
gut gutte gwt (gut) coluddyn [intes- 

tinum]. 165, 779, [14, G] 

habergeon habreioune hebergyn. 

781, [16, I] 
habit habite (ab-jt). 220, 754 1 , [22, H] 
habitation habitation (ab«taa - smn). 
220, 754', where (abitee-shun) is er- 
roneously given as the pronunciation, 
[22, H] 
hand hande hand (Hand) Haw [una 
manus]. 62, 783, [18, S]. hands 
handes hands (Handz) llawe ne 
ddwylo [duae vel plures manus]. 62, 
783, [18, S]. 
hard hard (Hard). 753 8 , [22, H] 
hart hart (Hart). 753 s , [22, H], and 

see heart 
have haue haf (Hav) hwde [accipe]. 

62, 779, [15. H] 
heal-aiLUL (Heel). 79, 753 s , [19, E] 
heard heard (Herd?). 753^, [22, H] 
heart hart hart hart (Hart) calon ne 

canv [cor vel cervus]. 779, [15, H] 
heel hele (niil). 79, 751 s , [19, E] 
hem hemme (Hem). 752-, [19, E] 
heritage (Hert'taidzh). 120, 747 3 , [12, 


him ii im (Htm). 766 1 , [43] 

holly see holy 

holy holly, holy holy (hoo - U - hoI**') 
eantaidd ne helyn [sanctus vel aqui- 
folium]. 99, 112, 779, [15, H] 



honest honest (oirest). 220, 75-t 1 , [22, 
H]. honest honeste onest (oirest) 
[honestus]. 99, 781, [15, H] 
honour honour (oiror) 220, 766 2 , [44]. 
honour honoure onor (on*or) aur- 
hijdedd [honos]. 99, 150, 199, 781, 
[15, H] 
hope hope hoop (Hoop) gobeith [spes]. 

99, 777, [13, E] 
horrible horrible (Horatu). 766 1 , [43] 
hour houre (our), 759, [30, R] 
huberden (H«'b - erden) vulgar. Ill, 

164, 760, [32, 33, U] 
humble humble (unvbl). 220, 754 1 , 

[22, H] 
humour humour (Hyymur). 766 2 , [44] 
hurt hurt (Hurt). 753 8 , [22, H] 

I (ei). 754 4 , [23, I]. 1 1 ei (ei, ai) mi 

[ego]. 111,781, [16, I] 
idle ydle (eid-1). 766 2 , [44] 
fignis (e'q-nj's) bad. 767, [46] 
t'^YLL («'l). 766 1 , [43] 
in tn (in). 763 1 , 766 1 , [35, Y. 44] 
is ts («). 763 1 , [35, YJ 
itch itch (itsh). 766 1 , [43] 

jaundice iaundice (dzhaiurd/s). 766 2 , 

jealousy gelouste. 781, [16, I] 
Jesu, Iesu tsiesuw (Dzhee - zyy) Iesu 

[Jesus]. 80, 165, 781, [16, I] Jesus 

jesus (Dzhee-sus). 754, [23, I] 
John Iohn tsion sion (Dzhon Shon) 

Ieuan [Johannes]. 99, 781, [16, I] 
joint ioynt tsioynt (dzhoint) kymal 

[junctura]. 131, 781, [16, I] 

Kent Kent. 781, [16, K] 

king ktnge king (kiq) brenhin [rex]. 
781, [16, K]. kings kynges (k/q - es) 
not (k?'q-ges). 767, [46]. kings, 
kynges kings (kiqz) brenhinedd 
[reges]. 112, 777, 779, [13, E] 
kingez. 787, [21, Z] 

kissed kest (ki'st ?), 766 1 , [43] 

knight knyzt knicht (knight) mar- 
chatvg vrddol [eques]. 112, 787, 
[21, Z] 

knot knot (knot) Jcwlwm [nodus]. 781, 
[16, K] 

lad lad (lad) bachken [juvenis]. 781, 

[16, L] 
ladder laddre lad-dr (ladder) yscol 

[scala]. 62, 79, 199, 777, [12, D] 
lady lady ladi (laa - di) arglwyddes 

[domina]. 62, 112, 781, [16 L] 
language language (laq-gwaidzh). 

120', 747 3 , [12, A] 

lash lashe (laish). 74 7 3 , [12 A] 

lay laye (lai). 766 1 , [43] 

leave leaue lief, leef ? (beev, leev ?) 

kenad [venia, Hcentia]. 80, 775, [11, 

f legit (lirdzhith) bad. 767 1 , [46] 
lily lyly lili (lil-i) [liliuni]. 112, 781, 

[16, L] 
loved loved (luvd) carwn [amavi]. 

777, [12, D] 
low lowe low (lou, loou ?) lowio 

[mugire]. 150, 773, [8] 
luck lucke (luk). 760«, [33, U] 
lust lust Iwst (lust) chwant [libido]. 

165, 785, [20, U] 

fmagnus (maq*nus) bad. 767, [46] 
majesty maieste (madzh-est»). 754, 

[23, I], majesty, maiestie. 781, 

[16, I] 
man manne (man). 753 2 , [19, E]. man 

man (man) gwr [vir]. 62, 781, [17, 

M, N] 
maze mase maas (maaz) madrondot 

[stupor]. 62, 783, [18, S] 
meal mele (meel). 79, 751 5 , [19, E] 
meel? mele (miil). 79, 751 s , [19, E] 
men men (men) gwyr [viril. 781, [17, 

Michael Mychael (mei'kel?). 749 8 , 

766 1 , [16, CH. 43] 
Michaelmas Mychaelmas (Mik'el- 

masP). 749 8 , [16, CH] 
might mycht (mekht) (Scottish. 749 4 , 

[15, CH] 
fmihi (nrU-Iri) correctly. 779, [15,GH] 
much good do it you much good do it 

you mychyoditio (nHtslrgood'rtJo). 

165, 744 2 , [5] 
murmuring murmurynge (mur'mur/q) 

766 1 , [43] 
muse muse muwws (myyz) meuyrio 

[meditari]. 165, 783, [18, S] 

nag nagge nag (nag) keffylyn [man- 

nus]. 62, 779, [14, G] 
nail nayle nayl (naA) ewin ne hoyl 

ha yam [unguis vel ferreus clavus]. 

119, 783, [18, S]. nails, nayles nayls 

(nadz) eioinedd ne hoylion heyrn 

[ungues vel ferrei clavi]. 783, [18, S] 
net uette (net). 752 2 , [19, E] 
nigh nigh (mkk). 754 3 , [23, I] 
fnihil (nU-h-il) correctly. 779, [15, 

narrow narrowe narrw (nam) kyfing 

[angustus]. 61, 62, 150, 773, [S] 
not not (not). 766\ [43] 
now nowe now (nou) yn awr [nunc]. 

150, 773, [S] 



Chap. VIII. § 2. 

oranges oranges oreintsys (oreindzh/z) 
afuleorayds [aurantia], 99, 190, 779, 
[14, E] 

ousel osyll (uuz'el?). 766 2 , [44] 

over ouer (over). 766 1 , [43] 

ox oxe ocs (oks) ych [bos]. 99, 785, 
[20, Y e ] 

pale, pale paal (paal) [pallidus]. 61, 
62, 775, [11, A] 

pap pappe papp (pap) Iron gwraic ne 
ywd [mamma vel infantium cibus]. 
62, 783, [17, P] 

paper papyr pap>/r (paa-pj'r) [papy- 
rus]. 62, 112, 199, 783, [17, P] 

pen penne. 783, [17, P] 

pear pere (peer). 79, 751 5 , [19, E] 

pee}- pere (piir). 79, 751 s , [19, E] 

plague plage plaag (plaag)^to [pestis] 
62, 779, [14, G] 

poor poorest (puur) tlawd [pauper]. 
93, 99, 781, [17, 0] 

Portugal Portugal (PorWqgal), cor- 
rupt. 757, [27, N] 

potager potager (pot # andzher ?), cor- 
rupt. 757 3 , [27, N] 

prevailed peeuayled (prevaild - ). 766 1 , 

t 4 . 3 ] 

prohibition prohibition proihsiwn 

(proo,ibis - i,un) givahardd [prohibi- 

tio]. 99, 112, 191, 215, 781, [15, H; 

proved prouide (pruuved ?) 765 10 , [43 

provide prouide (proveid - ?) 765 10 , [43~ 

pureness purenes (pyyrnes). 752 1 , 

[19, E] 

quail quayle sqfyliar [coturnix]. 119, 

783, [18, QJ 
quai-ter quarter hivarter (kwart'er) 

chwarter [quarta pars]. 62, 165, 199, 

783, [18, Q] 
queen quene hvoin (kwiin) brenhines 

[regina]. 80, 165, 783, [18, Q] 
fqui (kwei). Ill, 744 1 , [4] 
fquid (kwrth) bad. 767, [46] 

rail rayle rayl (rail) canllaw [cancel- 
lns]. 119, 783, [18, S]. rails rayles 
rayls (rat'lz) canllawen ne ederin 
regen yr yd [cancelli vel creces pra- 
tenses]. 119, 783, [18, S] 

ravening rauenyng (ravem'q). 766 1 , 

reason reason (reez*un). 766 2 , [44] 

rent rent rent (rent) [scissura]. 80, 
783, [18, R] 

right right (rtkht). 754*, [23, I] 

right KYOBTricht (riAht) iawn [rectus]. 
783, [18, E.]. ryzt richt (riAkt) 
kyfiawn [rectus]. 112, 787, [21, Z] 

ringing ringing (n'q't'q). 754 3 , [23, I] 

rings rynges (rjq'es) not (r«'q"ges). 

767, [46] 
roe roe (roo). 93, 758 1 , [28, O] 
rose ros ros ne rosim [rosa]. 99, 783, 

[18, R] 

sable sable sail (saa"b'l) [niger]. 62, 

195, 777, [13, E] 
saddle saddell [ephippium]. 777, [13, 

fsal (saul) bad. 767, [46] 
sale sale sal saal [venditio]. 61, 62, 

775, [11, A] 
fsanctus (san-tus) bad. 767. [46] 
Satan satan (Saa - tan). 766 1 , [43] 
school schole scwl (skuul) yscol 

[schola]. 93, 99, 781, [17, O] 
sea, sea see (see) mor [mare]. 80, 775, 

[11, A] 
season season (seez-un). 766 2 , [44]. 

season season seesyn (seez'm) amser 

amseraivl ne amser kyfaddas [tempes- 

tas, tempestivus vel occasio]. 80, 99, 

783, [18, S] 
see see (sii). 754, [23, I] 
shape shappe ssiapp (shap) givedd ne 

Inn [species vel forma]. 62, 783, 

[18, SH] 
sheep shepe ssiip (shiip) dauad ne 

ddeuied [ovis vel oves]. 783, [18, SH] 
sieve cyue (six). 766 2 , [44] 
sight sight (sj'kht). 754 3 , [23, I] 
sign signe (sein). Ill, 744-', [5] 
silk sylke (silk). 752 1 , [19, E] 
sin synne (sm). 763, [35, Y] 
singeth syngeth (sj'q-eth) not (sj'q'geth) 

767, [46] 
singing singing (s?'q-/q). 754, [23, I] 
sir syr syr (s*i) [dominus]. 199, 783, 

[18, S] 
so so so (soo) velly [sic]. 93, 781, [17, 0] 
fsol (sooul) bad. 767, [46] 
sparrow, sparoyve sparw (sparu) 

ederyn y to [passer]. 61, 62, 150, 

773, [8] 
suffer, suffke swffffer (suffer) dioddef 

[pati]. 80, 165, 199, 779, [14, F] 
sure sure (syyr). 164, 760, 6 [33, U] 
syllable syllable (s«'l - ab'l) 755 5 , [25, 


tents tentes tents (tents) pepyll [ten- 
torial 777,779, [13, E] 

thank thanke (thaqk). 219, 750*, 
[17, D] 

that (dhat) 219, 750*, 760 2 , 766 2 , [16, 
D. 31, TH. 44]. that, that Yt ddat 
(dhat hyny ne yr hum [ille vel qui]. 
62, 219, 785, [21, Y*] 

Thames Inn Thauies Inne (Dav;z 
In). 219, 760 3 , 766-, [32, TH. 44] 

Chap. VIII. § 2. 



the the (dhe) 750 4 , 766 1 , [16, D. 43] 
the, the ye dde (dhe) y [ille]. 80, 
219, 785, [20, Ye] 

thick thyckje (thek). 219, 760 1 , [31, 

thin thynne (then) 750 s , 760 1 , 763 1 , 
[16, D. 31, TH. 35, Y] thin, thynne 
thynn (then) teneu [gracilis]. Ill, 
219, 785, [20, Y] 

thine thyne (dhein). 750 1 , 760 2 , [16, 
D. 31, TH] thine, thyne ddein 
(dhein) tan >te eiddot [tuus vel tibi]. 

111, 219, 785, [20, Y] 

this thys (dh/s). 219, 750 4 , 760 2 , [16, 
D. 31, TH]. this this ddijs (dhes) 
hwn, hon ne hyn [hie haec vel hoc], 

112, 219, 785, [19, TH] 

thistle thystle thystl (tlu's-tl) yscall 

[carduus]. 112, 219, 785, [19, TH] 
Thomas Thomas (Tonras) .760', 766 2 , 

[32, TH. 44]. Thomas Thomas tomas 

(Tonras). 99, 219, 785, [19, TH] 
thorough thorowe (thuru). 219, 760 1 , 

766 1 , [31, TH. 43] 
thou thou (dhou). 219, 760 2 , 766 1 , 

[31, TH. 43]. thou thou y« ddow 

(dhou) ti ne tydi, [tu]. 150, 219, 

785, [21, Y u ] 
three three (thrii). 754, [23, I] 
throne (truun ?). 760 3 , [32, TH]. throne 

throne trivn (truun) pall [solium]. 

99, 219, 785, [19, TH] 
through through thru'eh (thruukh) 

tryivodd [per]. 219, 783, [19, TH] 
thunder thondre thiendr (thun d'r) 

[tonitru]. 79, 99, 199, 777, [13, E] 
ftibi (terbei). Ill, 744 1 , 754, [4. 

23, I] 
to to (tuu). 758 2 , [28, O]. to to tw 

(tu) or, at, i, [ad]. 93, 99, 781, 

[17, 0] 
toe toe (too). 758', [28, 0]. toe, to to 

(too) bys troet [digitus pedis]. 93, 

99, 781, [17, 0] 
toll tolle towl (tooul) toll [vectigal]. 

194, 781, [17, 0] 
ftollis (toouWs), bad. 744 1 , [4] 
top, top top (top) nen [vertex]. 99, 

783, [19, T] 
tormented tormented (torment'ed). 

766 1 , [43] 
tower toure toivr (tour) twr [turris]. 

783, [19, F] 
treasure threasure (treezyyr). 760 3 , 

[32, TH]. treasure tresure tresinvr 

(trez-vvr) trysor [thesaurus]. 80, 165, 

199,215, 219, 783, [19, T] 
trees trees triys (triWz) prenneu 

[arbores]. 80, 779, [14, E] 
trow trowe fro (troo) tybyeid [opinor]. 

150, 773, [8] 

true true truiv (tryy) Jcywir [verus]. 

165, 785, [19, IT] 
trust trust (trest) vulgar. Ill, 164, 

760 5 , [32, U] 
ftu (t)7) bad. 767, [46] 
twinkle twyncle twinkl (tweqk-'l) 

[scintillare]. 112, 195, 777, [13, E] 
tivo two (tuu). 758 2 , [28, 0]. two two 

tw (tuu) dau [duo]. 93, 99, 781, 

[17, 0] 

uncle vnkle (nuqk-1). 744 2 , 766 2 , [5. 

vain see vein 

valiant ualiant (valiant) 766', [43] 

vein vain vayne vayn (vae'n) gwythen 

newac [vena vel vanus]. 119, 785, 

[19, U] ■ 
velvet veluet velfet (vel-vet) melfet 

[holosericum]. 80, 785, [19, U] 
fvidi (vei-dei). 754, [23, I] 
villanus fillaynous (vel - anus). 766 1 , 

. t 43 3 

vine vyne vein (vein) gwin wydden 
[vitis]. Ill, 119, 785, [19, U] 

virtue vertue vertuw (vertyy) rhin- 
wedd [virtus]. 80, 165, 199, 785, 
[19, U] 

wall wall wawl (waul) gwal [murus]. 

143, 194, 775, [11, A] 
wash wasshe waiss (wash, waish ?) 

golchi [lavare]. 783, [18, SH] 
watch (waitsh). 120, 747, [12, A] 
wave see waw 
waw wawe waw (wau) tonn ar vor 

[unda maris]. 143, 785, [20, W] 
we wee (wii). 75 1 4 , 754, [18, E. 23, I] 
weir were (weer) 79, 751 3 , [18, E] 
wide wyde (weid). 763 3 , [35, Y] 
win wynne (wm). 763 1 , [35, Y]. win 

wynne wynn (win) en n ill [pretiuni 

ferre]. 112, 785, [20, W] 
wind wynge ? (weind). 763 3 , [35, Y] 
wine wyne wein (wein) gwin [vinum], 

111, 785, [20, W] 
winking winking (wi'qk'e'q). 754 3 , 

[23, I] 
wish wyshe (wish). 752 2 , [19, E] 
with wyth (we'th). 143, 219, 750 s , 

7626, [!7 5 d_ 34) wj 

wonder wondke umdr (wun - d'r) [mi- 

racidum]. 79, 99, 185, 199, 777, 

[13, E] 
woo wowe to (uu, wuu ?) kary [amare, 

ut procus petere]. 93, 150, 185, 785, 

[20, W] 
worship worshippe (wursh/p). 752', 

[19, E] 
worthy worthye (wurdhe). 766', [43] 




Chap. VIII. § 3. 

wot wotte (wot). 752 2 , [19, E] 
wreak (wreck = rweek). 79, 

751 3 , [18, El 
wrest wkeste (wrest =rwesti). 79, 751 3 , 

[18, E] 
wrinkle wryncle wrinkl (wnqk - 'l = 

rwiqk-'l) [ruga]. 112, 195, 777, [13, 


yard yarde (jard). 755 2 , [24 I] 
yawn yane (jaun). 75o 2 , [24, I] 
yea yea«« (jee) [etiam]. 80, 775, [11, A] 

year yere (jeer). 755 2 , [24, I] 
yell yell (jel). 755 2 , [24, I] 
yellow yelow (jehu). 755 3 , [24, I] 
yield yelde (jiild). 755 2 , [24, I] 
yielding i-eldynge (jiild-zq). 766 1 , 

yoke yok (jook). 755 2 , [24, I] 
York Yorke (jork). 755 2 , [24, I] 
you you (juu). 755 2 , [24, I] 
young yong (juq). 755°, [24, I] 
youth yougth (juuth) . 755 2 , [24, I] 

§ 3. John Hart's Phonetic Writing, 1569, and the Pronun- 
ciation of French in xvith Century. 

Since the account of John Hart's Orthographie (p. 35) was in 
type, the original manuscript of his "former treatise," bearing date 
1551, has been identified in the British Museum, and some account 
of it is given in the annexed footnote. 1 It may be observed that 

1 Mr. Brock, who is ever on the 
look out for unpublished treatises in- 
teresting to the Early English Text 
Society, called my attention, through 
Mr. Furnivall, to the MS. Reg. 17. C. 
vii., which was described in the printed 
catalogue of those MSS. as "John 
Hare's Censure of the English Lan- 
guage, a.d. 1551, paper." It is a 
small thin quarto of 117 folios, the 
first two page* not numbered, and the 
others paged from 1 to 230, 1 9 lines in 
a page, about 7 words in a line, in a 
fine English hand of the xvi th century, 
carefully but peculiarly spelled, by no 
means according to Hart's recommenda- 
tions. The Latin quotations are in an 
Italian hand. It was labelled on the 
back " Hare on the English Language." 
Being desirous of getting at the author's 
account of our sounds, wben I examin- 
ed the MS. on 28 Oct, 18' 8, I skipped 
the preliminary matter and at once at- 
tacked the Gth and 8th chapters; "Of 
the powers and shaping of letters, 
and first of the voels," and "of the 
affinite of consonants." I was im- 
mediately struck with many peculia- 
rities of expression and opinion which 
I was familiar with in Hart's Ortho- 
graphic, and no other book. On turn- 
ing to the dedication to Edward VI., 
I found (p. 4, 1. 8,) the name of the 
author dis inctly as John Hart, not 
Hare, although the t was written so as 
to mislead a cursory reader, but not one 
familiar with the handwriting. Then, 

similarly, in Hart's Orthographie the 
author's name is mentioned in the de- 
dication : " To the doubtfull of the Eng- 
lish Orthographie John Hart Chester 
heialt wisheth all health and pros- 
peritie," which had not been observed 
when p. 35, 1. 20, was printed, and not 
on the title. On comparing this printed 
book with the MS. I found many pas- 
sages and quotations verbatim the same; 
see especially the first chapters of the 
MS. and printed book "what letters ar, 
and of their right use," where right is 
not in the MS. The identity was thus 
' securely established, and the MS. has 
consequently been re-lettered : " Hart 
on English Orthography, 1551." 

The title of the MS. is: "The 
Opening of the unreasonable writing 
of our inglish toung : wherin is shewid 
what necessarili is to be left, and what 
folowed for the perfect writing ther- 
of." And the following lines, on the 
fly leaf, in the author's hand-writing, 
seem to shew that this first draught, 
thus curiously brought to light after 
317 years' repose, was never intended 
for publication, but was perhaps to 
be followed by another treatise, which 
was of course the printed book. 

" The Booke to the Author. 

" Father, keep me still with the, I the 
least Abuse shuld me furiousli de- 

Chap. VIII. { 3. 



his pronunciation remained practically constant during these eighteen 
years, and the chief difference of the treatises is the greater extent 
of the second, and the important introduction of a phonetic alpha- 
bet, followed by a full example. 

voice wherefore we doo often (and shuld 
alwais) writ the o (p. 93) ; and last of 
all holding so stil his toung and teeth 
untoucht shrinking his lippes to so' 
litell a hole as the breath may issue, 
with the sound from [79] the breast he 
shal of force make that simple voice 
wherefore we doo sometimes rightly 
(and shuld alwais) write the u [cer- 
tainly (u) here]. . . . [81]. Now 
as for the a, we use in his proper power 
as we ought, and as other nations have 
alwais doone (p. 63). But I find that 
we abuse all the others, and first of the 
e, which most communely we use pro- 
perly : as in theis wordes better and 
ever : but often we change his sound 
making yt to usurp the power of the i, 
as in we, be & he (p; 80), in which 
sound we use the i properly : as in 
theis wordes sinne, in and him. Where- 
fore this letter e, shuld have his aun- 
cient sound as other nations use yt, and 
which is as we sound yt in better and 
ever. The profit thereof shuldbe, 
that [S3] we shuld not feare the 
mystating of his sound in i : as we 
have longe doon : and therfore (and 
partly for lak of a note for time) we 
have communely abused the diphthongs 
ey or ei, ay or ai and ea : to the great 
increase of our labour, confusyon of the 
letters, in depriving them of their right 
powers, and uncertainte to the reader. 
[In this book Hart proposes either the 
circumflex or reduplication as the mark 
of quantity]. For the voel e, doeth of 
voice inipurt so moche in better and 
ever and in mani other wordes and 
Billables, as we do communely use to 
pronounce the diphthongs ey or ei, ai, 
or ay, or the ea, except yt be when 
they are seperate and Ire from diph- 
thong whiehe to signifie we ought to 
use an accent as shalbe said. [He 
proposes the hyphen.] Then the i, 
we abuse two wais : the first is in that 
we geve it a brode sound (contrary to 
all peoples but the Scotts : as in this 
sentence, [83] he borowed a swerd 
from bi a mans side to save thie life: 
where we sound the i in bi, side, thie 
and life as we shuld doo the ei diph- 
thong . . . The other ab-[84]-use of 
the i, is that we make yt a consonant 

or shut me up from the lyght of the 

whom to resist I doubt to have the 


" The Author to the Booke. 
" Fear not my sonne, though he doo 
on the lower, 

for Reason doth the everiwhere de- 
fend : 

But yf thou maist not now the thing 

I shal send thie brother soom luk- 
kier hower, 

yf Atropos doo not hast my lyves 

to confound Abuses lothsoom lookes 

"Abuse," meaning the wrongful use 
of letters, that is applying them to 
sounds for which they were not in- 
tended in the Latin alphabet, is a fa- 
vourite term of Hart's, and with the 
curious orthography voel for vowel, led 
me to suspect the real author from the 
first. The following description of the 
vowels is slightly different from, and 
must be considered as supplementary 
to those given above in the pages here- 
after cited ; the bracket figures give the 
pages of the MS. A few remarks are 
also inserted in brackets. 

"[77] Lett us begin then with an 
opened mouth so mouch as a man may 
(though lesse wold serve) therwith 
sounding from the breast, and he shall 
of force bring forth one simple sound 
which we mark with the a (p. 63) : 
and making your mouth lesse so as the 
inner part of yowr toung may touch 
the lyke inner part of yowr [78] upper 
iowes you shall with your voice from 
your brest make that sound wherfore 
we doo often (and shuld alwais) writ 
the e (p. 80) : then somthiug your 
toung further furth with your iowes, 
leaving but the forepart open, and 
your sound from the brest wil make the 
voice wherfore we doo often (and shuld 
alwais) write the i : forthli a man 
making his lippes in souch a round, as 
the compasse of the topp of his litell 
finger (his teeth not touching, nor 
toung the upper iowes) with the sound 
from the brest he shall make the simple 



Chap. VIII. § 3. 

This pronunciation cannot have "been in all respects the prevalent 
and received pronunciation of his time, for Hart frequently disagrees 
with Palsgrave, Salesbury, Smith, and Bullokar, and Dr. Gill 

without any diversifiywg of his shape 
from the voell . . . [86] The forth now 
is the o, whose ahuse (for that it cometh 
onli by leaving the proper use of the 
u) causeth me to speak upon the u. 
We abuse [87] the u, two wais the one 
is in consonant indifferentli with bothe 
his figures u and v . . . . [88]. The 
other abuse of the u, is that we sound 
yt as the Skottes and French men doo, 
in theis wordes gud and fust [89] : 
Wheras most communely we our selves 
(which the Grekes, Latines, the vulgar 
Italiens, and Germaines with others 
doo alwais) kepe his true sound : as in 
theis wordes, but, unto, and further. 
[This thoroughly excludes all suspicion 
of an (a) sound.] Yf you marke well 
his uzurped sound in gud and fust (and 
others of the Skottish and french abuse) 
you shal find the sound of the diph- 
thong iu, kepiug both the i and u, in 
their proper vertu, both in sound and 
voel, as afore is said we ought : sound- 
ing yt in that voice wherefore we now 
abuse to write, you." The identifica- 
tion with the French and Scotch 
sounds ought to imply that that long u 
was (yy), but its dentification with you 
makes it (ju) ; Hart however, in his 
orthographie also rises (iu) for both 
sounds, as in the passage reprobated by 
Gill, supra, p. 122, where he writes 
you use as (iu iuz) ; yet if any value is 
to be attributed to his description of 
long u, supra p. 167, he certainly meant 
(ju yyz) and it was only his notation 
which led him into an ambiguity which 
also deceived Gill. But here it is 
evident that he had not yet heard the 
difference between yew, you, which Sir 
T. Smith writes (yy, iu), p. 166. This 
therefore may be a case of education of 
the ear. He asks now : " What dif- 
ference find you betwixt the sound of 
you, and u in gud and fust ? Where- 
fore yf our predecessours have thought 
it necessari to take three voels for that 
voice, which in another place [90] they 
(observing derivations) writ with one, 
there appcareth to be a confusion and 
uncertaintc of the powers of letters, as 
they used theim. Lett us then receive 
the perfet meane betwixt theis two 
doubtfull extremities ; and use the 
diphthong iu alwais for the sound of 

you, and of u in suer, shut & bruer, 
and souch lyke, writing theim thus 
shiut, siuer, briuer :" does the word 
shut shiut mean suit or shoot ? see supra 
p. 2 1 6, n. 1, " wherefore in our writings, 
we nead carefulli to put a sufficient dif- 
ference, betwixt the u and n : as theis 
and the priutes geve sufficient example. 
Now see you whether we doo well to 
writ the o in theis wordes do, to & 
other (signify ng in latine alius) when 
yt ys the proper sound of the u : or 
for [91] the lyke sound to dooble the 
o : as in poore, good, root, and souch 
like of that sound : but I find the same 
dooble o, writen with reason in some 
wordes, when yt signyfieth the longer 
time: as in moost, goost and goo. . . . 
[95] Then the nombre of our voels is 
five as the Grekes (concerning voice) 
the Latines, the Germaines, the Italiens, 
the Spayneyardes and others have alwais 
had, declared in souch their singuler 
power, as they haue and doe, use theim. 
. . . [96] a diphthong is a ioinyng of 
two voels in one syllable keping their 
proper sound, onli somewhat shorten- 
ing the quantite of the first to the 
longer quantite of the last (p. 132) : 
which is the onli diversite that a diph- 
thong hath, from two voels commy«g 
together yet serving for two syllables, 
and therfore ought to be marked with 
the figure Siaipeo-is, as shalbe said." 
Among the diphthongs he places first y 
considered as Greek vi, and recom- 
mends its disuse, and then w considered 
as uu, for which he would write u. 
[101] " Wherefore we take the u single 
to have so moch power as the w : for 
this figure u, shall not (or ought not) 
henceforth be abused in consonant, nor 
in the skottish and french sound. Then 
may we well writ for when, writ and 
what, thus huen, urit and huat : and 
so if their lyke, cleane forsaking the 
w. Now the ea, so often as 1 see yt 
abused in diphthong, it is for the sound 
of the long e : wherin is the necessite 
spoken of, for the use of a mark, for 
the accident of longer time (as here- 
after shalbe said) for that the sound e 
length-[ 102]-ned wil serve for the com- 
mune abused diphthongs ea. ai or ay 
and ei or ey (p. 122) : the powers of 
which voels we now myx together con- 

Chap. VIII. $ 3. 



especially reprobates his pronunciation in many particulars (p. 122). 
Still we can hardly refuse to believe that Hart tried to exhibit that 
pronunciation of which he himself made use, and which he conceived 
to be that which others either did or should employ. Moreover his 
work contains the earliest connected specimen of phonetic English 
writing which I have met with, as Palsgrave, Salesbury, and Smith 
only gave isolated words or phrases. Although Hart's book has been 
reproduced by Mr. Isaac Pitman, the ordinary spelling in phonetic 
shorthand, and the phonetic portion in facsimile writing (with tolera- 
ble but not perfect accuracy), yet as many persons would be unable to 
read the shorthand, and would not therefore obtain a proper know- 
ledge of the meaning of the other portion, and as it is desirable, also, 
to reduce all these phonetic accounts of English spelling to the one 
standard of palaeotype for the purposes of comparison, I have 
thought it best to annex the whole of the last Chapter of Hart's 
book, according to my own interpretation. This Chapter gives 
Hart's notions of contemporary Erench pronunciation, a subject 
which has been already so much alluded to in Chap. III., that the 
remainder of this section will be devoted to it. Hart does not 
admit of (w, j) but uses (u, i) for them, even in such words as 
which, write, which he exhibits as (Huitsh, ureit). I have else- 
where restored the (w, j) which were certainly pronounced, but 
in this transliteration it seemed best to follow him exactly in the 

fuzibli making the sound of the same 
long e, and not of any parfait diph- 
thong : as in theis examples of the ea in 
feare which we pronounce sounding no 
part of the a. And for the ai or ay, as 
in this word faire pronouncing nether 
the a, or i, or y : also yn saieth where 
we abuse a thriphthong. ^.lso ei or 
ey we pronounce not in theis wordes 
theine and theym, and souch lyke : 
where we sound the e long as in all 
the others. Now for the ee, we abuse 
in the sound of [103] the i long : as in 
this sentence, Take heed the birdes doo 
not feed on our seed : also for the ie in 
thief and priest : in likewise for the eo, 
as in people, we onli sound the i long. 
We also abuse the eo in the sound of 
the u voel as in ieoperdi, which we 
pronounce iuperdie. The oo we have 
abused as afore is said .... Now 
lett us understand how part of this fore- 
said and others shall serve us, and doo 
[104] us great pleasure : even as roules 
necessari for us lykely to cowtrefait 
the image of our pronunciation. First 
the au is rightly used (p. 144), as 
in paul and lau, but not law. Then 
the ua, is wel used in uarre, for warre : 
and in huat for what. Further the ei, 
is wel and properli used in bei for by : 
in leif, for lyfe : and in seid, for syde 

(p. 113). Also eu, we use properli in 
feu for few : in deu, for dew, and souch 
lyke (p. 138). The ue, as in question : 
in huen, for when : in uel, for well. 
Also the iu as in triuth, for trueth : 
in rebiuk, for rebuke : and in riule for 
rule. And the ui alone for our [105] 
false sounding of we : and as in huich 
for which : uitness for wittnesse, and 
souch like : [this he identifies with 
Greek vt] . . . [106] writ for youwg, 
yoke and beyond, iong, ioke, and be- 
iond. Then the oi is wel used in ap- 
point, enjoi, poison, and a hoi barke, 
[here there is a difference from his 
later orthography (imei) (p. 132)]. And 
not to be over tedious, we use aright 
this diphthong ou in house, out, our 
and about (p. 152) : wherein we may 
perceive how we have kept the auncient 
power of the u : the same diphthong 
ou, being sounded farre otherwise then 
in bloud, souch and should, as some 
ignorantli writ theim, when we pro- 
nounce but the u, in hyr proper sound." 
This use of on for (ti) is frequent in 
this MS. souch, toung, mouch, being 
common forms. The above extracts 
seem to possess sufficient interest to 
admit of reproduction, but the work 
itself is entirely superseded by the 
later edition. 


use of (u, i). Hart also systematically employs (iu) for long u, 
but, as I have already pointed out (p. 1 ts7) and as will appear in the 
course of this example, he meant the French u = (jj), and I have 
therefore restored that orthography, to prevent ambiguity. Where 
however iu clearly meant (ju, i,u), the latter forms are used. 
Hart does not mark the place of the accent, but uses an acute 
accent over a vowel occasionally to mark that it was followed by 
a doubled consonant in the old orthography. 1 This acute accent 
is retained, but the position of the accent is marked conjecturally 
as usual. Hart uses a dash preceding a word to indicate capitals, 
thus I italian; I give the indicated capital. His diaeresis is re- 
presented by (,) as usual. There are, no doubt, many errors in 
the marking of long vowels, which were indicated by underdotting, 
but I have left the quantity as I found it. The (s, z) are also 
left in Hart's confused state. As I can find no reason for sup- 
posing short i to have been (i) in Hart, although I believe that 
that was his real pronunciation, I employ (i) throughout. The 
frequent foreign words, and all others in the usual spelling, are 
printed in italics. The foreign words serve partly to fix the value 
of Hart's symbols. 

Exanrp'ls hou serten udrrer nas*ions du sound dheer 
let'ers, both in Latin, and in dheer mudh'er tuq, 
dherbei* tu kno dhe beet'er hou tu pronouns* dheer 
spiitsh'es, and so tu riid dhem as dhee du. Keep. viij. 

For dhe konfirmas'ion ov dhat rruitsh is seed, for dhe sounds 
az-uel of vo*,els az of kon*sonants : auldhoH* ei Haav in divers 
plas - es Hier-befoor sheu*,ed iu, hou serten udlrer nas*ions du 
sound part ov dheer let*ers : ei thoHt it gud Hier, not oon*li to re- 
kaphVulat and short 'li rerfers*, part ov dhe befoor mentioned, but 
:aul*so tu giv iu t- understand* hou dhee du sound sutsh dheer 
let'ers, az dh- ignorant dher-of shuld aprootsh* notlriq neer tu 
dheer pronunsias'ion bei riid*iq dheer ureitiqs or prints. Huer- 
for, huo so-iz dezerrous tu riid dh- ItaHan and dhe Lat*in az 
dhee du, Hi must sound dhe vo*,elz az ei Haav sufisuentli seed 
•treat'iq ov dhem, and az ei Haav yyzd dhem in aul dbis nyy man*er, 
:on*li eksept'iq dhat dhee maak dbis fig'yyr u, kon*sonant az-uel az 
dhis v. Dheer c, dhee yyz afVer aul vo*,elz az wi dhe k, (as dheer 
prodzhen-itors dhe Lat*ins did) and yyz not k at aul : but dhee- 
abyyz* dhe c, bifoor e, and i, in dhe sound ov our ch or tsh, az ecce 
and accioche, dhee sound ek'tshe, aktshiokc*, francesco frantshcs*ko, 
fece, facendo, amici, firtshe, fatshcnd*o, ami'tshi : and for the sound 
ov dhe k, dhee yyz ch. Dheer g, dhee kiip az ei Haav dun aft*er 
vo*,elz, and befoor* a, o, and u : but befoor* e and i, dhee Haav 

1 He says : "I leaue also all double doubt of the length, we may vse the 

consonants : hauing a marke for the mark ouer it, of the acute tone or tune, 

long vowell, there is therby sufficient thus(')." "What the meaning of this 

knowledge giuen that euerye vnmarked acute accent is on final vowels, as in 

Towell is short : yet wheras by custome French words, is not apparent. 
of double consonants there may be 


abyyzd - it widh us, for whitsh ei Haav yyzd dzh, and tu kiip dhat 
sound befoor a, o, and u, dhee uzurp* gi, as Hath bin seed, and 
dberfoor - dhee never maak dheer i, kon'sonant, for dhee see not 
agiuto but aiuto, as mee bi dhus ai-uto. Dhe t, dhee never sound 
in 5, az in protettion, satisfattion, dhee sound dhe t, Hard, and dher- 
foor dub - 'l it in dhooz uurdz and man'i-udlrers : but in giurisdi- 
tioni, militia, sententia, intentione, and man'i-udlrers dhee du not 
dub*'l it, iet dhee sound it as it iz, and never turn it in*tu dhe 
sound ov s, but iv iu mark it uel, dhee breth ov dhe t, paViq thruH 
dhe tiith, and tunriq tu dhe-^, duth maak it siim as it ueer neer 
dhe sound ov dhe, s, but iz not dherfoor so in efekt*. For dher gli, 
dhee da not sound g, so Hard az ui uld, but so softdi az it iz oft*n 
urit'n and prnnVed uidhout" dhe g. Dheer zz dhee sound most 
konroli dhe first z, in t, as in fortezza, grandezza, destrezza, but at 
sum teimz dhee sound dhem az dhee du cc, as for dhiz naani dhee- 
ureit indfferentli Eccellino, or Ezzellino. Dhee Haav aukso dhe 
sound ov our sk or sh, Huitsh dhee-ureit sc, befoor*, e, or i : dhee- 
yyz tu-ureit dhe th, but not for our th, or th : for dhee Haav not 
dhe sound dherof in aul dheer spiitsh, nor ov dh, and sound it in 
Matthio, az mee bi matmo, as of th, iz seed in Thomas and Thames. 
And for lak ov a knokedzh for dhe kuan'titiz ov dheer vo - ,elz 
dhee-ar konstreend - tu dukr'l dheer kon'sonants oft*n and mutsh : 
and for dhe loq'er teim ov dheer vo - els, dhee Haav no mark : Huer- 
foor huo so - -iz dezeiTuz tu riid dher ureit'iq uel, and invitaat 
dheer pronunsias'ion Had niid tu Haav sum instruk^sion bei dhe 
leivli vo,is. And Huen dhee du reez dheer tyyn ov dheer urds 
(Huitsh iz oft - n) dhee noot it uidh dhe Latin graav tyyn, dhus andd, 
parlo, e mostrd la nouitd, al podestoi de la citta. And in riid'iq dhe 
Lat - in, aul dhat dhee feind urhvn, dhee du pronouns - , iivn as dhee 
du dheer mudlrer tuq, in dhe veri sounds befoor-seed. 1 

1 As the pronunciation of Italian has from bottom), "Welch, and therefore in 

been often referred to, and as H. I. H. Latin and early English, it is (e, o) ; 

Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte has when it has two e, and two o, they 

lately given me his views upon some are (e, e) and (o, o) respectively, 

points of interest in Italian pronuncia- Again in the pronunciation of the 

tion, it seems convenient to make a consonants in Italian, the Prince dis- 

note of them in this place. The medial tinguishes, an emphatic and a weak 

quantity of Italian vowels has already utterance. The former is usually 

been noticed (p. 518 and n. 1). The written double, but, he insists, is not 

vowel e has two sounds (e) close and (e) pronounced double, in the sense of p. 

open, the intermediate (e) being un- 55, but only emphatic, as if preceded 

known, whereas it is the only e in by the sign (.) p. 10, — which has been 

Spanish. The vowel o has also two wrongly used (pp. 4, 9) in the combi- 

sounds, which have in this work been nations (.t, .d) in place of (tf-, df-), or 

hitherto assumed as (?<h) close and (o) " outer" (t, d). The following are the 

open. The prince does not allow rules he lays down in his Sardo Sas- 

this ; to him {uh) is Swedish o long, sarese example (supra p. 756, n. 2, col. 

and (o) is Spanish o. His Italian 2), which it is best to give in his own 

close o does not differ from (o), and his words (ib. p. xxxv). " Si dice spesso, 

open o is (o) or (a), probably the for- poiche le consonanti scempie si pro- 

mer. His theory is that when a Ian- nunziano, tanto in italiano quanto in 

guage has only one e, o, as in Spanish sassarese, come se fossero scritte doppie, 

and modern Greek (supra p. 523, 1. 6 in forza delle seguenti regole geuerali : 



For dhe hih dutsh clhee sound aul dheer vo - ,elz in dhe veri saam 
aort : and never maak dhe i, kon - sonant, nor abyyz - dhe g, befoor 
dhe e, and i, az dh- Italian duth, but kiip it aul-uez befoor dhem, az 

1) Allorche, essendo iniziali, vengono 
in principio di frase, sia al cominciar 
di un periodo o di una clausula benche 
breve, sia dopo una virgola. 2) Al- 
lorche, cominciando la sillaba, sono 
precedute da altra consonaute. 3) Al- 
lorche occorono in fin di voce, come 
ne' monosillabi il, del, &c. 4) Quando 
la voce precedente, benche terminata 
in vocale, sia un ossitono oppure un 
monosillabo derivato da voce latina 
terminata in consonante, la qual con- 
sonante poi venne soppressa nel farsi 
italiana o sassarese detta voce latina. 
Cosi la preposizione a derivata dalla 
latina ad, la congiunzione e corrispon- 
dente ad et, il si derivato dal sic, il 
"ne" nee, le parole troncbe come 
"amo" amavit, "pote" potuit banno 
tutte la propriety di dar pronunzia forte 
alia consonante iniziale della voce 
seguente ; ed awegnacbe si vegga 
scritto : a Pietro, e voi, si grande, ne 
questo ne qiiello, amo motto, pote poco, 
non si ode altrimenti cbe : appietro, 
evvoi, siggrande necquesto necquello, 
amommolto, poteppoco. II suono debole 
delle consonanti, all' incontro, avra 
luogo quando la voce cbe le precede si 
termina in vocale, eccettuati i casi 
notati nelle regole cbe precedono. Cosi 
in : di Maria, i doni, la inente, le donne, 
mi dice, ti lascia, si gode, ama motto 
pote' poco, motto largo, le consonanti 
iniziali della seconda voce si pronun- 
ziano deboli quali si veggono scritte, 
per essere le parole latine correspon- 
dent* alia prima voce : de, illi, ilia, 
illce, me, te, se, potui terminate in 
vocale, oppure perche, come in ama 
motto e mutto largo, le voci ama e motto 
non ricevon l'accento tonico in sull' 
ultima sillaba." Compare tbe double 
Spanisb sound of r, supra p. 198, n. 2. 
This emphatic pronunciation, in the 
case of (p b, t d, k g) consists in a 
firmer contact and consequently a more 
explosive utterance of the following 
vowel ; in the case of (/, v, s) &c, in 
a closer approximation of the organs 
and a sharper hiss or buzz. But in 
Sardo Sassarese, tbe weak pronuncia- 
tion generates new sounds, weak (p, t, 
k, v) becoming (b, d, g, bh). The 
Prince was also very particular respect- 
ing the pronunciation c, g, z in ce, gia, 

zio, zero, which have been assumed in 
this work to be (tsh, dzh, ts, dz) re- 
spectively, forming true consonantal 
diphthongs, the initial (t, d) having an 
initial effect only (supra p. 54, 1. 20). 
The Prince considers them all to be 
simple sounds, capable of prolongation 
and doubling, and he certainly so pro- 
nounced them. Sir T. Smith, and 
Hart both used simple signs for (tsh, 
dzh), Gill used a simple sign for (dzh) 
but analyzed it into (dzj). Hart, how- 
ever, seems to have considered (tsh) as 
simple, but his words are not clear. 
The effect of the simple sound used by 
the Prince, was that of (t*sh, d*zh, 
t*s, d*z), that is an attempt to make 
both pairs of effects at once. This re- 
sults in a closer and more forward con- 
tact, nearly (sh f-, zh h, s (-, z (-) but the 
(t*s, d*z) did not resemble (th, dh). 
This effect may be conveniently written 
(;sb, ^zh, %s, iz). The effect of (^h, 
;zh) on English ears is ambiguous. At 
one time it sounds (sh, zh) and at an- 
other (tsh, dzh), with a decided initial 
(t, d) contact as we pronounce in Eng- 
lish, and the Prince again hears my 
(tsh, dzh) as his (^sh, ;zh). It would 
almost seem that (^sh, ^zh) were the 
true intermediate sounds between (kj, 
gj) and (tsh, dzh). But a Picard 
variety of (kj, gj) which may for dis- 
tinctness be written (kj, gj) is a still 
more unstable sound to foreign ears. 
In precisely the same way (k*s, k*sh) 
may be produced, the tongue being 
more retracted and the tongue closer 
to the palate than for (s, sh). In the 
Sardo Tempiese dialect (k*sh) occurs 
and is written kc. These sounds may 
be written (j[s, ^sh) in imitation of 
(%s, ;sh). "Was the Attic initial |, re- 
placing ff, really (^s), and the original 
Sanscrit ^J (^'h) ? The double con- 
tact of tongue and lips, which probably 
occurs in African dialects may be (?{p, 
!>p), as slightly different from (ktv, 
tw). The sibilants may now be greatly 
multiplied. The prince pronounced 
the following : (s z, sh zh ; sj zj, shj 
zhj ; ^s %z, ^sh ^zh ; !)sj ^zj, ?shj ;zhj) 
all as simple sounds. Emphatic pro- 
nunciation, simultaneous pronunciation, 
and successive pronunciation still re- 
quire much consideration and practical 


befoor a, o, and u : and dhe Flenriq tu bi syyr tu konthryy dhat 
sound, dudb yyz it befoor- e, and i, widh, h. Nor Hath dhe Dutsh. 
(over nor nedh'er) dhat sound Huitsh iz dhe leik of our/, kon'sonant, 
and dh- ital'ian g, befoor-seed, for Huitsh ei yyz dzh, but dhe 
breth dher-of dhe hih Dutsh Haav, and ureit it widh tsch. And 
bodh dhe fig'yyrz for dhe feivth vo - ,el, dhee yyz uidhout' an'i ser'ten 
dif'erens Huitsh shuld bi vo*,el or Huitsh kon'sonant : and dhen 
Haav dhee dhe dif'thoqs befoor* naamd, Huitsh ar tu bi noot'ed 
ov dhat Iq-lish man Huitsh shaul dezeir tu leem dheer tuq. 1 And 
du-yyz tu dutr'l dheer vo*,elz for dheer loq'er teim. Dhee Haav 
auhso our sound ov sh, or sh, for Huitsh dhee yyz seh, as scham, 
scJiale, fleisch, and fiscli, dhee sound as ui mee shaam, shel, flesh, 
fish, and see, set, dhee sound az duth aukso dh- Itabian : and az ui 
du she, shi. Dhee never put dhe c, in'tu dhe sound of s, but yyz 
Tc, tu bi-out of dout. Dhee yyz dhe Q veri sekdum, but dhe k, 
mutsh in plaas dher-of, and dhe a dhee du- oft n sound broodier 
dhen wi duu, but mutsh aukso-as wi du. And for the rest dhee 
pronouns - aul dhee ureit, and kiip dheer let'ers in dhe self sound, 
Huer-in dhee riid aukso dher Latin. 

Nou third'li for dhe Spaniard, Hi abyyz'eth dhe i, and u, in kon*- 
sonants as ui-and dhe Frensh du, and dhe u, oft'n, in dhe Frensh 
and Skot'ish sound: and dhe ch, in muchacho az ui du in tshalk and 
tshiiz : but for aul dheer udh'er vo',elz and letters dhee yyz dhem 
in dhe saam sounds dhat du dh-Itakian and Dutsh, but dhat dhee 
yyz dhe y az ui Haav duun (Huitsh nedh'er Ital'ian nor Dutsh 
niid) tu bi dherbei' eezd ov dhe dout ov dhe i, kon'sonant Huitsh 
dhee sound leik dhe Frentsh. Dhe c dhee yyz in s, uidhout' an'i 
noot of dif'erens befoor* e, and i. but befoor - a, o, and u, dliee Haav 
deveizd - a-lit*'l, s, un-der dhus, g : dhee-yyz never dhe k, but dhe 
Q, with dh-Itakian : dhee-yyz dhe II in dhe sound of '1, uidh dhe 
ualsh. Dhe u, in qua and, qui, dhee du seldum sound, as for que 
quieres, dhee sound as ui mee ke kieres. And for aul dhe rest dhee 
kiip dhe aun-sient Lat'in sound, and so riid dheer Lat'in az du dh- 
Itakian and Dzhermain : and for Him dhat Hath the Lat'in tuq 
uidh a-lit''l instruk'sion iz az ez'i tu riid and under-stand' az iz 
dh- Itakian. 2 

observation of existing usages. The utmost importance to comparative phi- 
difficulty in separating the usual speech lologist, and almost totally unknown to 
habits of the listener and speaker, and comparative philologists, 
of not assuming the first to be a correct i The passage referred to is as fol- 
account of the second, is more and i om .- « The Dutch doe vse also au, ei, 
more felt as the knowledge of the pho- and ie, rightly as I do hereafter, and 
netic process increases. We have as e . ,, . , „ , . , e . 

, r -l • j a, in the founde ot a, or (e) long : o, in 

yet necessarily given an undue amount ,-i r i e r < ■■ ■ \^ 

of consideration to analysis, in order to the <°™f f \ °v ^ * a\ ^ 

ascertain the elements of speech, to the SOUnd ° f e ^)' ° r the f rench and Scot " 

neglect of the important study of syn- tish u > u for ™> and " for ( uu )» lon ?» 

thesis, whence alone can result the pro- or French ou." Fo. 35 b. misprinted 

per conception of national speech with f ' 31 > P- 2 > in the original reference. 

its whole array of legato, staccato, pho- 2 The Spanish has only five vowels 

netic assimilation, phonetic disrup- (a, e, i, o, u) of medial length (p. 518, 

tion, stress, intonation, quantity, em- n. 1). The Spanish ch is our (tsh) or 

phasis of letter, syllable, word, of the fash). Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte 


And nou last ov aul, dhe Frensh, uidh dh-abyys ov dhe u, in 
dhe skoHsh leilt sound ov dhe iu diphthoq, Huitsh, nor Ital ian, 
nor Dutsh did ever giv tu u, and yyz - iq dhe g, and /, kon-sonant 
in dhe sound Huer-of, our sh, iz dhe bredh-ed kon-sonant : and 
turrriq dhe s, nrtu z, Huen ui, uidh aul dhe rest, du sound the s, 
(eksept* dhe Spaniard, az ui Haav aul'so yyzd betuikst* tuu 
vo'elz) and kiipiq an udh-er teim in dher vo-,elz dhen ui du, and 
yyz'iq dheer e, in dervers sounds, and dhe o sunvmiat aukso : hei 
not sound'iq dhe u, in qui, and quae, hut az uii mee kii and kee, 
uidh leeviq man-i ov dheer letters unsound-ed, duth kauz dheer 
spiitsh veri Hard tu bi lernd bei art, and not eez - i bei dhe 
leivli vo - ,is, az it iz notori,uzli knoon. So az if ei shuld ureit 
Frensh, in dhe letters and order Huitsh ei du nou-yyz, ei-am ser-ten 
dhat iu shuld mutsh sumrer kum tu dheer pronunsias'ion, 
dher-bei, dhen bei ureit iq az dhee du. And tu eksperiment dhe 
mat'er, and tu niaak sutsh az understand - Frensh, dzhudzlres 
dher-of, ei uil ureit dhe Lords preer az dhee du, Huitsh shuld be 
prezent-ed tu sutsh an oon, az kan riid dhis man-er, and iet under- 
stand-eth not dhe Frensh, and pruuv hou Hi kan riid and pronouns- 
it : and dhen present* it Him in dhis manner ov ureiHq, az mer- 
after: and kompaar His pronunsias-ion tu dhe fomver, and iu 
shuld pruuv dhat efekt*, nuitsh kan not bi broHt tu pas bei our 
fornver manner. And dher-foor Hier fokueth dhe lords preer first 
in Frensh in dheer manner ov ureiHq : ISostre pere qui es es cieux, 
Ton nom soit sanctifie. Ton Regne aduienne. Ta volonte soit faite 
en la terre comme au del. Donne-nous au-iourcV huy nostre pain 
quotidian : Et nous pardonne nos offenses, comme nous pardonnons 
h ceux qui nous ont offensez. Et ne nous indui point en tentation : 
mat's nous deliure du mal. Car d, toy est le regne, la puissance, et la 
gloire es siecles, des siecles. Amen. Nou in dhis nyy man-er 
az foku,eth. NootraH peeraH ki-ez eez sieuz, tun Kum soit 
santifie. Tun EenaH avienaH. Ta uolunte soit fetan, an la 
taraH kuman oo siel. Dune-nuuz ozdzhuurdui nootran peen 
kotidian. E nuu pardunan noz ofanses kumaH nuu pardunuunz 
a seuz ki nuuz unt ofansez. E ne nuuz indui point an tan- 
tas-ion : meez nuu delivraH dyy ma'l. Kar a toe eet le reen-aH, 
la pyy,isanse e la gloeraH eez siekles dez siekles Aman. Nou 
kon-trariueiz uil ei ureit Hier-urrder in dheez nyy let-ers (and 
kiip'iq dheer sound az befoor) hou dhe Frensh du pronouns- dheer 

denies that (v, dh, z) occur in Spanish, nounced alike and as (bh). The j is 

but admits (f, th, s), as sounds of/, z, (or by some said to be a peculiar guttural, 

c before e, i,) ands. This pronunciation but the Prince identifies it with (kh). 

of c, z is doubtful. It may be (sp), and LI. ii are (lj, nj). Hart confuses 11 

certainly by some d is pronounced with Welsh 11, as does Salesbury, 

either (dh) or (zp), especially when (supra, p. 757), but Hart also confuses 

final. In the common termination -ado, the sound with ('1), or le in able (supra 

the d is often quite lost, but the vowels p. 195) ; which he probably called 

are kept distinct in two syllables, and (aa-blh) as in French (supra p. 52). 

do not form a diphthong. In the tcr- There seems to be no foundation for 

urination -ido, the d is never lost. The supposing that Spanish u was ever (y), 

(s) sound of c, z, is not acknowledged as stated by Hart, 
in Madrid. The letters b, v are pro- 


Lat'in : and dhat anl'so in dhe Lords preer, Huitsh iz az dhus. 
Paater noster ki ez in scliiz, santifisetyyr nomen tyy,yym, atveniat 
refnyyni tyy,yym fiat voluntaaz tyya sikyyt in selo e in tara panem 
nostryym kotidianyym da nobiiz odiie et dimiite nobii debiita 
nostra, sikyyt et noz dimiitimyyz debitoribyyz nostriiz. Et ne 
noz indyykaaz in tentasionem : Set libera noz a malo. And ei 
remenrber ov a meri dzhest ei Haav Herd ov a buee nuitsli did 
Help a Frensb priist at mas, huo see*iq dominyy vobiikyym, dhe 
buee Heeriq it sound strandzh'li-in Hiz eer, aun'suered, eth kum 
tirleri tiikyym, and so uent lauH^iq His uee. And so per- 
adven'tyyr iu-uil at dhe riid'iq, az iu mee biliiv me-ei did at 
dhe ureit'iq Hier-of. Ei kuld ureit aul-so hou dhe frensh and 
udtrer forens du spek Iqdish, but dheer manner is so plentiful in 
man-i-of our eerz, az ei thiqk it superfli,uz. Dhe rez - on Huei 
dhee kan not sound our spiitsh, iz (az iu mee perseev bei dhat is 
seed) bikauz* ui naav and yyz serteen sounds and breedhz Huitsh 
dhee Haav not, and du-aubso yyz tu sound sum of dhooz let'erz 
Huitsh dhee-yyz uidh us, udh'emeiz dhen dhee duu : and dhee 
for revendzh* sum ov ourz udh'erueiz dhen ui duu. Huitsh iz dhe 
kauz aul - so dhat dheer spiitshez ar Hard for us tu riid, but dhe 
sound oons knoon, ui kan eez - ili pronouus - dhers bei dhe rez'on 
abuvseed. And dhus tu-end if iu thiqk lit - 'l prof-it tu bi in dhis 
Huer-in ei Hav kaus - ed iu tu pas iur teim, ei uil iet distshardzh* 
mei self dhat ei-am asyyred it kan du-iu no Harm, and so dhe 
aulnimH God, giver ov aul gud thiqs, bliis uz aul, and send us 
His graas in dhis tram sit ori leif, and in dhe uorld tu kum, leif ever- 
last'iq. So bi-it. FLNTS. Sat cito si sat bene. 


In the introductory Authours Epistell to the Kynges Grace, pre- 
fixed to Palsgrave's Esclarcissement, he says : " Onely of this thyng, 
puttyng your highnesse in rernewbraunce, that where as besydes 
the great nombre of clerkes, whiche before season of this mater 
hawe written nowe sithe the beginnyng of your most fortunate and 
most prosperous raigne," that is, between 22 xlpril 1509 and 18 
July 1530, " the right vertuous and excellent prince Thomas late 
Duke of Northfolke, hath commanded the studious clerke 2 Alexandre 

1 Further on he is not so compli- and what rayn opinion is therin, it shall 

mentary, as he remarks : " Where as well inough apere in my bokes selfe, 

there is a boke, that goeth about in this though I make therof no ferther ex- 

realme, iutitled the Introductory to p>-<sse mencion : saue that I haue sene 

writte and pronounce frenche, compiled an olde boke written in parchement 

by Alexander Barcley, in whiche k is in maner in all thpiges like to his sayd 

moche vsed, and many other thynges Introductory : whiche, by coniecture, 

also by hym affirmed, contrary to my was nat vnwrittcn this hundred yeres. 

sayenges in this boke, and specially I wot nat if he happened to fortune 

in my seconde, where I shall assaye to upon suche au other : for whan it was 

expresse the declinations and coniuga- commaunded that the grammar maisters 

tynges : with the other congruites ob- shulde teche te youth of Englande 

serued in the frenche tonge, I suppose ioyntly latin with frenche, there were 

it sufficient to warne the lernar, that diuerse suche bokes diuyscd : wher- 

I haue red ouer that boke at length : vpon, as I suppose began one great 


Barkelay, to embusy hym selfe about tbis excercyse, and that my 
sayd synguler good lorde Charles duke of Suffolke, by cause that 
my poore labours required a longre tracte of tyme, hath also in the 
meane season encouraged maister Petrus Uallensys, scole maister 
to his excellent yong sonne the Erie of Lyncolne, to shewe his 
lernynge and opinion in this behalfe, and that the synguler clerke, 
maister Gyles Dewes somtyme instructour to your noble grace in 
this selfe tong, at the especiall instauwee and request of dyuers of 
your highe estates and noble men, hath also for his partye written 
in this matter." For the last treatise, see supra p. 31. The 
second I have not seen. 1 A copy of the first, which is extremely 
rare and does not seem to have been known to A. Didot, as it is not 
found in his catalogue, (see p. 589, n. 1), exists in the Douce Col- 
lection at Oxford (B 507) and the following are all the parts in it 
relating to French pronunciation, according to the transcription of 
Mr. G. Parker, of Oxford, who has also collated the proof with the 
original. The whole is in black letter; size of the paper 10^ in. 
X 7 in., of the printed text 81 in. x 5| in. ; 32 pages, neither 
folioed nor paged, the register at bottom of recto folio is : A 1-6, 
B 1-6, C 1-4. In this reprint the pages are counted and referred 
to, as in the editions of Salesbury. The pages are indicated by 
thick numbers in brackets. Remarks are also inserted in brackets. 
The / point is represented by a comma. Contractions are ex- 
tended in italics. 

[1] % Here begynneth. the introductory to wryte, 
and to pronounce Frencke compyled by Alexander 
Barcley compendiously at the commauwdemewt of the 
ryght hye excellent and myghty prynce Thomas duke 
of Northfolke. 

[Plate representing a lion rampant supporting a shield containing 
a white Hon in a border. Then follows a French ballad of 16 lines 
in two columns, the first headed " R. Coplande to the whyte lyon," 
and the second " *[f Ballade."] 
[2] Blank at back of title. 

occasyon why we of England souwde 1812, vol, 2, p. 328. The copy he 

the latyn tong so corruptly, which refers to belonged to Mr. Reed of 

haue as good a tonge to sounde all Staple's Inn, then to the Marquis of 

maner speches pffrfitely as any other Blandford (Catalogus librorum qui in 

nacyon in Europa." — Book I, ch. xxxv. Bibliotheca Blandfordiensi reperiuntur, 

According to this, 1) there ought to be 1812, fasc. 2, p. 8) and was sold by 

many old MS. treatises on French auction at Evans's sale of White 

Grammar, and 2) the English pronun- Knights Library 1819, to Rodd the 

ciation of Latin was moulded on the bookseller, for 91. 15s., after which I 

French, supra p. 246. have not been able to trace it, but Mr. 

Bradshaw says it is only a reprint of a 
1 There is also an older treatise work of Caxton's (The Book of Travel- 
"Here begynncth a lytell Treatyse for lers, Dibdins Ames, 1, 315, 316), con- 
to learne the Englysshc and Frensshe. taining French phrases, but no infor- 
Emprynted at Westminster by my mation on pronunciation. A mutilated 
Winken de Worde. Quarto," as cited copy of Caxton's book is in the Douce 
in Dibdin's edition of Ames Typ. Ant. Collection. 


[3] [^f The prologue of the auctour. On Pronouns.] 
[4] [Do. joined with Verbs. On this page occurs the follow- 
ing, beginning at line 6 : — ] 
^f Also whan these worcles. nous. vous. and ilz, be set before 
verbes begynnynge with ony consonant, than amonge comon people 
of fraunce the ,s, and ,z, at ende of the sayd wordes, nous. vous. 
and ilz, leseth the sounde in pronouncynge though they be wryten. 
But whan they are ioyned with verbes begynnyng with ony vowell 
than the .s. and .z. kepeth theyr full sounds in pronouncynge. 
[5-8] [On Verbs. At p. 8, 1. 21, we read] 
HEre after foloweth a smal treatyse or introductory of ortogra- 
phy or true wrytywge, wherby the dyligent reder may be infourmed 
truly, and perfytely to wryte and pronounce the frenche tunge 
after the dyuers customes of many couwtrees of fraimce. For lyke- 
wyse as our englysshe tunge is dyuersly spoken and varyeth in 
certayne countrees and shyres of Englande, so in many countrees 
of frauwce varyeth theyr langage as by this treatyse euidently shall 
appere to the reder. 

\ First how the. lettres of the A. b. c. are pronounced or sounded 
in frenche. 

\ Lettres in the. A. b. c. be. xxii. whiche in frenche ought thus 
to be sounded. 

ab c defg hiklmnopq 
A boy 1 coy doy e af goy asshe ii 2 ka el am an oo poy cu 

rstvx y z& parle 9 parse. 

aar ees toy v yeux ygregois zedes et parlui. 9 pffrlui. or, parsoy. 

^f And albeit that this lettre .h. be put amonge the lettres of 
the alphabete, yet it is no lettre, but a note of asperacyon, or token 
of sharpe pronouncynge of a worde. 3 Also .&. and .9. are not 
counted amonge the lettres : and so remayneth. xxii. lettres in the 
alphabete besyde .h. and .9. as sayd is. 

1 Compare Palsgrave's Introduction E depressyng theyr voyce." This is 

to his second Book : " In the namyiig different from Barcley. 
of the sayd consonantes the frenche-men 2 This must surely be a misprint, 

diffre from the latin tong, for where as The dots are faint. The vowel u does 

the latines in soundynge of the mutes not occur in this alphabet, 
begyn with the letters selfe and ende 3 This explanation of aspiration, 

in E, sayng BE, CE, DE. &c. the renders the real sound of h doubtful ; 

frenche men in the stede of E sound as to whether it was (h) or (,) as at 

Oy and name them Boy, Coy, Doy," present. The fo. lowing quotations 

etc. Hence the oy in these words was from a French newspaper, contained 

not (ee) as it has now become. Pals- in the Daily News, 14 Sept. 1869, 

grave adds: "and where as the latines illustrates this modern use. " L'H 

in souwdyng of theyr liquides or semi est-il aspire dans Hugo ? Faut il dire 

vowelles begyn with E, and ende with Victo Eugo ou Victor Ugo ? II me 

them, saynge El, Em, En, the frenche semble, moi, que 1' aspiration serait 

men double the liquide or semi vocale, plus respectueuse." Observe that no 

and adde also an other E and name H is written in either case, but that 

them Elle, Emme, Enne, geyung the the running on of the E, or the hiatus 

accent upon the fyrst E, and at the last before U alone mark the absence and 


^f These sayd : xxii. lettres be deuyded all into vowels and con- 
sonawtes .v. of them be called vowels, whiche be these, a. e. i. o. u. 
these fyiie be called vowels for eche of them by themself ioyned 
-with none other lettre maketh a full and parfect worde. Y. is a 
greke vowell and is not wryten in latyn wordes, but in greke wordes. 

[9] ^1 And wordes of other langages w^t/tout one of these 
vowels : no lytteral voyce may be pronunced l of these .v. vowels 
.ii. leseth theyr strength sowtynie : and become consonantis whiche 
.ii. be these. I. and v. whiche ar consonantis whan they are put in 
the begynnynge of a syllable ioyned with another vowel and syl- 
lablyd or spellid with the same, as in these wordes in frenche Iouer 
to play vanter, to boste : and so in other lyke. 2 

^| The other .xvi. letters called be consonantis : for they be 
soundyd with the vowels and make no syllable nor worde by them 
selfe excepte they be ioyned with some vowel, consonantis be these. 
b. c. d. f. g. k. 1. m. n. p. q. r. s. t. x. z. 

% These consonantis be deuydyd agayne into mutes liquides and 
semy vowels of whom nedyth not to speke for our purpose. A 
dyptonge is a ioynynge to gyther of .ii. vowels kepyng eche of 
them his strength 3 in one self syllable : of them be .iiii., that is to 
say, au, eu, ei, 4 oj'. In latyn tunge ,au, and ,eu be bothe wryten 
and sounded 5 .ay, and ,oy, be wryten but not sounded, but in 
frenche and englysshe tunge bothe ay oy au and eu be wryten and 
sounded," as in these examples in frenche of au. voycy vug beau 
filz, here is a fayre sone. of eu, deux homes font plus que vng : 
two men dooth more thaw one. of ay, ie ne diray point ma pewcee 
a toutz gentz. I shall not tell my thought to all folkes. Of 
oy as, toy meimes ma fait le le tort, thy self hast none me the 
wronge. That the same dyptonges be both wryten and sounded 
in englysshe it appereth by the examples. As a maw, strawe, 
tawe, dewe, sewe, fewe. fray, say, may, pay. noy, boy, toy, ioy. 
And thus haue we more lyberte bothe in frenche and englysshe in 

presence of aspiration. And this may meilleur, 4 to eureux, which would all 

have been Barcley's meaning. But agree with a real diphthongal pronun- 

gee infra, p. 809, 1.4. ciation, but then it proceeds to give 3 

1 The pointing is evidently wrong. syllables to uuir, in which there can be 
There should be a period here, and the no doubt that ou was a digraph, 
colon after "vowels" seems incorrect. 4 The omission of ai is very rcmark- 
The expression "lytteral voyce" is, even able. But from what follows it can 
then, rather obscure. hardly be doubted that ai was included 

2 Compare Salesbury's explanation under ei, or that ei was a misprint 
of the consonantal value of i, u, supra for ai. 

p. 7,34. b This ought to imply that Latin 

3 This ought to mean that the sound an, eu, were then called (au, eu), and 
of each is heard, and ought to distin- this would agree with other indications 
guish real diphthongs from digraphs. of English contemporary pronunciation. 
But the author so little understands 6 As we know from Salesbury that 
the nature ot speech that he may about 30 years later English ay, oy, au, 
merely mean that the two lettei-s being were called (ai, oi, au) at least in some 
juxtaposed modily each others signifi- cases, these words ought to imply that 
cation, producing a tertium quid. The they had the same sound in French. 
Lambeth fragment (supra, p. 2'26, n. 1), This would agree at any rate with 
gives 3 syllables to aider, aucun, 5 to Palsgrave. 


wrytynge and soundynge than in latyn as touchynge the .iiii. 

^f Also here is to be noted that of lettres we make syllabes : of 
syllabes we frame wordes, and of wordes we combyne reasons, and 
by reasons all scyences and speches be vttred. thus resteth the 
grounde of all scyences in lettres, syllabes, wordes, and reasons. 
Wherfore (as of the fyrst foundacyon of frenche tunge and also of al 
other langages) fyrst I intende by the ayde and socour of the holy 
goost to treate how the lettres be wry ten and sounded in frenche. 

^[ Of the soundynge of this lettre .A. in frenche. 

Tnis lettre .A. in frenche somtyme is put onely for a lettre. 
And somtyme it is put for this englysshe worde. hath. "Whan it is 
put but for a lettre it is often sounded as this lettre e. as in this 
frenche worde, staues 1 vous : in englysshe, can ye. In whiche 
worde and many other as, barbe, and rayre. with other lyke this 
lettre. A. hath his sounde of this lettre .e. But in some countrees 
.A. is sounded with full sounde in lyke maner as it is wryten as, 
rayre, and suche other whan this lettre .A. is put for a worde it 
betokeneth as moche ira englysshe as this worde .hath. But some 
frenche men than adnex .d. withall as, ad. as il ad, he hath. But 
suche maner of wrytynge is false, for this lettre. d. is not sounded 
nor pronounced in frenche, nor founde often wryten in the ende of 
ony worde. And though some wolde say in these frenche wordes, 
viande, meate. demande, enquyre or aske. and that .d. is sounded 
in ende of the worde, it is not so. for in these wordes and other 
lyke, suche as truly pronounce frenche resteth the sounde on the 
last letter of the worde whiche is .e. 2 and not .d. 

[10] % Also in true frenche these wordes, auray, I shal haue. 
and, auroy, I had : be wryten w/tnout e in myddes of the worde, 
and in lykewyse be they sounded w/t/?out, e but in certayne 
countrees of fraunce in suche maner of wordes this lettre e is 
sounded and wryten in the myddes as thus, aueroy, aueroie : 
whiche is contrary bothe in the true wrytynge, and also to the true 
pronuncyacion of perfyte frenche. 3 

% How this lettre b ought to be wryten and sounded in frenche 
themperour for the emperoure, and so of other lyke. 

% Also this worde auec may be wryten in dyuers maners after the 
custome and vsage of dyuers countrees of fraunce as thus, auecques: 
aueqne. And some w/tAout reason or ortography wryte it with .s. 
in the myddes as anesque. but how so euer aueqne be wryten in 
frenche it soundeth as moche in englysshe as this p/e-posycyon with. 
And also this worde solonc may be wryten with c, or els w/tAout c 

1 The words staves vous are not 2 Implying, of course, that the final 

clear. The use of a in the sound e e, now mute, was then audible, but 

seems to be dialectic in barbe, sec the only faintly audible, or else the error 

quotation from Chevallet, p. 75, at which he combats, could not have 

bottom. But in rayre, (which ought arisen. 

not to be rare, but the book is so full 3 In this case probably u preserved 

of errors that it may be,) to scrape or its consonantal power, the remnant of 

shave, the remark seems to imply ay the Latin b. 


at the ende as solonc or solon, but than o ought not to be sounded, 
yf a consonant inimedyatly folowe. 

[Then follow the headings, Of iNbmbres, in one paragraph, and 
Of Gendres, in four paragraphs, the last of which is :] 

^f Many mo rules be concernynge wrytynge and spekynge of 
frenche, which were to longe to expres in this small treatyse : but 
the moste perfytenes of this langage is had by custome and vse of 
redynge and spekynge by often enquyrynge : and frequentynge of 
company of frenchemen and of suche as haue perfytenes : in spek- 
ynge the sayd langage. 

[11] [Treatyse of dyuerse frenche wordes after order of the 
Alphabete .A. B., and then on 1. 8 from bottom the author proceeds 

^f This lettre. B. set in the myddes of a frenche worde ought to 
be soundyd in maner as it is wryten, as debriser. to bruse, troubler. 
to trouble, but in these wordes folowynge .b. is wryten in the 
myddes and not soundyd as, debte. dette, endebter. desoubz. vnder- 
neth, desubz. aboue, coubte. a ribbe, vng subget. Also these 
verbes doubter, to dout, tresdoubter. greatly to dout, substiner with 
all theyr modes and tensys as well synguler as plurell with all 
nownes and pflrticyples descendynge of them, must haue .b. wryten 
in the myddes of them and not soundyd, as wryten doubte tres- 
doubte. and soundyd doute, and tresdoute. 

[12] Of. C. ^f This letter .C. wryten in myddes of a worde 
hathe somtyme the sounde of this letter .s. or .z. as these wordes. 
ca. on this half, pieca. a whyle agone. raracon a ranson. francois. 
frenche. and in many other lyke wordes whiche soundyth thus with 
.s. sa piesa ranson francois. Also this letter .c. somtyme hath the 
sounde of .k. as in these wordes in frenche crou. cru. cause, and 
car. Also these wordes done and iouc are wryten with .c. in the 
ende in synguler nombre, but in the plurell nomber the .c. in them 
is tournyd in to .x. as doux ioux. 

Of. E. ^f E. for the moste parte is soundyd almost lyke .a. 1 and 
that namely in the ende of a worde. as in this example. A mon 
premier commencement soit dieu le pere omnipotent. At my fyrste 
begynnynge be god the father almyghty. II a vng bon entende- 
ment. these wordes commencement omnipotent entendement vent 
with other lyke. be soundyd with a. as eomrnenceniant. omnipotant. 
antandemant vant and other lyke. and all suche woides must haue 
a short and sharpe attent or pronunciacion at the ende. 

^f And here is to be notyd that al maner nownes of the mascu- 
lyne gender endynge in the synguler nomber in .c. g. or .f. as 
blanc. whyt. vyf. quicke. long, longe. shall be wryten in the plurell 
nombre with .s. hauynge .c. g. or .f. put awaye from them, as 
blans. vis. Ions. 

Of. G. ^| Whan this letter .g. is wryten in frenche in myddes of 

1 Though expressed generally, this Hart also pronounced (an), supra, p. 

remark evidently refers exclusively to 802. See also infra, in this § for all 

the syllable en where it is now pro- the French nasals during the xvith 

nounced (aA), which we have seen century. 


a worde bytwene a vowell and a consonant, than shal it be soimdyd 
lyke .n. and .g. As compaigon, cowpaige. How be it some wryte 
suche wordes as they muste be sonndyd with .g. and .n. 1 as com- 
pagnon. a felawe. compaigne. a company. 

Of. H. ^f H. is no letter bnt a tokyn of asperacion or sharpynge 
of a worde, as in these wordes, hors. ont, dehors, without, honte. 
shame, haut. hye, and in other lyke in whiche wordes and lyke .h. 
is sounded, other wordes be in whiche. h. is wryten and not 
sonndyd as heure. an houxe, helas. alas, ho/wme. a man, -with other 

Of. I & E. % 1- and. E. or ony other two vowels ioyned 
togyder in myddes or in the ende of a worde. whan they are put 
bytwene two co?«sonants, or bytwene a vowell and a consonant, 
than eyther of them shall haue his founde as in these wordes 
biens. goodes, riens. no thynge, Ioie. Ioy, voie. a way, And suche 
lyke wordes. yet some holde oppynyon that in these wordes, and in 
suche other .1. or E shall not be soundyd. 

% Also in true frenche these wordes. Ie. ce, are. wrytew without 
o. in theyr ende but in pycard, or gascoygne, they are wryten with 
o. at the, ende, as thus ieo ceo 

Of. K. ^f This letter .K. in dyuerses speches is put for. ch. As 
kinal. kien. vak. but in true frenche it is not, but these wordes and 
suche lyke be wryten with ch. as cheual. a hors, chien. a dogge, 
vache. a cowe, Also in certaynes countres of Era^ce for c. is 
wrytera ch. as piecha. for a pieca, a whyle ago, tresdoulche for 
tresdoulce. ryght swete. And so of other lyke. 2 

[13] ^f In lykewyse in some countrees of Eraunce names of 
dygnyte and offyce whiche are the synguler nombre are wryten 
plurell -with, s, at the ende, as luy papes de Rome, luy roys de 
trance, luy sains esperis : but in true frenche these names be 
wryten w/t/;out, s. as le pape de ronie, the pope of rome. Ie roy de 
france, the kjnge of fraunce. le saint esperit, the holy goost. and so 
of lyke. 

Of. L. ^[ This lettre .L. set in myddes of a worde immedyatly 
before a vowell shall kepe his full sounde, as nouellemewt, newly, 
annuelement, yerely. co??tinueleme»t contynually parlawt, spekynge. 
egallement, egally. But yf a consonant folowe. 1 immedyatly than 
,1, shall be sounded as ,u, as loyalment, principalmcnt, whiche are 
sounded thus, loyaument, faythfully. principaument, pryncipally. 3 
Except this worde ,ilz. in whiche worde ,1, and ,z, hath no sounde 
somtyme. as ilz vont ensemble, they go togyder. and somtyme ,1, 
hath his sounde and ,z, leseth the sounde whan ,ilz, cometh before 
a worde bcgynnynge with a vowell, as ilz ont fait : they haue done. 

1 The reversal of the order in the interchange of (k, sh) in French an- 
description of the pronunciation may swering to that of (k, tsh) in English, 
be accidental. This loose writing, 

however, gives no reason to suppose 3 The general observation evidently 

that the sound of this gn was either refers to the particular case, al pro- 

(ng) or (gn). nounccd as an, but whether as (au) or 

2 These remarks must refer to pro- (od) cannot be deduced from such loose 
vincial pronunciations, and indicate an writing. 



Whan ,1, is wryten in the ende of a worde, and that the worde 
folowyng hegyn with a consonant than shall .1. in suche wordes 
lese his owne sounde and he sounded lyke an .u. as ladmiral dengle- 
terre, the adinyrall of englande, hut yf the worde folowynge ,1, 
begyn with a vowell than ,1, shall kepe his owne sounde : as nul 
home, no man. nul aultre, none other, nul vsage, no vsage. Also ,1, 
put in the ende of a worde of one syllable shal haue no sounde at 
all as il sen est ale, he is gone, ie le veul bien, I wyll it well. In 
suche wordes il and veul, and other lyke ,1, leseth his sounde .11. 
double in myddes of a worde must be sounded with hole and full 
voyce. 1 as fille, a doughter. fillette, a lytell mayde. oraille, an eere. 
and so other lyke. 

Of. N. ^f This lettre. N". put betwene a vowell and a consonant 
in ende of ony worde whiche is a verbe of the thyrde persone plurell, 
and the indycatyf, or optatyf mode what tens so euer it be, it shall 
not be souuded in true pronouncynge of frenche, as ilz ayment, 
they loue. ilz lisent, they rede, whiche wordes and all other lyke 
must be sounded thus without ,n. ilz aymet. ilz liset. ^f Out of 
this rule be excepte verbes of one syllable in whiche ,n, must haue 
the sounde. as ilz vont, they go : ilz ont, they haue : ilz sont, they 
are : ilz font, they make, with all theyr modes : tens : and com- 
poundes. in whiche, n shall kepe his ryght sounde. 

Of. P. ^f "Whan .P. is wryten in the ende of a worde in frenche, 
and the next worde immedyatly folowynge begynnynge with a con- 
sonant than shall it lese the sounde, as thus, il a trop grant auoir, 
he hath to grete goodes. il vient trop tard, he cometh to late, trop 
hault, to hye. trop bas, to lowe. in whiche worde trop ,p, hath not 
his sounde, but it must be sounded thus, tro hault. tro bas. tro 

^f Of this rule be except propre names endywge in ,p. in whiche 
,p, must haue his full sounde, as, philip. But yf a worde ende in 
,p, and the worde nexte folowynge begyn with a vowell than ,p, 
shall haue his full sounde. as mieulx vault assez qiie trop auoir, 
better is ynough than to haue to moche. Also these wordes 
sepmaine, a weke. temps, tyme. corps, a body, and this verbe 
escripre, to wryte, with [14] all nownes and participles co/nmynge 
therof, indifferently may be wryten with p. or without p. but 
though p. be wryten in them it shall nat be soundyd : as semaine, 
terns, cors escrire. 

Of. Q. % Q. in pronounsynge muste haue a softe and lyght 
sounde, 2 And it shall nat be wryten in any frenche worde, without 
two vowels, i/nmedyatly folowynge : of whiche two vowels the 
fyrste shalbe u. as qui que, the whiche, quar, for. querir, to seke, 
quant, whan, and suche other, but some be whiche wryte q. in 
suche wordes without this vowell .u. folowynge as qi. qe. &c. 
whiche maner of wrytynge is vnsemely : And also it is contrary to 
all rules of ortography or true wrytyng aswell in frenche, as in 

1 The mouiUe sound of / in French 2 The writer prohably only means 

(lj) is certainly very badly expressed that it is to be (k) and not (kw). 
by these meaningless words. 


other langages and no reason haue they whiche wryte suche wordes 
without u. to assyst them saue theyr vnresonable vse agaynst all 
rules, and good custome. More ouer these wordes quar, querir, 
qua/it. &c. roaye be wryten indifferently : with, q. k. or c, as quar, 
or car, or els kar. &c. 

Of. R. ^f This letter. E. put in the ende of a worde shall kepe 
his owne full sounde, as cueur, as thus lay grant mal au cueur, I 
haue graet dysease at my herte : Ie vous prie pour me consailler, 
I pray you counsell me : hut in some countres .r. is soundyd, as 
this letter, z. as compere, a gossyp, is somtyme soundyd thus 
eompez, 1 and so of other wordes endynge in this letter. E,. 

Of. s. syngle. ^f A syngle .s. in myddes of a worde ought nat 
to be soundyd if a consonant folowe immedyatly : as tresdoulce, 
ryght swete : tresnoble, ryght noble : tresgracious, ryght gracyous : 
but .s. in myddes of these wordes folowyng hath his full sounde : 
as thus : prosperite, chestien, substance, esperance, meschant, 
Instituer, escharuir, transglouter, Augustynes, Inspirer, descharger, 
estaincher, estandre, peschies, constrayndre, despenser, escuser, 
with al nownes, and aduerbes commynge of them. In whiche .s. 
must be soundyd, if 2 a consonant immedyatly folowe .s. But if a 
vowel folowe this letter, s. in the myddes of a worde and no letter 
betwene .s. and the vowell, than shall .s. haue his full sounde, as 
it is wryten, tresexcellent, ryght excellent : treshault, ryght hye : 
treshonore, ryght honoured : treshumble, ryght humble. 

Of double .ss. ^f Whan this letter .ss. double is wryten in myddes 
of a worde it must alway be soundyd : as puissant, myghty with 
such lyke. More ouer if this letter .s. syngle, be wryten in the 
ende of a worde, whiche is a pronowne coraiunccion verbe or pre- 
posicion, if the worde folowynge .s. begyn with a consonant, than 
.s. shal nat be soundyd : as dieu vous sauue, god saue you. dieu 
vous gard, god kepe you. voules vous boire, Wyl ye drynke. nous 
so/nmes beaucoup des gens, we be moche folke, in which wordes .s. 
shal nat be soundyd. But whan this letter .s. is wryten in the 
ende of a worde in frenche and that the next worde folowynge 
begyn with a vowel than must .s. haue his full sounde. as Ie vous 
ayme, I loue you. Ie vous emprie, I pray you. estes vous icy, be ye 
here, and in suche other wordes. But in these wordes folowynge. 
s. shall haue no sounde, all if the wor[15]de folowynge begyn with 
a vowell. vous ditez vray, ye say trouth. vous ditez vraynient, 
ye say truely. In whiche wordes .s. shall lese his sounde. Also 
in this worde dis, whan it is a nowne of nombre and taken for ten. 
if there folowe a consonant .s. shall not be sou??dyd, as to say dis 
liures .x. li. it muste be soundyd di. li. But this nowbre ten m. 
frenche moost vsually is spelled with .x. as .dix. and not with .s. as 
dis. But whan ditz is a participle, and betoken eth asmoche as 
sayd than in the same worde .s. or .z. shall kepe his sounde. as les 
heures sont ditez the houres be sayde 

1 See the extract from Palsgrave, exceptions to the rule. See "all if" = 
supra p. 198. although, infra p. 812, 1. 26. 

2 Meaning although, as these are the 


Of. T. ^[ This letter T. put in the ende of a worde beynge a 
verbe of the thirde persone synguler and present or pr<?teryt tens of 
the indicatyf mode if the worde folowyng begyn with a vowell, it 
shall be soundyd. as est il prest, is he redy. II estoit alostel, he 
was at home. But if the worde folowynge begyn with a consonant, 
thaw T. shal nat be soundyd. as quest ce quil dist, what is that 
he sayth II est prest, he is redy. il fust tout esbahy. he was al 
abasshed. II riy a que vanite en cest monde There is nought 
but vanyte in this worlde. Also all nownes and participles, whiche 
ende in the synguler no>nbre in t, in the plurell nombre muste be 
wryten with. s. or with z. the samet. [ = same t] put away from 
the ende of the word as thus worde, saynt, holy, is wryten in the 
synguler no/nbre with t. in the plurell no/nbre it is thus wryten. as 
sainz. or sains without, t. but in some places of fraunce they wryte 
suche wordes in the plurel nowbre with t. e. and z. or s. at the ende 
after the moste vsed Ortography of frenche. For amouge frenche 
men this is a general rule, that as ofte as t. is put in myndes 
of a worde beynge a nowne of the femynyne gender it shall not be 
wryten without a vowell immedyatly folowynge. as les saintez 
vierges du ciel ne cessent de louer dieu, the holy virgyns of heuen 
cesseth not to laude god. II ya des femmes que sont bien riches 
marchandes, there be women whiche be well ryche niarchandes. 
And so may other frenche wordes endynge in tes. be wryten with t. 
and es. or with z. or s. wztnout t. but it accordeth not to reason to 
wryte these wordes thus saintz toutz marchawtz in the plurell 
nowbre. all if they be wryten with t. in the synguler no/nbre. for in 
the plurell nombre they ought nat to be writen with t. for ony of 
these two letters s. or z. in frenche stande for as moche as ts. or tz. 
But for a conclusion though suche wordes in in certayne countres 
of Fraunce be wryten with ts. or with tz. in the ende. as thus mon 
amy sont nous litz faitz, my frende are our beddes made. Beau sir 
sont mez pourpointz faitz, faire sir be my doublettes made, yet 
after true ortography of frenche these wordes and other suche muste 
be bothe wryten and soundyd without t. as lis fais pourpoins 
% Also these wordes filz, a sone. mieulz better, fois one tyme. assez, 
ynoughe. vous poues, ye may. vous prenes, ye take, vous cnseignes, 
ye teche. vous lisez, And suche other ought to be wryten without 
t. but some be whiche wrongly wryte these wordes with t. As 
filtz, mieultz, foitz, assetz, pouetz, prenetz. &c. whiche wordes in 
ryglit frenche haue no t. neyther in soundynge nor in wrytynge. 
^f Also this coniunccion. betokeneth the same thynge in frenche 
that it doth in latyn. that is to say, and, in englysshe in whiche 
coniunccion t. is ncuer soundyd though it be wryten with et. as 
et Ie vous fais a scauoir, And I make you to wytte or knowe. 

[16] Of- U. ^f U. Wryten in myddes of a worde shall often haue 
no sounde, bothe in latyn frenche and other law gages. And that whan 
it is wryten immedyatly after ony of these thre letters, that is to 
say. q. g. or. s. As qui que, language, langue, a tonge. querir, to 
seke : guerre, warre, and suche other. In whiche wordes u. is 
wryten but not soundyd. JNeuerthcrles in dyuers Countres after 


the foresayd letters they sounde w, doubled as quater, quare, 
quaysy. Englysshe men, and Scottes alway sounde u. after the 
letters both in Latyn and in theyr Uulgayre or common langage. 
In lyke wyse do dutche men, and almayns. As quare, quatuor 
quart, quayre, qwade. and suche lyke. 

Of. X. ^| This letter X. put in thende of a worde. may eyther 
kepe his owne sounde, or els it may be soundyd as. z. as cheualx, 
or cheualz. hors, doulx, or doulz. swete mieulx, or mieulz. better 
which wordes may indyfferently be wryten with. x. or with z. 
Also this worde dieulz, ought not to be wryten with x. in the 
ende except it be in the nominatyf, or vocatyfe case, but by cause 
of lyme somtyme it hath x. in other cases. And whan x. is wryten 
in suche cases somtyme it is soundyd and somtyme not. As if 
dieux be wryten in the nominatyf case and a consonant folowe 
immediatly than x. shal not be soundyd. as dieux vous sauue, god 
saue you. dieux yous garde, god kepe you. but if this worde dieux 
be set in the vocatyfe case : than shall x. kepe his sounde. As 
benoit dieux ais pitie de moy, blessyd god haue pyte on me. 

Of. Y. ^| This letter y. hath the sounde of this letter I and in 
many wordes of Erenche it ought to be wryten in stede of I by cause 
of comelynes of wrytynge. In latyn wordis y. ought not to be 
wryten, but whan ony greke worde is myngled with latyn wordes 
for curyosite of the wryter or diffyculte of interpretacion in suche 
greke wordes y. muste be wryten in stede of I. in Englysshe wordes 
y. is moste commonly wiyten in stede of I, soo that the englysshe 
worde be not deducte of ony latyn worde : but specyally y : 
muste be wryten for I, in the ende of englysshe wrodes, and whan 
n : m, or u, is wiyten before, or behynde it. 

Of. z. ^[ z. Put in the ende of a worde muste be soundyd lyke s. 
as querez, seke ye. auez haue ye. lisez, rede ye. And lyke wyse 
as s. in the ende of a frenche worde is somtyme pronounced, and 
somtyme not, ryght so, z. put in the ende of a worde foloweth the 
same rule : somtyme to be soundyd, and somtyme not as aperyth 
in the rule of .s. 

^f Here is also to be noted for a generall rule, that if a worde of 
one syllabe ende in a vowell, and the worde folowynge begynne 
also with another vowell, than both these wordes shalbe ioyned to 
gyther, as one worde : l both in wrytynge and soundynge. As 
dargent : for de argent, ladmiral, for le admiral, whiche rule also 
is obseruid in englysshe, as thexchetour, for the exchetour : thex- 
peryence, the experyence. 

[Here ends p. 16.] 

[17-28] [Xouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, in alphabetical 

[29-30] [Numbers, Days of the "Week, Months, Feasts.] 
[30] [Tyfe of the graynes, Trench and English ; the English 

1 Another general rule applicable only to a particular case, as shewn by the 
following examples. 


part begins : — God saue the ploughe And he the whiche it ledeth 
Pirate ere the grounde After sowe the whete, or barly.] 

[30-31] [Fishes. Proceed at p. 31,1. 14 as follows.] 

% And also here is to be notyd that many wordes be which 
sourcde nere vnto latyn and be vsed in bothe the langages of Frenche 
and Englysshe amonge eloquent men, as termes indifferently be- 
longynge to both frenche and englysshe. So that the same sygny- 
fycacyon, whiche is gyuen to them, in frenche is also gyuen to 
them in englysshe, l as thus. 

^f Amite. Auaurccemewt. Audacite. Bourate. Beaute. Breuyte. 
Beniuolence. Benignite. Courtoys. Curiosite. Conclusion. Conspi- 
racion. Coniuracion. Compunction. Contricion. Confederacion. Con- 
iunction. Detestacion. Detraccion. Denominacion. Deuulgaciow. 
Diuinite. Diguite. Disesperance. Exchange. Esperance. Euidence. 
Fable. Frealte. Fragilite. Fragrant. Gouernance. Grace. Humy- 
lite. Humanite. Intelligence. Intellection. Interpretacion. Insur- 
recciow. Indenture. Laudable. Langage. Murmuraciow. Mutabilite. 
Magnanimite, Patron. Patronage. Picture. Bage. Boyall. Begal. 
Souerayne. sustayne. Traytre. Tourment Trechery. Trayson. 
Trauers. Trouble. Tremble. Transitory. Ualiant. Uariance. Uariable. 

^[ These wordes ■with other lyke betoken all one thyrage in 
englysshe as in frenche. And who so desyreth to knowe more of 
the eayd langage must prouyde for mo bokes made for the same 
intent, wherby they shall the soner come to the parfyte knowlege of 
the same. 

^[ Here endeth the introductory to wryte and to pronounce 
frenche compyled by Alexander barcley. 

[The above ends at p. 31, col. 2, 1. 9 ; after which : % Here 
foloweth the maner of dauncynge of bace daunces after the vse of 
fraunce and other places translated out of frenche in englysshe by 
Robert coplande. Then follow on p. 32, col. 1, 1. 4 from bottom : 
1 Bace daunces ; at the end of which come the two concluding 
paragraphs in the book.] 

^f These daunces have I set at the ende of this boke to thentent 
that euery lerner of the sayd boke after theyr dylygent study may 
reioyce somwhat theyr spyrytes honestly in eschewynge of ydel- 
nesse the portresse of vyces. 

^[ Imprynted at London in the Fletestrete at the sygne of 
the rose Garlande by Robert coplande. the yere of our lorde. 
M.CCCCC.xxi. the. xxii. day of Marche. 

The Lambeth Fragment on French Pronunciation, 1528. 

This has already been described (supra p. 226, note 1), but the 
following extracts relating to the pronunciation, being part of those 

1 This probably docs not imply that tbc sound was the same in both languages. 


reprinted by Mr. Maitland, should be here reproduced, as the 
treatise was unknown to A. Didot. 

" De la prosodie, ou, accent, comme 

on doibt pronstcer. briefue admonition 
(j voelles 

a. e. i. o. u. 

Toultes aultres letrers sont 
cosonates, deuisees en mu- 
tes et demy voelles. 

d mutes 

b. c. d. f. g. k. p. q. t 
(j Demy voelles 

f. 1. m. n. r. s. 

Sur toultes choses doibuit no- 
ter gentz Englois, quil leur 
fault acustumer de pronu- 
cer la derniere lettre du mot 
fracois, quelq; mot que ce soit 
(rime exceptee) ce que la 
langue englesche ne permet. 
Car la ou Lenglois dit. 
goode breade, Le francois 
diroit go o de .iii. sillebes 
et breade .iii sillebes 
et &. q con 
Ces diptongues sone aisi pronucees. 
Ai aider, iii. 

au aucun. iii. 

ie faict meillieur, v. sillebes 
eu eureux iiii 

ou ouir iii B 1 

A. ought to be pronounced from the bottom of the stomak and 
all openly. E. a lytell hyer in the throte there proprely where the 
englysshe man soundeth his a 

i more hyer than the e within the mouthe 

in the roundenesse of the lyppes 

v in puttynge a lytell of wynde out of the mouthe thus, ou, and 
not you. And ye must also gyve hed fro pronouncynge e for i, 
nor ay, for i, as do some that for miserere say maysiriri. 1 

A. also betokeneth, hawe or hat, wha it cometh of this verb in 
latin, habeo, as here after ye may se. 

Of two consonantes at the ende of a word often the fyrst is left, 
and is not pronounced, as in this worde, perds, the d, is not pro- 
nounced. Et ie faingz g is not pronouced. Je consentz, t is not 
prononced, but thus ben they wryte bycause if y e orthography, 
and to gyve knowledge, y* perds cometh of this uerbe in latin, 

1 This probably indicates an English Salesbury's (tei-boi) with the modern 
pronunciation (mai-smi-n). Compare (trtW), for Lat. tibi. 









































perdo, and not of pers that is a coulour. And thus may ye ymagyn 
of the others How-be it, I am of opynyon y* better sholcle be to 
pronoiice euery lettre and say. . . . [the examples are taken from 
the French side]. Ie perds vostre accointace en proniiceant le d) 
que Ie pers. Pronoce vng chacun come il luy plaira, car trop est 
difficille a corriger vielles erreurs. 

S. in the myddle of a worde leseth a lytell his sowne, and is not 
so moche whysteled, as at y e ende of y e worde, as tousiours, 
desioyndre, d espryuer, estre, despryser Deux, ss, togyder ben 
moche pronounced, as cssayer, assembler, assurer, assieger. 

S. betwene two vowelles, pronounceth by .z. as aize. aise, 
mizericorde misericorde, vsage. and I beleue that by suche pro- 
nuntiacyon, is the latyn tongue corrupte for presently yet some 
say mizerere for miserere. 

Sp, st, ct, ought not to be deuyded asonder, but we ought to say, 
e sperance, not es perance, and e spaigne, not es paigne. And 
e sperit not es perit. e striuer, not es triuer, e stoint, not es toint. 
Satisfa ction, non satisfac tion. Corre ction. &c. 

C. the moost often is pronounced by s, as. france pieca, ca. And 
yf a consonante, or other letters is ioyned with the vocale that is 
after the c, y e e shall be pronounced by q, as Cardynal, concordance, 
casser Combyen, couraige, cuider. 

G. somtyme is pronounced by i, as, bourgois bourgoisse, gregois, 
what so euer it be, I conceille, y* they folowe some good autour, 
w*out to gyue or to make so many rules, that ne do but trouble and 
marre the vnderstandynge of people 


Palsgrave on French Pronunciation, 1530. 

In addition to the many quotations from Palsgrave's First Book, 
scattered through the above pages, the following extracts from the 
"Brefe Introduction of the authour for the more parfyte under- 
standyng of his fyrst and seconde bokes," ought to find a place here : 

"The frenche men in theyr pronunciation do chefly regards and 
couet thre thynges. To be armonious in theyr speking. To be brefe 
and sodayne in soundyng of theyr wordes, auoydyng all maner of 
harshenesse in theyr pronunciation, and thirdly to gyue euery 
worde that they abyde and reste vpon, theyr most audible sounde. 
To be armonyous in theyr spekyng, they vse one thyng which none 
other nation dothe, 1 but onely they, that is to say, they make a 
maner of modulation inwardly, for they fonne certayne of theyr 
vowelles in theyr brest, and suffre nat the sounde of them to passe 
out by the mouthe, but to assende from the brest straight up to the 
palate of the mouth, and so by reflection yssueth the sounde of 
them by the nose. To be brefe and sodayne, and to auoyde all 
maner harshenesse, whiche myght happen whan many consonantes 

1 Did Palsgrave know anything of an argument for the recent introduction 
Portuguese ? If he did, this might be of nasality into Portugal. 


come betwene the vowelles, If they all shulde haue theyr clistyncte 
sounde. Most coinmenly they neuer vse to sounde past one onely 
consonant betwene two vowelles, though for kepyng of trewe 
orthographie, they vse to write as many consonawtes, as the latine 
wordes haue, whiche theyr frenche wordes come ont of, and for 
the same cause, they gyve somtyme unto theyr cottsonantes but a 
sleight and remisshe sounde, and farre more dyuersly pronounce 
them, than the latines do. To gyue euery worde that they abyde 
vpon his most audible sound, .... the frenche men iudgyng 
a worde to be most parfaytly herde, whan his last end is sounded 
hyghest, vse generally to gyue theyr accent vpon the last syllable 
onely, except whan they make modulation inwardly, for than 
gyueng theyr accent vpon the last syllable saue one, and at the 
last syllable of suche wordes, they sodaynly depresse theyr voyce 
agayne, forming the vowell in the brest .... 

"Where as I haue sayd that to be the more armonius they 
make a maner of modulation inwardly, that thyng happeneth in 
the sou?Klyng of thre of theyr vowelles onely A, E, and 0, and 
that nat vniuersally, but onely so often as they come before M, or 
N, in one syllable, or whan E, is in the last syllable, the worde nat 
hauyng his accent vpon hym ... so that these thre letters M. N, or 
E, fynall, nat hauyng the accent vpon hym, be the very and onely 
causes why these thre vowelles A, E, 0, be formed in the brest 
and souwded by the nose. And for so moche as of necessyte, to 
forme the different sounde of those thre vowelles they must nedes 
at theyr first formyng open theyr mowth more or lesse, yet whan 
the vowell ones formed in the brest, ascendeth vpwardes and must 
haue M, or N, sounded with hym, they bryng theyr chawes to gether- 
wardes agayne, and in so doyng they seme to sound an v, and 
make in maner of A, and 0, dipkthonges, which happeneth by ray son 
of closyng of theyr mowth agayne, to come to the places where M, 
and ~N, be formed, but chefely bycause no parte of the vowell 
at his expressyng shulde passe forth by the mowth, where as els 
the fre??chemen sou?Kle the same thre vowelles, in all thynges lyke 
as the Italiens do, or we of our nation, whiche sounde our vowelles 
aryght, and, as for in theyr vowell I, is no diffyculty nor difference 
from the Italien sounde, 1 sauyng that so often as these thre letters 

1 This passage, -which had not been from Palsgrave's, but that he disap- 
noted when the observations supra p. proved of that general usage, which 
110 were written, seems to confirm the we know must have been (ei), and prac- 
conclusions there drawn respecting tically identified the "right" sound, 
Palsgrave's pronunciation of English that is, his own sound of long ;', with 
long i, which he here identifies, when (ii). Yet that it was not quite the 
sounded "aryght" with the French same is shewn by the passage on p. 109. 
and Italian i. Concerning the Italian Hence the conclusion that it was (ii) 
sound there was never any doubt. Con- appears inevitable. And as this con- 
cerning the French there is also perfect elusion is drawn from premises alto- 
unanimity, except in the one passage gether different from those which led 
from Palsgrave himself, cited supra to the same result for Chaucer's pro- 
p. 109. The limitation "aryght, " ap- nunciation (p. 282), it is a singular 
plied to English sounds, implies that corroboration of the hypothesis there 
the general pronunciation was different started for the first time. 

818 palsgrave's French pronunciation. Chap. vill. § 3. 

I, L, L, or I, G, N, come before any of the fyrst thre vowels A, E, or 
0, they sound an I, brefely and corcfusely betwene the last consonant 
and the vowell folowyng, where as in dede none is written .... 
whiche soundynge of I, where he is nat written, they recompence 
in theyr v, for thoughe they wryte hym after these three conso- 
nantes F, G and Q, yet do they onely sounde the vowell next folow- 
ing v. . . . So that, for the most generalte, the frenche men 
sounde all theyr fyue vowelles lyke as the Italiens do, except onely 
theyr v, whiche euer so often as they vse for a vowel alone, hath 
with them suche a sounde as we gyue this diphthong ew, in our 
tong in these wordes, rewe an herbe, a mewe for a hawke, a clewe 
of threde. 

"And as touchynge theyr diphthonges, besydes the sixe, whiche 
be formed by addyng of the two last vowelles vnto the thre fyrst, 
as ai, ei, oi, au, ev, ov, they make also a seuynth by addyng of the 
two last vowelles together vi, vnto whiche they gyue suche a 
sounde as we do vnto wy in these wordes, a swyne, I twyne, I 
dwyne, sou^dyng v, and y, together, and nat distynctly, and as for 
the other sixe haue suche sounde with them as they haue in latin, 
except thre, for in stede of ai, they sourade most commenly ei, and 
fo oi, they sounde oe, and for av, they sounde most commenly ow, as 
we do in these wordes, a bo we, a crowe, a snowe, 1 .... 

" "What consonantes so euer they write in any worde for kepyng 
of trewe orthographie, yet so moche couyt they in redyng or 
spekyng to haue all theyr vowelles and diphthonges clerly herde, 
that betwene two vowelles, whether they chaimce in one worde 
alone, or as one worde fortuneth to folowe after an other, they 
neuer sounde but one consonant atones, in so moche that if two 
different co?esonantes, that is to say, nat beyng both of one sorte 
come together betwene two vowelles, they leue the fyrst of them 
vnsounded, and if thre consonantes come together, they euer leue 
two of the fyrst vnsouwded, puttyng here in as I haue sayd, no 
difference whether the consonantes thus come together in one 
worde alone, or as the wordes do folowe one another, for many 
tymes theyr wordes ende in two consonantes, bycause they take 
awaye the last vowell of the latin worde, as Corps commeth of Corpus, 
Temps, of Tempus, and suche lyke, whiche two consonantes shalbe 
lefte vnsounded, if the next worde folowyng bcgyn with a conso- 
nant, as well as if thre consonantes shuld fortune to come together 
in a worde by hym selfe. But yet in this thyng to shewe also 
that they forget nat theyr ternarius numerus of all theyr conso- 
nantes, they haue from this rule priuyleged onely thre, M, ~N, and 
It, whiche neuer lese theyr sounde where so euer they be founde 
written, except onely N, whan he commeth in the thyrde parson 
plurcll of verbes after E 

" The hole reason of theyr accent is grounded chefely vpon thre 
poyntes, fyrst there is no worde of one syllable whiche with them 

1 This gives the following usual, as correct pronunciations: <7^ = (Ei), oi = 
distinct from Palsgrave's theoretically (oe),#m = (oou), meaning, perhaps, (00). 



hath any accent, or that they vse to pause vpon, and that is one 
great cause why theyr tong semeth to vs so brefe and sodayn and 
so harde to be vnderstawded whan it is spoken, especially of theyr 
paysantes or cowmen people, for thoughe there come neuer so 
many wordes of one syllable together, they pronounce them nat 
distinctly a sonder as the latines do, but sounde them all vnder one 
voyce and tenour, and neuer rest nor pause upon any of them, 
except the cowzmyng next vnto a poynt be the cause thereof. 
Seconde, euery worde of many syllables hath Ins accent vpon the 
last syllable, but yet that nat withstandynge they vse vpon no 
suche worde to pause, except the co?«myng next vnto a poynt be 
the causer therof, and this is one great thyng whiche inclineth the 
frenchemen so moche to pronounce the latin tong amysse, whiche 
contrary neuer gyue theyr accent on the last syllable. The thyrde 
poynte is but an exception from the seconde, for, whan the last 
syllable of a frenche worde endeth in E, the syllable next afore 
him must haue the accent, and yet is nat this rule euer generall, 
for if a frenche worde ende in Te, or have z, after E, or be a 
preterit partyciple of the fyrst coniugation, he shall haue his accent 
vpon the last syllable, accordyng to the seconde rule. . . . 

"Whan they leue any consonant or consonantes vnsounded, whiche 
folowe a vowell that shulde haue the accent, if they pause vpon 
hym by reason of commyng next vnto a poynt, he shalbe long in 
pronunciation, So that there is no vowell with them, whiche of 
hymselfe is long in theyr tong .... As for Encletica I note no 
mo but onely the primatiue pronownes of the fyrst and seconde par- 
sones syngular, whan they folowe the verbe that they do gouerne." 

French Pronunciation according to the Orthoepists of the Sixteenth 


The following are the principal authorities, many of which have 
already been quoted, so that it will only be necessary to refer to 
them, and to complete this sketch by a few additional citations. 
They will be referred to by the following abbreviations. 

Bar. Barcley, 1521, supra pp. 803-814. 

L. Lambeth fragment, 1528, supra pp. 815-6. 

P. Palsgrave, 1530, supra p. 31. 

S. Jacobi Sylvii Isag&jge, 1531, supra p. 33. 

G. du Guez, 1532, supra p. 31. 

M. Meigret, 1545 and 1550, supra, pp. 31 and 33. 

Pell. Pelletier, 1555, supra p. 33. 

E. Ramus, 1562, supra p. 33. 

P. Beza, 1584, supra p. 33. 

E. Erondellc, 1605, supra p. 226, note, col. 1. 

H. Holyband, 1609, supra p. 227, note, col. 1. 

See especially Livet (supra p. 33), and Didot (supra 589, note 
1), for accounts of all these writers except Bar. L. E. H. Didot's 
Historique des reformes orthographiques proposees ou accomplies, 
forming appendix D to his work, pp. 175-394, carries the list of 
authors down to the present day, and is very valuable. 

In the following tabular view, simple numbers following any 


author's name refer to the page of this work in which the required 
quotation will be found ; if p. is prefixed, the reference is to the 
page of the author's own work, of which the title is given in the 
passages just referred to. No pretension is made to completeness. 

In order not to use new types, the three varieties of e are repre- 
sented by e, e, e t in all the authorities (except Sylvius, where 
they could not be clearly distinguished, and where his own signs 
are e, e, e, therefore employed), and N, l, are used for Meigret's 
forms for n, I, mouilles. In Ramus certain combinations of letters, 
as au, eu, ou, ch, are formed into new letters, and are here printed 
in small capitals thus au, eu, ou, ch. Sylvius employs ai, oi, 
&c, as diphthongs, where the circumflex properly extends over both 
letters, but the modern form has been used for convenience. 

The Vowels and Diphthongs. 

A = (a) L. 815, A = (a) P. 59, A = {a) 
"ore largiter diducto profertur" S. 2, 
A — (a) G. 61, uncertain (a, a) M., 
Pel.,R. A = (a) B. A = {a), E. 226, n. 
Afterwards English writers identify 
it with (aa). In this uncertainty it 
is hest taken to be a full (a), but not 
(flh), as B. warns, saying " Ilaec vo- 
calis, sono in radice linguae solis 
faucibus forraato, ore hiante dare et 
sonore a, Francis effertur, quum 
illam Germani obseurius et sono 
quodam ad quartam vocalem o acce- 
dente pronuntient." B. p. 12. In 
the termination -age =(ai) P. 120. 
" You must note that a is not pro- 
nounced in these words, Aoust, saoul, 
aorner, aoriste, which wordes must 
bee pronounced as if they were 
written thus, oot, soo, orner, oreeste." 

AI ={ai) Bar. 806, doubtful, L. 815, 
AI~ (ai ei) P. 118. " Diphthongos a 
Graeeis potissimum mutuati videmur, 
scilicet, ai, ei, oi, oy, au, eu, ou. Eas 
tamen quam caeteri Europae populi 
plenius et purius pronuntiatione, si 
quid judico, exprimimus. Si ipsae 
simul concretae, debent in eadem 
syllaba vim suam, hoc est, potesta- 
tem et pronuntiationem retinere, ut 
certe ex sua definitione debent. 
Frustra enim distinctse sunt tarn 
literae quam diphthongi, si sono et 
potcstate nihil differunt. Namqne 
ai Graeeis propiiam, Latinis quibus- 
dam poetis usurpatam, non ae seu § 
cum Graeeis : non ai divisas vocales 
cum poetis Latinis, sed ai una syl- 
laba utriusque vocalis sonum lenitcr 
exprimentc, pronuntiamus : qualis 
vox aegrotis et derepeute laesis est 
plurima." S. p. 8. This should 

mean, " not (e), nor (a,i), but (ai)," 
especially as (ai) is a common foreign 
groan answering to the English 
(oou!). But the following passages 
render this conclusion doubtful : 
" ai diphthongum Graecam ut saepe 
dividunt Latini, dicentes pro r\ /xa7a 
Mai-a, 6 &ias Ai-ax, & Aulai, aquai. 
pictai, terrai pro aulae, aquae, terrae. 
Sic nos eandem modo conjunctam 
servamus, modo dividimus ad signifi- 
candum diversa, ut G-e trai [g- is the 
consonant (zh), e is the muto-guttu- 
ral] id est traho et sagittam emitto, 
quam ob id traict a tractus vocamus. 
G-e trai, id est prodo et in fraudem 
traho, licet hoc a trado videri queat. 
G'-hai, id est babes et teneo : infini- 
tivo hauoir. G-e hai et g-e he, id 
est, habco odio et odi. infinitivo hair, 
uti a. trai traitre : a, trai trair infi- 
nitivos habemus" S. p. 14. " Diaere- 
sis, id est divisio unius syllabae in 
duas, ut Albai, longai, syliiie trissyl- 
laba ; pro Albae, longae, syluae dis- 
syllabus. Eadem modo et Galli 
fi6(TKov bois, id est lignum et sylva. 
bdis, id est buxus. Habeo g'-hai, 
id est teneo, et g-e hai, id est odi" 
S. p. 56. Hence perhaps Sylvius's 
diphthong was really (e) although 
he disclaims it. A = (ai, ci, e) the 
last two more frequently, M. 118, 
Pell., P. 119, B. A = (e) in i'ay, 
iefer 'ay, = (a,i) in Esa-y-e, abba-y-e, 
= (i) in ains, aingois, ainsi, E. 
nearly the same II. 227 note. The 
usage of M., Pell, P., B. seems to 
be as follows. 

(ai) — aymant, aydant, hair, payant, 
gayant, ayant, ayans, aye, ayet, 
ayons, vraye, nayf, M. — pais, payer, 
naiue, Pell. — paiant, gaiant, aidant, 


pai, aiEvl, hair, R. — aimer, in 
Picardy, B. 583, note 4. 
(ei, Ei) — soudein, vrey, vrEyes (fo. 
121) ecriueins, einsi, 9 Ertein, mar- 
rein, eyt, sey, seinte, retreintif, 
mein, Eyme, and throughout the 
verb fo. 1096-1 11 b, je repondrey, 
je le ferey, Eyder, j'ey, j'aorey, 
q'il Eyt, &c M. — ein^Es, con- 
treint, CErtcinmiant, creintf, de- 
deigner, eyant, einsi, eid?, eidant, 
eyons, vrei, vreye, Romeim, mein- 
tmant, procheinete, je crein con- 
uein, &c. Pell. — fontEinc, ci'Eindre 
sertEim, EiniEr, Eimant, EtEin, 
mEin, putEin, Eie't = ayent, Einsi, 
prochEin^', krEint = era int, Eime, 
Eime< 7 , deniEiu, &c. R. — gueine = 
gaine, B. 
(e, e) — grammEre, fEt, l'Ezons, trEt- 
ter, mES, fEre, deriuEzon, mEzon, 
ses = sais, nyEs = niais, niEze, 
Eze, n' Et = ait, lESse, contrEre, 
liEzon, maouEz', trEre, fEzant, 
tiEze = 13, SEze = 16, dizESEt = 17, 
deplEt, oculEre &c. M. — sez, fet, 
afEr<s, jamEs, clemnant, mEs, fEre, 
malEsees =malaisees, nEtre, neces- 
sere, "les uns diset eimer, les autrcs 
emer," "les uns diset plesir, les 
autres pfesir par un e clos', rESon, 
vulguerc = vtilgaire, &c, Pell. — ■ 
vretment, tEnuiuEzon, kontrEn?, 
palE, pE, mES, parfEt, parf'Es, 
vulgEre, vescau, sere =serai, aure 
=aurai, vre, parfes, h,s,=faits, 
R. — After the passage quoted supra 
p. 583, note 4, B. says, "sicut 
auteni posteriores Latini Aulai et 
Pictai dissyllaba quse poets per 
SidAvaiv trissyllaba fecerunt, muta- 
runt in Aulse et PictE, ita etiam 
Franci, licet servata vetere scrip- 
tura, coeperunt banc diphthonguni 
per ae pronuntiare ; sic tameu vt 
in eius prolatione, neque a neque 
e audiatur, sed mixtus ex hac 
vtraque vocali tertius sonus, is 
videlicet quern e aperto attribui- 
mus. Quum enim vocalis e pro- 
prie pene conjunctis dentibus 
enuntietur, (qui sonus est e qucm 
clausum vocavimus) in bac diph- 
thongo adjectum a prohibet dentes 
occludi, et vicissim e vetat ne a 
claro illo et sonoro sono profera- 
tur," B., p. 41. 
AOU=(a.\x) M. 142,— "Nous auons 
vne diphthongue de a et ou que nous 
escripuons par apit, comme en ce mot 
Aoust, qui est en Latin Mensis Au- 

gustus. Mais cest en ce seul mot, 
qui se prononce toutefois auiourdhuy 
presques par la simple voyelle com- 
me oust : et nest ia besoing pour vng 
mot de faire vne regie : Ceste diph- 
thongue est fort vsitee en Latin, 
comme en ces mots, Author, Audio, 
Augeo ; ou la premiere syllabe doit 
estre prononcee comme en Aoust." 
R. p. 36. 

A U= (au) ? Bar. 806. A U= (au, oou) 
P. 141,817, n." Super ha?c,at> «u,cum 
Grascis : au, eu, cum Latinis pronun- 
tiamus, ut abroviovs autone, evayye- 
\iov euangile (in quibus tamen v seu 
u consonantem sonat, non vocalem 
Gracis, Latinis, Gal lis) audire aiiir, 
neutre neutre" S. p. 8., this is quite 
unintelligible. AU=(&o) M. 141. 
A TJ= {0) ? Pell. A U= (00) ? " vne 
voyelle indiuisible ; . . . ceste voyelle 
nest ny Grecque ny Latine, elle est 
totallement Francoyse," R.p. 6 mean- 
ing perhaps that au is not pronounced 
in this way in Latin or Greek, but 
only French, R. 143, note. ATT= 
(0) " sic vt vel parum vol nihil ad- 
modum differat ab vocali," B. p. 
43, see 143, note. "Pronounce 
au almost like 6 long, as aultre 
d'autaut, aumosne, almost, but not 
altogeather, as if it were written otre, 
dotaunt, omone," E. That is (00) 
instead of (00) ? "Was the change 
(au, ao, 0) ? 

-E=(e), L. 816, 226, note, G. 61 ; E 
= (e, e ?), and, when now mute and 
final=(o,?) P. 77, 181 n. 5, and 818. 
"Literae omnes vt apud Graecos & 
Latinos, ita quoque apud Gallos 
sonum in pronuntiando triplicem ex- 
primunt, plenum, exilem, medium. 
Plenum quidem, exempli gratia, 
vocales, qxiando aut purse sunt, aut 
syllabas liniunt, vt ago, egi, ibo, 
oua, vnus. Exilem quando ipsa? m 
vel n, in eadem syllaba antecedunt, 
vt am, em, im, vm, an, en, in, on. 
Medium, quando consonantes alias, 
vt, al, el, il, ol, ul. . . . E Gallis 
tarn irequens quam a Italis et Nar- 
bonensibus, sonum plenum obtinens, 
(id est quoties aut purum est, aut 
syllabam finit) a Gallis trifariam 
pronuntiatur, plene scilicet, qualiter 
Latini pronuntiant in verbo legere ; 
tuncque ipsum velut acuti accentua 
virgula signamus, ob id quod voce 
magis exerta profertur. vt amatus 
ame, bonitus bonte : et ita in ceteris 
ferine nominibus in as, et in partici- 


piis prceteriti temporis primae. Sed 
exconimunicm, sacrificiem et similia, 
quando scilicet i proecedit, fere Galli 
pronuntiant. Leinde exiliter, et 
voce propemodum muta ; quod turn, 
grauis accentus virgula notamus, 
quoniam vox in eo languescens 
velut intermoritur, vt arua airues, 
Petrus Pierre. Medio denique niodo, 
quod lincola a sinistra in dextram 
partem sequaliter & recte ducta 
ostendimus vt aniate aimes. Adde 
quod syllabam el, nonnunquam voce 
Latinorum proferimus, vt crudelis 
cruel, quo niodo Gabriel, aliquando 
autem ore magis hianti : vt ilia elle. 
E etiam ante r, s, t, x, & quasdam 
alias consonantes, in omnibus apud 
Latinos vocem non habet eaudem. 
Natiuum enim sonum in pater, es a 
sum, et textus pronuntiatione quo- 
rundam retinet. In erro autem, 
gentes, docet, ex, nimis exertum, et, 
vt sic dicam, dilutum. Sic apud 
Gallos sono genuino profertur in 
per, a par paris ; es a, sum ; et, con- 
iunctione : in qua t omnino suppri- 
mimt Galli contra rationem. Alieno 
autem et lingua in palatum magis re- 
ducta, diducti'sque dentibus in erra- 
cer pro eracer, id est, eradicare : es, 
id est assis ; escrire [s means s mute], 
id est scribere ettone, id est attonitus ; 
a pedo pet : eppellet, id est appel- 
lare, extraire : id est extrahere." — 
S. p. 2. The passage is very difficult 
to understand. His e seems to be 
(ee), his e (v), his e (e), and his ex- 
ceptional e to be (e). E= (e, e ?) M. 
119, note, =(e, e, •c?)Pell. R.. 119,n. 
" Tertius hums vocalis sonus Graecis 
et Latinis ignotus, is ipse est qui ab 
Hebrseis puncto quod Seva raptum 
vocant, Galli vero e foemineum 
propter imbecillam et vix sonoram 
vocem, appellant." B. p. 13. — "e 
Feminine hath no accent, and is 
sometimes in the beginning or midst 
of a word, as mesurer, mener, tacite- 
ment, but moste commonly at the ende 
of wordes, as belle file, bonne Dame, 
hauing but halfe the sound of the 4 
masculine, and is pronounced as the 
second syllable of tbese latine wordes 
facere, legere, or as the second sillable 
of namely, in English, and like these 
english wordes Madame, table, sailing 
that in the first, the english maketh 
but too sillables, and we make three, 
as if it were written Ma-da-me and 
in table the english pronounceth it 

as if the e were betweene the b and 
the I thus, tabel, and the French doe 
sound it thus, ta-ble ; you must take 
heede not to lift vp your voice at 
the last e but rather depresse it. e 
Feminine in these wordes, Ie lisoye, 
Tescripaoye, and such like, is not 
sounded, and serveth there for no 
other vse then to make the word 
long : doe not sound e in this word 
dea, as, ouy dea Monsieur, say ouy 
da : sound this word Iehan as if it 
were written Ian," E. And, similarly : 
"We do not call, 4, masculine for 
the respect of any gender, but be- 
cause that it is sounded liuely: as 
dote, lapide, me, te in Latine : . . . 
and by adding another, e, it shall be 
called e, feminine, because that it 
hath but halfe the sound of the other, 
4 : as tansee, fouettee, &c. where the 
first is sharpe, but the other goeth 
slowly, and as it were deadly .... 
VVheresoeuer you find this, e, at the 
words end, it is an, e, feminine .... 
pronounce it as the second syllable 
of bodely in English, or the second 
of facere in Latin," H. p. 156. The 
transition in case of the present e 
muet seems to have been (e, v, s) in 
French, and in German to have 
stopped generally at (b), though (e) 
is still occasionally heard, 195, n. 2. 

EAU=(eao)M. 137. EAU=(-eo?)Vel. 
who notes the Parisian error vn sio 
d'io for un seau d'eau, p. 17, shewing 
only a variety in the initial letter. 
EA U= (bo), as cHapeAU, mankAU.R. 
p. 37. — " In hac triphthongo auditur 
e clausum cum diphthongo ait, quasi 
scribas eo, vt eau aqua (quam vocem 
maiores nostri scribebant et profere- 
bant addito e fceminino eaue)," B. p. 
52. " Pronounce these wordes beau, 
veatt, almoste as if there were no e," E. 

_E7"=(ei, eei) P. 118, " ei quoque [see 
Sylvius remarks on af\, seu ej, non t 
tantum cum Gnecis, neque nunc i, 
nunc e cum Latinis, hanc in hei in- 
teriectione servantibus, in voce autem 
Graca in i, aliquando in e permutan- 
tibus et pronuntiantibus ; nee ei di- 
uisas vocales efferimus, sed ei mo- 
nosyllabum, voce scilicet ipsa ex 
vtraque in unam concreta, ut inge- 
nium engein, non engen, nee engin." 
S. p. 8. This ought to mean " not 
(i), nor (e), nor (e,i), but (ei)," yet 
the description cannot be trusted, 
see AI. AVe find : peine, peintres, 
ceinture, s'emErueilLat, &c M. — 


MeigrEt, meilheura;, peine, pareilhe, 
Pel. — pEine, feindre, pEindrc, rainr, 
SEinf, ElEine = Helene, R. — " Ha3C 
diphthongus [ei] non profertur nisi 
mox sequente n, et ita pronuntiatur 
ut paululum prorsus ab i simplici 
differat, vt gueine vagina \_=gaine], 
plein plenus ; cujus tamen foemini- 
num plene, usus obtinuit nt absque 
t scribatur et efFeratur, Picardis ex- 
ceptis, qui ut sunt vetustatis tenaces, 
scribunt et integro sono pronuntiant 
pleine," B. p. 45. — " Pronounce tbese 
wordes neige, seigne, or any words 
"wbere e hath i or y, after it like e 
masculine, as though there were no 
i at al." E. 
EU= (eu, ey ?) Bare. 806, L. %\5,EU= 
(eu,y)P.137. — "Eusonumhabetvari- 
um, aliquando eundem cum Latinis, 
hoc est plenum, ut cos cotis c u efit, 
securus seur, maturus meur, qualis 
in euge, Tydeus [this should be (eu)]. 
aliquando exilem et proprius acce- 
dentem ad sonum diphthongi Gasecse 
eu, ut ceur [in Sylvius the sign is eu 
with a circumflex over both letters, 
and a bar at the top of the circum- 
flex, thus indicated for convenience], 
soror seur, morior g-e meur : nisi 
quod u in his, non velut f sonat 
(quomodo in av et eu) sed magis in 
sonum u vocalis inclinat (can this 
mean (ey) ?] : id scribendo ad ple- 
num exprimi non potest, pronunti- 
ando potest. Sed in his forte et in 
quibusdam aliis, baec vocis eu varie- 
tas propter dictionum differentiam 
inuenta et recepta est. Illam eu, 
hanc eu lineola in longum superne 
producta, sonum diphthongi minus 
compactum et magis dilutum signifi- 
cante notamus." S. p. 9. The dif- 
ficulty of distinguishing "round" 
vowels, that is those for which the 
lips are rounded, from diphthongs, 
especially in the case of (y, 9), — see 
Hart, supra p. 167, p. 796, n. col. 1, 
and B.'s remark below, makes all 
such descriptions extremely doubtful. 
S. may have meant (y, 9) or (y, oe) 
by these descriptions, and these are 
the modern sounds. EU=(ej) M. 
137, see note on that page for G. des 
autels, Pel. B. — " La sixiesme voyelle 
cest vng son que nous escripuons 
par deux voyclles e et u, comme en 
ces mots, Peur, Meur, Seur, qui 
semble aussi auoir este quelque diph- 
thongue, que uos ancestres ayent 
prononcee et escripte, et puis apres, 

comme nous auons diet de Au 
que ceste diphthongue ayt este 
reduicte en vne simple voyelle : ou 
bien que Ion aye pris a peu pres ce 
que Ion pouuoit." B..p. 9. — "Inhac 
diphthongo neutra vocalis distincte 
sed sonus quidem [quidam ?] ex e et 
u temperatus auditur, quem et Grsecis 
et Latinis ignotum vix liceat ulla de- 
scriptio peregrinis exprimere." B. 
p. 46. — "e In these words, du feu 
which signifieth fire, vn peu a little, 
demeurer to dwell or tarye, vn leu a 
Playe or game, tu veulx thou wilt, 
are not pronounced like these : Ie 
feu I was, 1' ay peu I haue bene able, 
I'eu I had, Ie les ay veus I haue 
seene them : for these last and such 
like, ought to be pronounced in this 
wise Ie fu, T ay pu, Iu, vus, as 
though there were no e at all, but u, 
and in the former wordes, e is pro- 
nounced and ioyned with u." E. As 
eu is frequently interchangeable with 
or derived from o, ou, the probability 
is that the transition was (u, eu, ce, 
a) both the sounds (oe 9) being now 
prevalent, but not well distinguished, 
see 162, note 3, and 173, note 1. 
It will be seen by referring to this 
last place that I had great difficulty 
in determining what sounds M. 
Feline intended by "Ve sourd" and 
eu in modern French. I there de- 
cided that the former was (?) and 
the latter (ce). M. Feline has been 
dead several years, but Prince Louis 
Lucien Bonaparte, who conversed 
with him on the subject, says that I 
have just reversed the values of 
Feline's letters, and that Feline's 
e e are my (ce, 9) respectively. 
Hence wherever I have hitherto cited 
Feline's pronunciations this correc- 
tion must be made, and especially 
on 327, the signs (9, ce) must be in- 
terchanged throughout, as (kce Ice 
siel kelkce zhur) for (ke h siel kelk? 
zhur). It will be seen in the same 
place, supra 173, note 1, that M. 
Tarver made no distinction between 
the two sounds. M. 'Edouard Paris, 
in the introduction to his translation 
of St. Matthew into the Picard 
dialect of Amiens, brought out by 
the Prince, makes e " sourd" in 1^, 
pe«, de, \eu, meaning, as the Prince 
informed me (b, p>, &>, zh>), and 
eu "ouvert" in veirf p«wple, mean- 
ing, on the same authority, (vcef, 
pceplh). On turning to M. Feline's 


Dictionary I find, as interpreted by 
the Prince, (Ice, ps, dee, zhs; reef, 
pcepl), so that in the two words le, 
de, Feline differs from 'E. Paris, 
and the latter agrees with me in the 
sound I have assigned to these 
words. According to the Prince, half 
France says (b, d<>), and the other 
half (Ice, dee). In Germany also the 
sounds (9, oe) are confused, and have 
no difference of meaning. In Ice- 
landic they are kept distinct by the 
different orthographies u = {a), 6 = 
(03), 546, 548. Compare also the 
mutation or umlaut, (p . . i=»h, 
e, 1), 557. 

J=(i, ii) L. 815, P. G. 100, 110, occa- 
sionally (ii ?) P. 109, 817, n. 1= (i) S. 
M. Pel. B. B. — " Our i is sounded as t, 
in these english words, it, is, or as 
the english double, ee as si vous auez 
tire, sound as if it were written see 
voos aue teere." E. 

= (o) P. 93. "A, i, 0, Latinorum 
pronuntiationem, quod sciam, apud 
Gallos non mutant." S. p. 2. The 
traditional pronunciation of Latin 
in Italy is (o) ; and (0), as distin- 
guished from (0) which must be at- 
tributed to an, seems to be the 
sound accepted for French 0, by 
the other authorities. See also 
B. 131, note col. 2. — " Is sounded 
as in English, and in the same 
vse, as pot, sot, opprobre, sailing 
that in these wordes following, is 
sounded like the english double 00, 
as moi, fol, sol, col, which must be 
pronounced, leauing I, thus : foo, 
moo, soo, coo, except this word Sol, 
as vn escu Sol, a Crowne of the Sun : 
where euery letter is pronounced." E. 

OEU. " [scribimus] oeuvre, voeu, oeuf 
... in quibus tamen omnibus peni- 
tus quiescit. Pronuwtiamus enim 
euure, euf, beuf." B. p. 54. 

0J=(oi, ee?) Bare. 806, 01= (oi, oe, 
oa ? P. 130. "01, non i, cum 
Gratis, nee ce cum Latinis, scd vi 
vtriusque vocalis seruata, ut mona- 
chus moine : datiuo /xoi, id est mihi 
moi. Eodem sono oy pronu«tiamus 
ut genitivo fiov. id est mei moy." S. 
p. 8. This ought to mean oi = {oi), 
and the last remark may refer only 
to the use of moi in French for both 
fxm, fxov in Greek. Again he says: 
"Quid quod hsec diphtnc-Mgus pro e 
supposita Parrhisie»sibus adeo pla- 
cuit, vt ipsarum quoque mutaru»» 
voces in c desinentcs, per oi Parrhisi- 

enses corrupts pronuntient, boi, c s oi, 
dot, g-oi, pot, toi, pro be, ce, de, ge, 
te; Quo minus minim est Gallos 
pronomina moi toi soi pronuntiare. 
Desinant igitur Picardis, puritatew 
lingua? et antiquitatem integrius 
seruantibus illudere Galli, qu6d di- 
cant mi, ti, si raro ; ct me, te, se a. 
mihi vel mi, tibi, sibi, vel ti, si, 
analogia prima? persona?, Quan- 
quam moi. toi, soi, tolerabiliora sint, 
et forte Graecanica, vt in pronomi- 
ne ostendimus. Neque posthac in. 
Normannos cauillcntur, omnia haec 
praedicta et consimilia non per oi, 
sed per e pronuntiantes, tele, estelle 
[sused for S.'s mark of mute s], see, 
ser, de, tect, vele, vere, re, le, amee, 
&c, aimere'e, &c [modern, toile, 
etoile, soie, soir, dois, toit, voile, 
voire, roi, loi, arnaye ? amabam, 
aimeraye ? amarem] Quam pronun- 
tiationem velut postliminio reuersam 
hodie audimus in sermone accolarum 
huius vrbis et incolaru/w, atque adeo 
Parrhisiensium. vt verum sit Hora- 
tianum illud, Multa renascentur, 
qua? iam cecidere. Esse quid hoc 
dicam ? pro stella estoille dicunt 
adhuc nonnulli. pro stellatus autem 
si qui estoille', non cstelle, pro ad- 
ueratus (sic enim pro asserta re et 
affirmata loquuwtur) au-oire, non 
au-ere [u- =(v)]: endoibte ab in- 
debitatus, id est a3re alieno oppressus, 
non endebte : soiete non seete, dimi- 
mitiuuw a sericu;^. pronuntiet, om- 
nes risu emori et barbarum explo- 
dere." S. p. 21. Viewed in relation 
to modern habits, some of these uses 
are very curious. 01= (oi, oe, oe ?) M. 
130. OJ=(oi,oE, e), Pell. As in the 
following words : sauroES, FranooES, 
connoEssances, j'avoE, renoEt, auoEt 
= avaient, prononcoEt, croE, toE, 
aparoEtiv, moE, tErroEr, voyEle, foEs, 
— " Et CErtein par les Ecriz des 
Vieus Rimeurs FrancoES, qu'iz disoEt 
iz aloytt iz f e s o y e t de 
troES silaWs" Pel. p. 127. — "Au- 
jourdhui les uns dis<t eimer, les 
autivs erne r, les uns j ' e m e e 
les autrcs niEtft i ou y an la penul- 
time e diset j ' e m o e y e, j ' e y e 
e les autres. Les uns diset Peine 
les autrfs Eoinf, Meiiks a la 
plus part des Courtisans vous orrEZ 
dire iz allEt, iz venEt: pour 
iz aloEt, iz venoEt." Pel. p. 
85. — OI = (oi) moindre, poindre, 
point, coin, soin, voyant, oyant, lar- 



moyant, fouldroyant, and = (oe), 
oEiEs, voEla, &c E. 01— (oi, oe) 
and (oa) faultily, B. 130 note. — 
" Whereas our Countrymen were 
wont to pronounce these wordes, con- 
noistre to knowe, apparoistra it shall 
appeere, II parle bon Frangois he 
speaketh good French, File est An- 
gloise she is an English-woman, as 
it is written by oi or oy : Now since 
fewe yeeres they pronounce it as if 
it were written thus, coonetre, ap- 
paretra, fraunses, Aungleze." E. 
0Z7"=(ou?)L. 815. OU = {\x) P. 149, 
" ov seu ou cum neutris [Grrecis et 
Latinis] pronuntiamus : siquidew 
nee per u Graecorum more, sed con- 
tra u in ov seu ou persepe mutamus : 
Hac autem diphthongo caret sermo 
Latinus." S. p. 8. 9. As there is 
no reasonable doubt that old trench 
ou= (uu), this passage is quite unin- 
telligible, unless, by saying that the 
Greeks called it u, he meant to imply 
that they called it (yy). No other 
passage in S. elucidates this. OU 
is called " o clos," =(»h?) M. 149, 

but see 131, note, col. 2 ; Pell. & E. 
evidently take OU=(u). — "In hac 
diphthongo neque o sonorum, neque 
u exile, sed mixtus ex vtroque sonus 
auditur, quo Graeci quidem veteres 
suuni v, Eomani vero suum v vocale 
vt et nunc Germani, efferebant." B. 
p. 49. — E. writes the sound oo in 
English letters. 

E"=(y) L. 815, P. 163,"ordine postre- 
mum, ore in angushuw clauso, et 
labiis paululum exporrectis" S.p. 2, 
probably M. 164 ; and similarly 
Pell., P. — " Ilaec litera, quum est 
vocalis, est Graecorum ypsilon, quod 
ipsa quoque figura testatur, effert- 
urque veluti sibilo constrictis labris 
efflato," B. p. 17.— E. 227, note 1 ; 
H. 228, note. 

UI, is not alluded to by any other 
authority except P., probably be- 
cause it occasioned no difficulty, each 
element having its regular sound (yi) 
as at present. But P. is peculiar, 
110, 818. E. writes the sound wee in 
English letters. 

The Nasal Consonants and their effect on the Vowels. 

M, "in the frenche tong hath thre 
dyuers soundes, the soundyng of 
m, that is most generall, is suche as 
he hath in the latyn tong or in our 
tong. If m folowe any of these thre 
vowelles a, e, or o, all in one syllable, 
he shalbe sounded somthyng in the 
nose, as I haue before declared, where 
I have shewed the soundyng of the 
sayd thre vowels [143, 150. and also : 
" if m or n folowe nexte after e, all in 
one syllable, than e shall be sounded 
lyke an Italian a, and some thynge 
in the noose."] If m, folowyng a 
vowell, come before b, p, or sp, he 
shalbe sounded in the nose and al- 
most lyke an n, as in these wordes 
plomb, colomb, champ, dompter, 
circumspection, and suchlike. " P. 
folio 3, see also supra 817. — 
" M, est ferme au commencement de 
la syllabe : en fin elle est liquide, 
comme Marie, Martyr, Norn, Bam, 
Arrierebam : qui a este cause a nos 
Grawmairiens denseigner que m de- 
uant p, estait presques supprimee, 
comme en Camp, Champ. N est vo- 
lontiers ferme au commencement du 
mot, et en la fin : comme Nanin, 
non, mais au milieu elle est quelque- 
fois liquide, comme en Compaiynon, 

Fspaiynol," E. p. 24. Here the 
"liquid" n appears to be (nj), and 
n final is " firm " as well as n initial, 
but a difference between m final and 
in initial is found, the latter only 
being "firm" and the former 
"liquid," and this liquidity, which 
is otherwise incomprehensible, would 
seem to imply the modern nasality 
of the previous vowel, were not final 
n, the modern pronunciation of which 
is identical, reckoned "firm." The 
two passages are therefore mutually 
destructive of each other's meaning. 
In bis phonetic writing E. makes no 
distinction between firm and liquid 
m, but writes liquid n (nj) by an « 
with a tail below like that of 9. 
iV r =(n) only, Bar. 810. 2V" in the frenche 
tong, hath two dyuers soundes. The 
soundyng of n, thau is moost generall, 
is suche as is in latyne or in our 
tonge. If n folowe any of these thre 
vawelles a, e, or o, all in one syllable, 
he shalbe sounded somthyng in the 
nose, as I have before declared, where 
I have spoken of the sayd thre 
vowelles. That n leseth never his 
sounde, nother in the first nor meane 
syllables, nor in the last syllables, I 
have afore declared in the generall 



rules. But it is nat to be forgoten, 
that n, in the last syllable of the 
thirde parsons plurelles of verbes 
endyng in en t,\s ever lefte vnsouwded." 
P. fol. 13. — In the phrase en allant, M. 
heard em nallant, with the same n 
at the end of the first word as at the 
beginning of the second, 189. — 
" Francice sic recte scripseris Pierre 
Jen est alle, quod tamen sic efferen- 
dum est, Pierre s'en nest alle. Sic 
on m'en a parte ac si scriptum esset, 
on m'en na parle, illo videlicet pri 
oris dictionis n daghessato, et cum 
vocali sequentem vocem incipiente 
coniuncta, pro eo quod ParisieMsium 
vulgus pronuntiat : il se nest alle, 
on me na parle, per e fcemineum vt 
in pronominibus se et me. Sed hoc 
in primis curandum est peregrinis 
omnibus quod antea in literam m 
monui [ita videlicet vt non modd 
labia non occludantur, sed etiam 
linguae mucro dentium radicem non 
feriat p. 30], nempe hanc literam 
quoties syllabam finit, quasi dimi- 
diato sono pronuntiandam esse, mu- 
crone videlicet lingua? minime illiso 
superiorum dentium radici, alioqui 
futura molestissima pronuntiatione : 
quo vitio inter Francos laborant 
etiamnum hodie Nortmanni. Grsecos 
autem baud aliter hanc literam ante 
k, 7, %> pronuntiare consueuisse an- 
notat ex Nigidio Figulo Agellius." 
B. p. 32. This description seems to 
indicate the modern pronunciation 
nearly. E. and H. have no remarks 
on M, N. 
AM, AX={a.nja, aun) P. 143, 190, 
hut this nasalisation is rendered 
doubtful by his treatment of final e 
as (o,) 181, note 5, and 817.— For 
S. see under E, supra, p. 822, col. 1. 
" VrEi Et qu'an Normandie, e ancores 

an Bretagne an Anjou e an 

Meine . . . iz prononcet Ya dauant 
n un peu bien grossemant, e quasi 
comme s'il i auoEt mm par diftongue 
[which according to his value of an 
should = (oon), but he probably 
meant (aun)] quand iz diset Nor- 
maund, N a u n t e s, Aungers, 
le Mauns: graund chere, e les 
autr<s. Mes tele maniere di? pro- 
noncer sant son tEiroE d'une lieue." 
Pell. p. 125. "Pronounce alwaies 
an or ans, as if it were written aun, 
auns," E. that is, in 1609, (aah, 
AAns). " Also in these words fol- 
lowing, o is not sounded, vn paon, 

vn faon, vn tahon ... all which 
must be pronounced leauing o thus : 
paun, faun, vn taun." E. 
AIN= (Ein), see under A J, for numer- 
ous examples. AI= (in), "Also in 
these wordes, ains, aingois, ainsi, or 
any other word where a is ioyned 
with in, a loseth his sound and is 
pronounced as english men doe pro- 
nounce their 7, as if it were ins, 
insee, insois. Also pain, vilain, hau- 
tain, remain, are to bee pronounced 
as the english i" E. — ^J=(in?) 
" "We sound, ain, as, in : so in steed 
of main, maintenant, demain, saint 
. . . say, min, mintenant, demin, sint: 
but when ,e, followeth ,n, the vowel 
,i, goeth more toward ,a ; as balaine 

a whale, sep'maine a weeke, 

and to make it more plaine, romain, 
certain, vilain, souverain, are pro- 
nounced as romin, certin, vilin : but 
adde ,e, to it, and the pronunciation 
is clean altered, so that, romaine, is 
as you sound, vaine, in English and 
such like, but more shorter." H. p. 
EM, EN= (em, en ?) except in -ent of 
the 3rd person plural = (-rt) ? Bar. 
810 ; EM, EN=(a,jn, a,n) when not 
before a vowel, P. 189, " Quid quod 
Parrhisiewses e pro a, et coxtra, prae- 
sertim m vel n sequente, etiam in 
Latinis dictionibus, Censorini exem- 
plo, et scribunt et pronu«tiant, mag- 
na ssepe infamia, dum amewtes pro 
amantes, et contra amantes pro 
amentes, aliaque id genus ratione con- 
fundunt." S. p. 11. It is not quite 
certain whether S. is referring to the 
Parisian pronunciation of Latin or 
French, as the example is only Latin, 
but probably, both are meant. Ob- 
serve his remarks under E, supra p. 
821, col. 2. EM, -EA~=(Em, En). 
M. 189. EM, EN = (am, an), _ Pell, 
who objects to the pronunciation 
(Em, En) of M., and says: "mon 
auis Et de dmoEr ecrire toutes teles 
diccions plus tot par a que par e. 
Car de dire qu'l i Et diferance en la 
prolacion des deus dErnier^s silab^s 
de amant et firmamant, c'Et a izxe a 
ceus qui regardtt de trop prES, ou 
qui veulet parler trop mignonnmiant : 
Samblablnnant antre les penultimes 
de consciance e alliance. E 
le peut on ancor' plus cErteinemant 
connoEtre, quand on prononce ces 
deus proposicions qui sont de msme 
ouye, mE> de diusrs eans, II ne 


m'an mant d e mot: e, line 
m'an mande mot. Combien 
que propremant a la rigueur ce ne 
soEt ni a ni e. E. conf'Esse que les 
silabes e'queles nous metons e auant 
12, me samblet autant malEsees a re- 
presanter par Ixtres Latines, que nules 
autr< s que nous eyons en notre Fran- 
90ES. Brief, Ye qu'on niEt vulguere- 
mant an science sonne autremant 
que Ye de scientia Latin: la ou 
propremant il se prononce comme an 
Fraii90ES celui de ancien, sien, bien." 
Pel. p. 25. " ToutefoEs pour con- 
fEsser verite, an toutes teles diccions, 
le son n'Et pleinemant e ni a (antre 
lequez i a diuErs sons, comme diuEr- 
ses mistions de deus couleurs selon le 
plus e le moins de chacune) toutefoES 
le son participe plus d'a que d'e. E 
par ce que bonnemant il i faudroEt 
une nouuEle lEtre, ce que je n'intro- 
dui pas bien hardimant, comme j'e 
ja dit quElques foES ; pour le moms 
an atandant, il me semble meilheur 
d'i mEtre un a. E sans doute, il i a 
plus grande distinccion an 1' Italien, 
e niEmes an notre Prouuanqal, an 
pronon9ant la voyEle e auant n. Car 
nous, e eus la prononc,ons cleremant. 
Comme au lieu que vous dites santir 
e mantir deuErs Ya, nous pro- 
noneons SEntir e niEntir 
deuErs 1' e: e si font quasi toutes 
autres nacions fors les Franc,OES." 
Pel. p. 125. — E.. writes phonetically : 
En, difErEnses, Envoier, Enfans, &c 
like M. — "Coalescens e in eandem 
syllabam cum m, vt temporel te/«po- 
ralis, rel n, siue sola et sonora vt 
i' 'en ten ego intelligo : siue adiuncto 
d vt entend intelligit ; vel vt content 
contentus; pronunciatur ut a. Itaque 
in his vocibus constant constans : 
and content contentus, An annus, 
and en in, diuersa est scriptura, pro- 
nunciatio vero recta, vel eadem, vel 
tenuissimi discriminis, et quod vix 
auribus percipi possit. Excipe 
quatuor has voculas, ancien trissylla- 
bum, antiquus; lien vinculum, and 
moijen medium, Jiem fimus, dissyl- 
laba ; and quotidien quotidianus, 
quatuor syllabamm : denique omnia 
ge^tilia nomina, vt Parisien, Parisi- 
e«sis, Saudisien Sabaudiensis ; in 
quibus e clausum scribitur et distincte 
auditur, t and e nequaquam in diph- 
thongum conuenientibus. . . . Alter 
huiusliterae sonusadulterinus est idem 
atque litera? i 'geminatco duplicis, in 

una»? tamen syllabam coalescentis, 
quanvis scribatur ie, litera n sequente 
atque dictionem finiente. Sic in his 
monosyllabis recte pronuntiatis ac- 
cidit, bien bonum, vel bene, chien 
cauus: Chrestien Christianum dissyl- 
labum, mien meus, rien nihil: sien 
suus ; tien tuus vel tene, cum com- 
positis ; vien venio, vel veni cum 
compositis : quae omnia vocabida sic 
a pure pronuntiantibus efferuntur 
ac si scriptum esset i duplici biien 
chiien &c." B. p. 15. — "When e 
feminine maketh one sillable with 
in or n, it is sounded almost like a, 
as enfantement, emmailloter, pro- 
nounce it almost as anfauntemant, 
ammallioter, except when i or y 
commeth before en as moyen, doyen, 
ancien, or in wordes of one siillable, 
as mien, tien, chien, rien, sien, which 
be all pronounced by e and not by a. 
Also, all the verbes of the third per- 
son plural that doe end in ent, as 
Hz disent, Hz rient, Hz faisoient, 
Hz ckantoyent, there e is sounded as 
hauing no n at all, but rather as if 
it were written thus : ee dizet, ee 
riet, ee faizoyet, ee shantoyet." E. 

EIX={nm, ain), see under AI for 
numerous examples, and the quota- 
tion from B. under EI. It seems 
impossible to suppose that in the 
xvi th century it had already reached 
its modern form (eA), into which 
modern in has also fallen. 

JA r =(in). No authority notices any 
difference in the vowel, as M., Pell, 
E. all write in in their phonetic 
spelling, and it is not one of the 
three vowels, a, e, 0, stated by P., 
under M, N, to be affected by the 
following m or n. See the quota- 
tions from E. and H. under AIN. 
E. gives the pronunciation of hono- 
rez les princes as onore le preences, 
which seems decisive. 

ON= (on ?) Bar. 810, (u,n) P. 149.— M. 
Pel. B. write simply on = (on). E. 
gives the pronunciation of nous en 
parlerons apres elles que dira on, as 
noou-zan -parleroon - zapre- zelles, kt 
deera toon. 

UN=(yn). "V vocalis apud Latinos 
non minus quam apud Gallos, sonum 
duplicem quibusdan exprimit se- 
quente n, in eadem Byllaba. Vt enini 
illorum quidam cunctus, percunctari, 
punctus, functus, hunc, et alia qu;«- 
da« natiuo u vocalis sono mane[u]te 
pronuntiant, ita iidem cum alua, 



pungo, fungor, tanquam per o scripta, 
pongo, fongor, proferu«t, adulterata 
u vocalis voce genuina. Id quod se- 
quente m, in eadem syllaba omnes 
Latini vtrique faciunt, scammuw, 
doniinu/M, musaruwi, et csetera pro- 
nuntiantes perinde ac si per o 
scriberentur : ita vt aliud now 
sonet o, in tondere, sontes, rhom- 
bus, quam u in tundere, sunto, 
tumba. Atqui o diductiore rictu 
pronuntiandu>« est quam u." S. 
p. 3. This seems to refer to the 
French pronunciation of Latin, 
rather than of French, and it agrees 
with the modern practice. S. pro- 

ceeds thus : "Ita Galli tuus vn 
communis commun, defunctus de- 
funct, et alia quasdam, sono vocalis 
seruato pronuntiant, [that is, as (yn) ]. 
Contra vndecim u°nc s e, uncia u°nce, 
tru«cus tru°nc, et pleraque alia, non 
aliter pronuwtiant quam si per o 
scribere«ter." S. p. 4. No other 
authority mentions or gives the 
slightest reason for supposing that 
either u or n differ in this combina- 
tion from the usual value. P. writes 
vn for his ung, and M. has un, vne, 
PelL has un, E. pronounces il est vn 
honnorable personnage as ee-le-tun- 
nonorable persoonndge. 

The conclusion 1 from these rather conflicting statements seems to 
be, that sometime before the xvi th century ain, en, ein, ien, in, un 
were pronounced (ain EEn, En, ein, ien, in, yn) without a trace 
of nasality ; that during the xvi th century a certain nasality, not 
the same as at present, pervaded an, on, changing them to (a,n, o,n), 
and perhaps (^n, o ( n), so that, as explained by P. 817, foreigners 
heard a kind of (u) sound developed, and English people confused 
the sounds with (au<n, u ( n). In the beginning of the xvnth 

1 This conclusion was the best I 
could draw from the authorities cited, 
but since the passage was written I 
have seen M. Paul Meyer's elaborate 
inquiry into the ancient sounds of an 
and en. (Phone'tiqiie Franchise : An 
et En toniques. Mem. de la Societe 
de Linguistique de Paris, vol. 1, pp. 
244-276). Having first drawn atten- 
tion to the occasional derivation of Fr. 
an, en from Latin in, he says : "Notons 
ici que le passage (Yin a. en et celui 
d' en a an sont deux phenomenes pho- 
netiques d'-ordre fort differents. Dans 
le premier cas 1' n est encore assez 
de"tachee de la voyelle et V i s'eteint 
en e, ce dont on a de nombreux ex- 
emples des le temps des Eomains. Le 
passage de Ye a Ya ne pourrait se justi- 
her de meme. Aussi est-il necessaire 
de supposer qu'au temps ou le son en 
s'est confondu avec le son an, Yn faisait 
deja corps avec la voyelle, Ce n'est 
pas e pur qui est devenu a pur, mais e 
nasalise qui est devena a nasalise." p. 
246. But this is theoretical. We 
have the fact that femme has become 
(fam) in speech, constantly so rhyming 
in French classics, and that solennel is 
(solanel) and a large class of words 
like tvidennncnt (evidamaA) change em 
into am without the least trace of a 
nasal vowel having interposed. Hence 
the proof that M. Meyer gives of the 

early date at which en an were con- 
founded in French, which is most com- 
plete, exhaustive and interesting, does 
not establish their pronunciation as 
the modern nasal vowels. M. Meyer 
gives as the result of his investi- 
gation : "En Normandie, et, selon 
toute probabilite, dans les pays romans 
situes sous la meme latitude, en etait 
encore distinct de an au moment de 
la conquete de l'Angleterre (1066), 
mais 1' assimilation etait complete 
environ un siecle plus tard." p. 
252. He adds : " en anglo-normand 
en et an sont toujours restes distincts, 
et ils le sont encore aujourd'hui dans 
les mots romans, qui ont passes dans 
1' anglais," and says we must acknow- 
ledge "qu'en ce point conime en plu- 
sieurs autres, le normand transporte en 
Anglcterre a suivi une direction a lui, 
une voie independante de celle ou 
s'engageait le normand indigene." 
After M. Meyer's acute and laborious 
proof of the confusion of en, an in 
France, and their distinction in Eng- 
land, we need not be astonished if at, 
ei in England also retained the sound 
(ai) long after it had generally sunk to 
(ee) in France. These are only addi- 
tional instances of the persistence of 
old pronunciations among an emigrat- 
ing or expatriated people. 


century these sounds, or else (ajl, u<n) were adopted by the French- 
man E., in explaining sounds to Englishmen. As to en, it became 
(an) or perhaps (a ( n), even in xvrth century probably not before, but 
it must have differed from an, because Englishmen did not confuse it 
with (aun), many Frenchmen wrote (En), and P. 817, does not allow 
it to be nasal. The complete fusion of an, en, into one nasal probably 
took place in xvn th centuiy, except in the connection ten, where 
en either remained (En) or was confused with in. The combina- 
tions ain, in, seem to have been quite confused, and we have no 
reason to suppose that they were pronounced differently from (in). 
Whether ein followed their example it is difficult to say. Probably 
it did, as it is now identical in sound. But mi remained purely (yn). 
"We had then at the close of the xvith century an, on, in, un=(a l n, 
o t n, in, yn). Now in the xvnth or xvmth century a great change 
took place in French ; the final e became absolutely mute. Simul- 
taneously with this change must have occurred the disuse of the 
final consonants, so that words like regard regarde, which had been 
distinguished as (regard regards), were still distinguished as (regar 
regard), now (rcgar, regard). It then became necessary to dis- 
tinguish tin, une, which would have become confused. About this 
time, therefore, I am inclined to place the degradation of (in, yn) 
into (e £ n, t n). We should then have the four forms (tf t n, o,n, e,n, 
( n), which by the rejection of n after a nasalized vowel, a pheno- 
menon with which we are familiar in Bavarian Grerman, would 
become (a t o t e ( 9 t ). The change thence to (oa, o\, ca, sa) or 
(aA, oa, eA, oa) the modem forms is very slight. The subject is a 
very difficult one, but there seems to be every reason to suppose 
that there was scarcely a shade of nasality in Chaucer's time, except 
perhaps in an, on, which generated his (aun, uun), and that the 
complete change had not taken place till the end of the xvn th 
or beginning of the xvrxr th century. One important philological 
conclusion would result from this, namely that the modem French 
nasalisation offers no ground for the hypothesis of a Latin nasalisa- 
tion. If this last existed, it must be otherwise traced. The history 
of Portuguese nasalisation now becomes interesting, but I am as 
yet unable to contribute anything towards it. The fact hoAvever 
that only two romance languages nasalise, while the Indian lan- 
guages have a distinct system of nasalisation, and nasality is ac- 
complished in Southern Germany, and is incipient, without loss of 
the n, in parts of the United States, is against the inference for 
Latin nasalisation from the existent nasalisation of French and 

Other Consonants. 

L mouille. The nature of the sound hrmrng an o, commynge next before 

cannot be inferred from Bar. 810, hym, they vse to sounde an i shortly 

though it seems to be acknowledged. and confusely, betwene the last I 

— "Whan soeuer the.iiii. letters ilia, and the vowel folowyng : albe it that 

ille, or illo come to gither in a nowne in writtyng they expresse none snche, 

substantiue or in a verbe, the i nat as these wordes, ribaudailk, faille, 


bailler, gailldrt, ueilldrt, billdrt, 
fueille, fille, chenille, quocquille, ar- 
dillnti, bastillon, covillon, and suche 
like, in redynge or spekynge they 
sounde thus : ribaudaillie, faillie, 
bail tier, gailliart, ueilliart, billiart, 
fueillie, Jillie, cheuillie, quocquillie, 
ardillion bastillion, covillion : but, 
as I haue sayd, if the i have an o 
cowmyng next before hym, in all 
suche wordes they sounde none i after 
the letter 1, so that these nownes 
substantyues mot/lie, noille, toille, 
and suche lyke be except from this 
rule. . . Except also from this rule 
utile whiche soundeth none i after 
his latter 1." P. i, 7. — " There is two 
maner of wordes harde for to be 
pronounced in french. The fyrst is 
written with a double 11 whiche must 
be souned togider, as lla, lie, lly, llo, 
llu, as in these wordes, bailla gave, 
tail/a cutte, ceidle gader, feulle lefe, 
bally bayly, fatty fayle, moullet 
white, engenoullet knele, mallot a 
tymer hamer, feullu full of leaves, 
houllu." G. — M. and R. have new 
characters for this sound ; Pell, 
adopts the Portuguese form Ch. E. 
talks of 11 which "must be sounded 
liquid" in some words and "with 
the ende of the tongue" in others. 
But H. explains well; "when two, 
11, follow, ai, ei, oi, or ui, they be 
pronounced with the flat of the 
tongue, touching smoothly the roofe 
of the mouth : yong boyes here in 
England do expresse it verie well 
when they pronounce luceo or salnto : 
and Englishmen in sounding Collier, 
and Scollion ; likewise the Italian 
pronouncing voglio, duoglio: for they 
do not sound them with the end, but 
with the flat of the tongue, as tailler 
to cut, treillis a grate, quenouille a 
distaffe, bouillir to seethe ; where 
you must note that, i, [which he 
prints with a cross under it to shew 
that it is mute,] serueth for nothing 
in words of aill and ouill, but to 
cause the two, 11, to be pronounced 
as liquides. " H. p. 174. The 
transition from (li) through (1j) to 
(lj) was therefore complete in H.'s 
time. The sound has now fallen 
generally to (i, j, jh) . 
JV mouille, or GN. Bar. 809 and note, 
is indistinct. — " Also whan so ever 
these .iii. letters gna,gne,or gno come 
to gyther, eyther in a nowne sub- 
stantia or in a verbe, the reder shall 

sounde an i shortly and confusely, 
betwene the n and the vowel folow- 
ynge, as for : gaignd, seigneur, 
mignon, champignon, uergoigne, 
maintiengne, charoigtie, he shall 
sounde, gaignia, seignieur, mignion, 
champinion, uergoignie, charoignie, 
maintiengnie, nat chaungynge there- 
fore the accent, no more than though 
the sayd i were vnsounded. But 
from this rule be excepted these two 
substantyves sfgne and regne, with 
their verbes signer and regner, which 
with all that be formed of them 
the reader shall sounde as they be 
wrytten onely." P. — "The second 
maner harde to pronounce ben 
written with gn, before a uowell, as 
gna, gne, gni, gno, gnu. As in these 
wordes gagna wan, saigna dyd blede, 
ligne lyne, pigne combe, uigne vyne, 
tigne scabbe, compagne felowe, laigne 
swell, mignon wanton, mignarde 
wanton, ye shal except many wordes 
that be so written and nat so pro- 
nounced, endyng specially in e, as 
digne worthy, eigne swanne, magna- 
nime hyghe corage, etc. They that 
can pronounce these wordes in latyn 
after the Italians maner, as {agnus, 
digitus, magnus, magnanimus,) have 
bothe the understandyng and the 
pronouncynge of the sayde rule and 
of the wordes." G. — M. &R. havedis- 
tinct signs for this sound; see E. 826 
under N. Pell retains gn. — ""When 
you meete gn, melt the g with the n, 
as ognon mignon, pronounce it thus, 
onion, minion." E. — " "We pro- 
nounce gn, almost as Englishmen do 
sound, minion; so melting, g, and 
touching the roofe of the mouth with 
the flat of the tongue, we say mignon, 
compagnon : say then compa gne, and 
not compag-ne. "When the Italian 
saith guadugno, bisogno, he express- 
eth our gn, verie well." H. p. 198. 
It is not possible to say whether the 
original sound was (ni, iu) or (qi, 
qj), but from H. it is clear that at 
the beginning of the xvii th century 
it was (nj), as now. 
Final consonants were usually pro- 
nounced, L. 815, and all authorities 
write them, although we find in P. i, 
27, " Whan so euer a frenche worde 
hath but one consonant onely after 
his last vowel, the consonant shalbe 
but remissely sou«ded, as attic, soyf, 
fil, beavcoup, mot, shalbe souxded in 
maner aue, soy, Ji, beavcou, mo. how 


be it the consonant shall haue some " Contra vero in vernaculis Gallicis 
lyttell sounde : but if t or p folowe scribitur simul et pronunciatur aspi- 
a or e, they shall haue theyr distinct ratio, ut in illis quae a Latinis non 
60unde, as chat, debdt, ducat, combat, aspiratis deducuntur," and, as to the 
handp, deer et, regret, entr emit ; and quality of the sound, he says : " aspi- 
so of all suche other." These ex- rationem Franci quantum fieri po- 
amples cross the modern practice of test emolliunt, sic tamen vt omnino 
omission and sounding in several audiatur, at non aspere ex imo gut- 
places, ture efiiata, quod est magnopere 
H is a very doubtful letter, B. 805 Germanis et Italis prsesertim Tuscis 
and note 3. The question is not obseruandum." B. 25. This seems 
whether in certain French words H to point to the modern hiatus, 
was aspirated, but whether the mean- S was constantly used as an ortho- 
ing attached to "aspiration'' in old graphical sign to make e into e, to 
French was the same as that in lengthen a and so on. Hence many 
modern French or in English. P. rules and lists of words are given for 
gives a list of 100 " aspirated" words. its retention or omission, which may 
B. 67 says: " Aspirationis nota in be superseded by the knowledge of 
vocibus Graacis et Latinis aspiratis, et the modern orthography, with the 
in Francicam linguam traductis, scri- usages of which they seem precisely 
bitur quidem sed quiescit," except to agree. 
hache, hareng, Sector, Henri, harpe. 

The other consonants present no difficulty. "We may safely 
assume £=(Ja), C (k, s), Ch (sh), D (d), F(f), G (g, zh), «7"(zh), 
supra p. 207, JT(k), L (1), P (p), Qu (k), R (r), S (s), T (t), 
F(v), X(s,z), Z(z). _ _ 

The rules for the omission of consonants when not final, seem to 
agree entirely with modem usage, and hence need not he collected. 

Sufficient examples of French phonetic spelling according to M., 
Pell., and R. have been given in the above extracts. But it is 
interesting to see the perfectly different systems of accentuation 
pursued by P. and M., and for this purpose a few lines of each may 
be transcribed. 

Prom P. i, 63. " Example how the same boke [the Romant of 
the Pose] is nowe tourned into the newe Prenche tong. 

Maintes gentes dient que en songes Maintoiandiet, kansovngos 

Ne sont que fables et mensonges Nesovnkofables e mansongos 

Mais on peidt telz songes songier Maysovnpevttezsdvngosovngier 

Que ne sont mye mensongier Kenesovnmyomansovngier 

Ayns sont apres bien apparant, §c. Aynsovntaprebienapparavnt, &c. 

In M. the accent is illustrated by musical notes ; each accented 
syllable corresponds to P of the bass, and each unaccented syllable 
to the G below, so that accentuation is held to be equivalent to 
ascending a whole tone. So far P. agrees with M., for he says 
(book 1, ch. 56) "Accent in the frenche tonge is a lyftinge vp of 
the voyce, vpon some wordes or syllables in a sentence, aboue the 
resydue of the other wordes or syllables in the same sentence, so 
that what soeuer worde or syllable as they come toguyder in any 
sentence, be sowned higher than the other wordes or syllables in the 
same sentence vpon them, is the accent." The following are some of 
M.'s examples, the accented syllable being pointed out by an acute : 
"c/Et mon maleur, c/Et mon frere, c/Et mon am' e mon espoEr, 
c/Et ma gran'mere, c/Et mon bon compaNon, or Et fl bon amy, je 


voes a toE, e toE a moE, il n'Et pas fort bon, c'iit vn bien bon baton, 
mon compasron, a vizfon, mon confrere, vit sajemEnt." 

P. constantly admits the accent on tbe last syllable, M. says it is 
a Norman peculiarity, which is very disagreeable, and proceeds 
thus : "II faot premieremEnt EntEndre qe jamEs l'accEnt eleue, ne 
se rEncontr' En la dErniere syllabe cLes dissyllabiqes, ne polisylla- 
biqes. e qe le ton declinant ou circonflExe, ne se treuue point q'En 
la penultime syllabe, si e11' Et long' e la dErniere brieue, pouruu q' 
Elle ne soEt point tannine' En e brief : car allors il y peut auenir 
diuErsite de ton, selon la diuErs' assiete du vocable. . . . car il faot 
EntEndre qe 1e' monosyllabes En notre lange, font varier 1e' tons d' 
aocuns vocables dissyllabiqes, ny n'ont eu' mEmes aocun ton stable." 
fo. 133 a. 

Palsgrave says: "Generally all the wordes of many sillables in 
the frenche tong, haue theyr accent eyther on theyr last sillable, 
that is to say, sounde the laste vowell or diphthong that they be 
■written with, hygher than the other vowels or diphthongues com- 
myng before them in the same worde. Orels they haue theyr accent 
on the last sillable save one, that is to say, sounde that vowel or 
diphthong, that is the last saue one hygher thaw any other in the 
same worde commyng before hym : and whan the redar hath 
lyftvp his voyce at the souwdyng of the said vowel or diphthong, 
he shal whan he commeth to the last sillable, depresse his voyce 
agayne [compare supra p. 181, note, col. 2], so that there is no 
worde through, out all the frenche tonge, that hath his accent eyther, 
on the thyrde sillable, or on the forth syllable from the last, like as 
diuerse wordes haue in other tonges : but as I haue sayd, eyther on 
the very last sillable, orels on the next sillable onely. And note 
that there is no worde in the frewche tong, but he hath his place 
of accent certaine, and hath it nat nowe vpon one sillable, nowe vpon 
another. Except diuersite in signification causeth it, where the 
worde in writtyng is alone." Book I. chap, lviii. 

B. is very peculiar ; he begins by saying : " Sunt qui contendant 
in Prancica lingua nullum esse accentibus locum," which shews, in 
connection with the diversity of opinion between P. and M., that 
the modern practice must have begun to prevail. Then he proceeds 
thus : " Sunt contra qui in Prancica lingua tonos perinde vt in 
Graeca lingua constituant. Magnus est vtrorumque error : quod 
mihi facile concessuros arbitror quicunque aures suas attente con- 
suluerint. Dico igitur Francicae lingua?, vt & Graecae & Latinae, 
duo esse tempora, longum vnum, alterum breue : itidemqw tres 
tonos, nempe, acutum, grauem, circumflexum, non ita tamen vt in 
illis Unguis obseruatos. Acuunt enim Graeci syllabas turn longas 
turn breuos, & Latinos idem facere magno consensu volunt Gram- 
matici, quibus plane non assentior. Sed hac de re alias. Illud 
autem ccrto dixerim, sic occurrere in Prancica lingua tonum acutum 
cum tempore lorago, vt nulla syllaba producatur quoe itidem non 
attollatur : nee attollatur vlla quae non itidem acuatur, ac proinde sit 
eadem syllaba acuta quae producta & eadem grauis quae correpta. Sed 
tonus vocis intentioncm, tempus productionem vocalis indicat .... 


Ilia verb productio in Francica lingua etiam in monosyllabis ani- 
maduertitur, quae est propria vis accentus circuniflexis." B. there- 
fore seems to confuse accent and quantity, as is the case with so 
many writers, although he once apparently distinguishes an accented 
from an unaccented long syllable, thus in entendement, he says that 
although the two first are naturally long, the acute accent is on the 
second; whereas it would be on the last in entendement bon, on 
account of the added enclitic. He lays down important rules for 
quantity, and without repeating them here, it will be interesting to 
gives his examples, marking those which he objects to 1 . Wrong 
mestresse messe teste propheste misericorde parole. Right mals- 
tresse messe faicte prophete misericorde parole ; ie veii, tu veux, 
il veiit ; veu votum, veux vota ; beuf beiifs, neuf neufs, eulx, ceulx ; 
fit fecit, fist facer et, fut fuit, fust esset, eut habnit eust haberet, est, 
rost, tost, plalst placet, plust plueret, et et, plaid contentio iudicalis, 
pleut placuit, plut pluit ; ie meur morior, tu meurs moreris, meur 
maturus, meurs maturi, rueure tnatura, si ie di, qui est ce. Rule 1, 
misericorde, entendement, envle = en vie, envieux. Rule 2, en- 
dormir, felndre, teindre, b5nte, temporel, bon pais, somme comme 
donne bonne sonne tonne, consomme ordonne resonne estonne, 
songer besongne ; ennemi. Rule 3, aimee fondue velue ; miie nue, 
due fie lie amie joue loiie nioue noiie alje, plaije ioije voije, 
envolje ; muer nuer fier lier iouer louer nouer, envoijer. Rule 4, 
aultre, autant, haiiltaTn, haultement, haiiltaine, hault et droict. 
Rule 5, s=(z), iaser braise saison plaisir cause bise mise prise oser 
chose poser cholsir lolsir noise tolse user ruse muse frlse caiisera 
osera embrasera reposera cholsira prlsera, cuisine, iisera, acciisera, 
excusera, usage, visage, camiise ; prisee accusee excusee [the last 
e should evidently be ej ; peser gesir gesme ; treze quatorze, 
moisl, cramoisl, voisin cousin, voisme cousme. Rule 5 bis, allle 
bailie callle faille malllee pallle sallle taille vallle. Rule 6, 
passe, aimasse, oulsse. Rule 7, (s mute) haste isle, blasme, 
aimasme, esmeute, esmovivoir, blesme mesme, caresme baptesme, 
escrivlsme, seusmes, receumes, vlsmes, flsmes, entendlsmes, C5sme ; 
asne alesne [erroneous in original], R5sne ; esperon esperonne, 
[eri'oneous in original], espier ; est rost tost fust fist eust, haste 
taste teste beste estre malstre nalstre feste glste vlste crouste 
voiiste ; dosnoijer ; este "pro verbo esse et pro (estate" rostir roste ; 
nostre malson, vostre ralson, ie suis vostre, patenostre. Rule 8, 
catalrre, catalri'eux ; ferrer guerre ferre pourrir, enterrer. Finally 
B. notices the absence of accent in enclitics, and the final rising 
inflection in questions, observing, in accord with Meigret, "cuius 
pronuntiationis vsque adeb sunt obseruantes Kormanni, vt etiam si 
nihil interrogent, sed duntaxat negent aut affirment aliquid, ser- 
monis finem acute, non sine aurium offensione pronuntient." 

P.'s rules amount to placing the accent on the penultim when the 

1 Beza's treatise is now very acces- fortunately the editor sometimes cor- 
sible in the Berlin and Paris reprint, rects the original in the text itself. 
1868, "with preface by A. Tobler. Un- 


last contains what is now mute e, and on the last in all other 
cases. Both M. and P., make accent to he a rising inflexion of the 
voice. The French still generally use such an intonation, hut it 
does not seem to he fixed in position, or constant in occurrence 
upon the same word, but rather to depend upon the position of the 
word in a sentence, and the meaning of the speaker. In modern 
French, and apparently in older French (supra p. 331) there is 
nothing approaching to the regular fixed stress upon one syllable of 
every word, which is so marked in English, the Teutonic lan- 
guages, and Sclavonic languages, in Italian, Spanish and Modern 
Greek. The nature of the stress and the effect on unaccented 
syllables differ also materially in different languages. In English 
the syllables following the principal stress are always much more 
obscure than those preceding it. This is not the case at all in 
Italian. In Modern Greek, the stress, though marked, is nothing 
like so strong as in English. Mr. Payne considers that the ancient 
Normans had a very strong stress, and that the syllables without 
the stress, and which generally preceded it, became in all cases 
obscure. "With the extremely lax notions which we find in all 
ancient and most modern especially English writers, on the ques- 
tions of accent, vocal inflexion, and stress, with its effect on quan- 
tity, it is very difficult to draw any conclusions respecting ancient 
practice. A thorough study of modern practice in the principal 
literary languages of the world, and their dialects, seems to be an 
essential preliminary to an investigation of ancient usage. 

E. gives 12 dialogues in French and English with the pronuncia- 
tion of such French words as he considers would occasion difficulty, 
indicated in the margin. The following list contains all the most 
important words thus phoneticised. The orthography both ordinary 
and phonetic is that used by E. 

Achepte ashete, accoustrements acoo- noissance koonessance, corps cdr, coste 

tremanB, aduancerez auaunsere, aiguillon kdte, cousteau kooteo, coustera cootera, 

egeelleeoon, ainsi insee, m'ameine ma- crespe crepe, crespelus krdpelu, cure- 

mene, d'Anglois daunglez, au 6, aucun oreille curorellie. 

okun, aucune okune, au-iour-d' hay Debuons deuoons, demanderons de- 

oioordwee, Vaulne lone, aultre otre, maunderoons, demesler derne'ler, de- 

aultrement dtreman, d'aultruy dotrwee, sieuner ddiuner, desnonhit denooet, 

I'ausmonies lomonier, aussi 6ssee, desponillez depoolliez, diet deet, disner 

autant otaun. deener, doigts doi, doubte doote, doux 

Baillez bailie' balliez, baptizez bateeze", dod. 

besognes bezoonies, blancs blauns, boeuf Enfants anfauns, enseignant anse- 

beuf, boiste boite, bordeure, bordure, neeaunt, enseignent ansdniet, Fentends 

bouche booshe, bouilli boollee, bouillie iantan, m' entortiller niantorteellier, 

boollie, bracelets brasel6, brillands eschorchee ekorshe'e, esconduire e'eoon- 

brilliauns, brusler bruler. dweere, d'escarlate dekarlate, Vescripray 

Caillette kalliette, ceinture sinture, lecreere', esaiier equier, d'esgard degar, 

eette ste,chair slier, chauld sh6, chesnaye degart (before a vowel), esgare egare' 

shene'ye, cheuaulx shenos, cheueleure m'esgratignez mdgrateeniez, esguiere 

sheuelurc, chenille sbeueellie, chrestiens eguiere, I'esguiser le'gu-yzer, esguilles 

kretiens, cignet seenet, cieux seeus cieus, egullies, V esguillette le'geellie'te, esleux 

eoeur keur, coifeure coifure, col coo, eldz, esloignez e'lonie', V esmeraude leme- 

commande coommaunde', compaignie rode, d'espargner de"parnier, espaulles 

companie, concepuoir coonseuoir, con- e'pdlle, espingle e'peengle, V espingleray 



lepeenglere, esprit espreet, est e, ques- 
tant ketaun, estes ete, estiez etiez, 
Vestomach lestomak, estriller etreelier, 
Vesturgeon leturgeon, I'estuy letwee, 
esveille'e euelliee, esuentail evantail, 
mexcuserez mescuzere. 

Fagots fagos, faillent falliet, fait 
fe% faite fet, fauldra fodra, faut-il 
fo-tee, fenestres fenetres, ferets feres, 
felle feellie, Jilleul feellieul, filleule 
feellieule, jilz feez, fondements foon- 
demans, Frangois Frauncez, fruiet 
fiweet, fustaine futine. 

Gaillard galliard, gands gauns, gauche 
goshe, gentilhomme ianteellioomme 
genoulx, genoos, goust goot. 

Habille abeelie', m'habiller mabeellier, 
hastez hate, haulte hot, heure eur, 
hiersoir ersoir, homme oomme, honneur 
oonneur, houppe hoope, huict weet, 
I'huis luee, humains vniins, humbles 
vmble, humilite vmeeleeti. 

D'ieeluy deecelwee, qu'ils kee. 

Jesus Christ Iesu-kreet, ioyaux ioyo's. 

Lict leet, longs loon. 

Madamoiselle madmoyzelle, main min, 
maistresse, metresse, maluaise mdueze, 
meilleur mellieur, meittes meete, melan- 
cholie melankolie, merveille meruellie, 
mesme meine, metsm.6, monstrez moontre, 
morfonds morfoons, moucheoir mooshoir, 
mouiller moolier, moult, moo. 

Neantmoings neaunmoins, nepveu 

nom noon, nostre ndtre, nouueaute noo- 
veote, nuict nweet, n'out nount. 

Obmetons ometoons, oeillade'es eul- 
liade, ceuvres euure, ostez ote. 

Farapetz parape'z, pareure parure, 
paste ]}&.te,peig?iee j>miee, peignes pinie8, 
peigneoir pinioir, peignez pe'niez, pieds, 
pie, plaist ple't,i;fr« plu, plustost pluto, 
poictrine poitreene, poignards poniars, 
poignet poniet, pouldreux poodreus, 
pour poor, prestes pretes, prestz pres, 
prochains proshins, propiciation pro- 
peeseeasseeon, pseaulmes seomes, puis- 
sant pueessaunt. 

Quatrains kadrins. 

Eaccoustrez racootrez, receu resu, 
rends ran, rescomfort recomfor, responce 
reponse, respondre repoondre, rhtume 
rume, rideaulx reedeo, rognez roonie, 
ronds roons, rosmarin roonaarin, royaulx 
roy6s, rubends ruban. 

Sans sauns, sainct sint, sainte sinte, 
saints sinz, sasle sale, sauuegarde soue- 
garde, scais se, seconds segoon, seiche 
se'she, sept set, soeur seur, solz soo, 
spirituels speercetue. 

Tailleur tallieur, tant taun, tantost 
tauntot temps, tan tans, teste tete, tost 
tot, touche tooshe, tousiours tooioor, 
tout too, toutes toote. 

Vynze oonze. 

Veoir voir, veoy voy, verds vers, vestir 
veteer, vestu vetu, veu vu, veulx veuz, 
vey vee, vice veese, viste vette [veete ?], 
vistement veetemant, vous voo. 

neueu, n'est ne, niepce niese, noeud neu, 

At the close of the xvm th century Sir "William Jones (Works 
1799. 4to, i, 176) supposes an Englishman of the time to represent 
"his pronunciation, good or bad," of French, in the following 
manner, which he says is "more resembling the dialect of savages 
than that of a polished nation." It is from an imitation of Horace 
by Malherbe. 

Law more aw day reegyewrs aw nool otruh parellyuh, 

Onne aw bo law preeay : 
Law crooellyuh kellay suh boushuh lays orellyuh, 

Ay noo laysuh creeay. 
Luh povre ong saw cawbawn oo luh chomuh luh couvruh 

Ay soozyet aw say lwaw, 
Ay law gawrduh kee velly 6 bawryayruh dyoo Loovruh 
Nong daylong paw no rwaw ! 

The interpretation may be left to the ingenuity of the reader, and 
the orthography may be compared to the following English-French 
and French English, in Punch's Alphabet of 25 Sept., 1869. 

M ay oon Mossoo kee ponx lweeiuaym tray 

Bowkoo ploo bong-regardong ker vraymong ilay ! 

N iz e Mriglicheman ! Rosbif ! ! Olrai! 

Milor ! Dam ! Comme il touine up son Nose ! nia'ie aie ! ! 


Since the above pages were in type, I have been favoured by Mr. 
Payne with a full transcript of that part of the Mag. Coll. Oxford 
MS. No. 188, (supra p. 309, n. 1), which contains the 98 rules for 
French spelling, partially cited by M. F. Grenin in his Preface to the 
French Government reprint of Palsgrave. This MS. is of the xv th 
century, but the rules appear to have been much older. They in- 
cidentally touch upon pronunciation, and it is only those portions of 
them which need here be cited. The numbers refer to the rules. 


"1. Diccio gallica dictata habens 
primam sillabani vel mediam in E. 
stricto ore prouunciatam, requirit hanc 
liter am I. ante E. verbi gratia bien. 
chien. rien. piere. miere. et similia." 
Here is a distinct recognition of a 
"close e," and tbe examples identify 
the sounds iapere, mere, now open, but 
close according to tbe orthoepists of 
tbe xvi tb century, witb tbe vowel in 
bien, chien, rien, wbicb therefore tends 
to confirm tbe opinion expressed above 
p. 829, that m was not tben nasalized 
in tbe modern sense. " 2. Quando- 
cumque bee uocalis. E. pronunciatur 
acute per se stare debet sine buius .1. 
processione verbi gratia .beuez. tenez. 
lessez." As each example bas two 
syllables in e, it is difficult to say 
wbetber tbe rule applies to one or both 
and hence to understand tbe meaning 
of " acute e." Tbe last e in eacb is 
generally regarded as "masculine," 
but the first in " beuez, tenez," was tbe 
the "feminine" and in "lessez" the 
"open" according to other writers. 
Nor is this obscurity much lightened 
by the following rules : " 3. Quamvis E. 
in principio alicuius sillabe acute pro- 
nunciatur in fine auterioris sillabe I. 
bene potest preponi vt bies. priez. lez. 
affiez &c." Here if bies = biais, we 
have the same mixture of masculine 
and open e as before. The two next 
rules seem to call the " feminine e," 
that is, the modern e mute, a " full e." 
"4. Quandocumque adiectiuum feme- 
nini generis termmat in .E. plene pro- 
nunciata geminabit ee. vt tres honouree 
dame. 5. Quamvis adiectiuum mas- 
culini generis terminet [in ?] E plene 
pronunciatum non geminabit .E. vt 
treshonoure sire nisi ad differenciam 
vne Comitee anglice a shire. Vu 

comite anglice a counte 6. 

Quamvis adiectiuum niasculini generis 
non terminet in E. Vt vn homme 
vient. homme adiectiuum tamen femi- 
nini generis terminabit in simplici cum 

se implere [?] pronunciatur vt meinte 
femme vne femme." There can be no 
doubt that e feminine was fully pro- 
nounced, but how far it differed from 
the e " stricto ore," and e " acute pro- 
nunciatum," it is not possible to elicit 
from these curt remarks. It is observ- 
able that eo and e are noted as indifferent 
spellings in certain words now having 
the " muto-guttural e." " 8. Item ille 
sillabe. ie, ce. ieo. ceo. indifferenter 
possunt scribi cum ceo vel ce sine o." 


" 12. Omnia substantiua terminancia 
per sonum .S. debent scribi cum .S. vt 
signurs lordes. dames ladyes." This 
plural s was therefore audible, but the 
writer immediately proceeds to point 
out numerous exceptions where z 'was 
written for s, as 13. in gent, plural 
gents or gentz, 14. mfik, 15. or x for * 
in deux loialx, 16. or the common con- 
traction 9 for ns in no9=nous, 17. in 
nos vos from noster vester, either s or z 
may be used. In all these cases it 
would however appear that (s) was 
actually heard, and if any meaning is 
to be attached to "aspiration" we 
must suppose that an (s) was sounded 
in the following case: "18. "Item 
quandocumque aliqua sillaba pronun- 
ciatur cum aspiracione ilia sillaba debet 
scribi cum s. et t. loco aspiracione verbi 
gratia est fest pleist." Tbe next is 
obscure. " 19. Item si .d. scribitur 
post .E. et .M. immediate sequitur d. 
potest mutari in s." In 21. 93. and 
94. we find s mute in Jismes, duresme, 
mandasmes, and probably by 96. in feist 
toust, and possibly also in : " 73. Item 
in verbis presentis et preteriti temporum 
scribetur. st. a pres I e. o. v. com bap- 
tiste fist est test lust &c," though this 
partially clashes with 18. 

U after L, M, K 

u 23. Item quandocumque hec litera 

1. ponitur post A. E. et O. si aliquod 

consonans post 1. sequitur 1. quasi v. 

debet pronunciari verbi gratia, malme 


mi soule. loialment bel compaigneoun." 
This does not mean that al, was pro- 
nounced (ay), but that it was pro- 
nounced as au was pronounced, and this 
may have been (ao) as in Meigret or 
(00) as in other orthoepists of the six- 
teenth century. With this rule, and 
not with S, we must connect : " 67. 
Item aliquando s. scribitur et vsonabitur 
cum ascun sonabitur acun," aucun? as 
M. Genin transcribes. " 36. Item iste 
sillabe seu dicciones quant grant De- 
mandant sachant et huiusmodi debent 
scribi cum simplici .n. sine .v. sed in 
pronunciatione debet .v. proferri &c." 
This can scarcely mean that an was 
pronounced as if written aim with au 
in the same sense as in the last rule 
cited. It must allude to that pro- 
nunciation of an as (aun) to which 
Palsgrave refers and which introduced 
an English (aun), supra p. 826, col. 1, 
and therefore confirms the older Eng- 
lish accounts. 

Oy and E. 

"26. Item moy. toy. soy. possunt 
scribi cum e. vel 0. per y. vel I in- 
differenter. — 58. Item in accusatiuo 
singulari scribetur me in reliquis casibus 
moy." This, together with Barcley's 
names of the letters, p. 805, is well 
illustrated by the curious passage from 
Sylvius, p. 824. 

Final Consonants. 
" 27 Item quandocumque aliqua 
dictio incipiens a consonante sequitur 
aliquam diccionem terminantem in con- 
sonante in racionibns pendentibus [in 
connected phrases] consonans interioris 
diccionis potest scribi. Sed in pro- 
nunciacione non proferri vt a pres 
manger debet sonari a pre manger. — 
29. Item 1. M. N. R. T. C. K. quam- 
vis consonans subsequitur bene possunt 
sonari per se vel per mutacionem litere." 
Does this mutation refer to the follow- 
ing ? " 51. Item scias quod hec 
litere C. D. E. F. G. N. P. S. et 
T. Debent mutari in sono in strictura 
c. ante uocalem vt clerici. clers et debet 
in gallico clers rudi homines ruds 
hommes et debet sonari ruz hommes. 
bones dames debent bon dames et 
tunc .u. sonari solempne vyfs hounte 
[homme ?] loget vis homme et sic De 
alijs. — 52. Item quando ista diccio 
graunt sight magnitudinem adjungitur 
cum feminino genere ita vt e sit sequens 

t. mutatur in D. vt grande dame grande 
charge." Observe this xvth century 
use of English sight for great, as an 
adjective. — "53. Item quando grant 
adiungitur masculino generi vt grant 
seignour vt quando signat confessionem 
non mutabitur t. in D. quamuis E. 
sequitur vt iay grante." 


" 39. Item quandocumque hec litera 
.n. scribitur immediate post g. quamuis 
sonet ante g. non debet immediate 
prescribi vt signifiant &c. — 40. Item si 
.n. sonat g. et non subsequitur bene 
potest A immediate prescribi. — 41. 
Item seignour ton seignour son seignour. 
— 92. Item quandocumque .n. sequitur 
I in media diccione in diuersis sillabis 
g debet interponi vt certaignement be- 
nignement &c. sed g non debet sonari." 
All these seem to refer awkwardly and 
obscurely to (nj). 


"46. Item qi qe quant consueuerunt 
scribi per k sed apud modernos mutatur 
k. in q. concordent cum latino I k. 
non reperitur in qu qd' quis sed I. — 
54. Item posr G. vel E. quamuis v 
scribatur non debet sonari vt quatre 
guerre. Debent sonari qatre gerre." 

"Words Like and Unlike. 
"50. Item diuersitas stricture facit 
Differentiam aliquam quamuis in voce 
sint consimiles verbi gratia ciel seel 
seal celee ceele coy quoy moal moel 
cerf serf teindre. tenir attendre [Genin 
has: teindre tendre tenir attendre] 
esteant esteyant aynier amer foail fel 
stal [Genin : feal] veele viel veile veile 
ville vill' [Genin : veele viel veile ville 
Till] brahel breele erde herde euerde 
essil huissel assel nief ncifsuef noef [Ge- 
nin : soef] boaile. baile bale balee litter 
litere fornier forer forier rastel rastuer 
mesure meseire piel peel berziz berzi 
grisil greele grele tonne towne neym 
neyn." The transcript was made by 
Mr. Parker of Oxford, but the proof 
has not been read by the original ; 
Genin certainly often corrected as he 
edited ; here the transcript is strictly 
followed. — " 86. Item habetur diuersitas 
inter apprendre prendre et reprendrc 
oez oeps vys et buys kunyl et kenil. 
— 90. Item habetur diuersitas inter 
estreym strawe et estreyn hansel. — 91. 
Item inter daym et davn." 

These seem to be all the passages bearing upon the present dis- 

838 bullokar's PHONETIC WRITING. Chap. VIII. $ 4. 

cussion. They are not numerous, nor very important, nor always 
very intelligible, but they seem all to point to such a previous state 
of pronunciation of French, as our English experience would lead us 
to suppose might have preceded that of the xvi th century as so 
imperfectly colligible from the writings of contemporary orthoepists. 
It should also be mentioned that the Claudius Holyband whose 
French Littelton is described on p. 227, note, under date 1609, is 
called Holliband in a previous edition of the same book, dated 1566, 
in the British Museum. This is 3 years before Hart's book, and as 
this older edition also contains the passage cited supra p. 228, note, 
saying that the English seem to Frenchmen to call their u like you, 
and to name q kiou, whereas the Frenchmen pronounce like the 
Scotch u in gud, while Hart gives iu as the English sound, and 
identifies it with the Scotch and French vowels (see especially p. 796, 
note, col. 1, [88]) — we are again led into uncertainty as to the 
sound that Hart really meant, and to consider that the (iu) sound, 
though acknowledged by no orthoepist before "Wilkins, may have 
penetrated into good society at a much earlier period. Again, the 
confusion of spelling in HolyhvcoA and iZbZ/eband, reminds us of 
Salesbury's identification of holy and holly (supra p. 779, 1. 2 from 
bottom). And lastly it should be mentioned that this name is but 
a translation, and that the author's real name, as he writes it else- 
where, is Desainliens (under which his works are entered in the 
British Museum Catalogue) being the same as Livet's de Saint-Lien, 
or a Santo Vinculo (supra, p. 33, 1. 8 from bottom). The Latin 
work there cited is not in the British Museum, but as its date is 
1580, and the 1566 edition of the French Littelton there preserved 
does not differ sensibly from that of 1609 here quoted, this occa- 
sions no incompleteness in the present collections from French 
Orthoepists of the xvi th century. 

§ 4. William Bullokar's Phonetic Writing, 1580, and the 
Pronunciation of Latin in the xvi th Century. 

Bullokar concludes his Book at Large with a prose chapter be- 
tween two poetical ones. The poetry is so bad that the reader will 
be glad to pass it over. The prose contains a little information 
amidst an overpowering cloud of words ; and as a lengthened speci- 
men of this important contribution to the phonetic writing of the 
xvi th century is indispensable, I shall transliterate his Chapter 12. 
There is some difficulty in doing so. Long a, e, y, o are lengthened 
by accents thus a, 6, y, 6 when they apparently mean (aa, ee, ii, 
oo), and i is said to be lengthened by doubling as iy, yi, when it 
would also be (ii) according to the only legitimate conclusion at 
which I could arrive in treating of Bullokar's pronunciation of this 
sound, pp. 114, 817, note. The mention of this combination iy, yi, 
which amounts to a reduplication of •", although I have not found any 
instance in which it had been used by Bullokar, and the constant 
omission of any distinction between long and short i, confirm the 


former theory that he called long * (**). In the present transcript 
only such vowels are marked long as Bullokar has actually so 
marked, or indicated hy rule, as (uu, yy). Bullokar' s doubled 
consonants, though certainly pronounced single, have also been 
retained. Bullokar has also a sign like Greek £ which he uses for 
both s and z, but which he identifies with s. It will be trans- 
literated (s) or (z) according to circumstances. Bullokar's gram- 
matical " pricks and strikes" are entirely omitted. They have no 
relation to the sound, and are quite valueless in themselves, 
although he laid great store by them. On the other hand I have 
introduced the accent mark, for which he has no sign. The title 
of the chapter is left in ordinary spelling. 

% The 12. Chapter. 

Sheweth the vse of this amendment, by matter in prose 
with the same ortography, conteining arguments for 
the premisses. 
Hiir-m iz sheu*ed an ek*sers»*'z of dhe amend-ed ortog'raf* biifoor 
sheu*ed, and dhe yys of dhe priks, stmks, and noots, for devsYd**q 
of sildab'lz akoixWq tuu dhe ryylz biifoor* sheu*ed. "Wheer-m *z 
tuu bii noot*ed, dhat no art, ek*sers*Yz, miks-tyyr, srens, or okkyy- 
pas-ion, what-soever, iz *hklyyd*ed in oon th?q oon*l* : but Hath 
tn it severa'l d?st/qk*s*onz ehenients, prnrszp'lz, or deviz-ionz, hi 
dhe wbitsh dhe saam kunreth tuu mz perfet yys. And bikauz* 
dhe s*q*g'l dev«z*'bnz for iiq*l*sh spiitsh, aar at dhis dai so unper- 
fetl* p»k*tyyred, hi dhe ekements (wh*tsh wii ka'l let*terz) pro- 
v**d*ed for dhe saam (az mai appiir plahvl* in dh*s foormer 
treeWs) It nav set furth dh«'s wurk for dhe amenckment of dhe 
saam : wh*tsh Ii Hoop w*l bii taa*k'n in gud part akkorcWq tuu 
mi meen**q : for dhat, dhat it sha'l sav tshardzlrez in dhe elder 
sort, and sav greet tiim. in dhe .ruth, tuu dhe greet komod**t* 
of a'l estaats*, urrtuu whuum it iz nes*esar*, dhat dheer bii a 
knooudedzh of dheir dyy*t*, un'tuu God tshiif-b', and dhen dheir 
dyyt* oon tuu an udlrer : in knoou-*q of wh*tsh dyyt* konsi'st'eth 
dhe Hap - * estaat 1 of manz liifi for *g*norans kauz-eth nuur* tuu 
goo uut of dhe wai, and dhat of a'l estaats*, in whuum *g*norans 
duuth rest: wheer-b* God iz greet'l* d/s*pleez*ed, dhe konron 
kwretnes of men Hmd'ered: greet komon welths dev*Vd*ed, 
madzlWstraats d*s-obered, and *hfer*brz desp*Yz # ed: pr-'vat gain 
and eez sowht and dheer-b* a kom*on wo wrowht. 

And az dhe dzhudzh*ment of dhe konron welth and wo, duuth 
not 1* m pra'vat personz, (and spes't'a'll* of dhe *nfer*br sort,) jet 
owht dheer tuu bii in ever* oon a kaar of n.iz dyyt*, dhat Hiz 
pn'vat lttf bii not kon'trar* tuu dhe kom*on kwretnes, and welth 
of a'l men dzhen*era'll*, (and spes**'a'll* of dhe wel m?'nd*ed sort, 
whuu aar tuu bii boor'n w*dha'l* in sum respekts* for dheir *'g*no- 
rans, when it reetsh*eth not tuu dhe giiv*q okkaz*ion of l/7k offens* 
in udh*er : for whuu kan wash h*z nandz kleen of a'l fa'lts? 
And syy'erl* (*h m* opmYon) az fa'lts Hav dheir biigm*iq of dhe 

840 bullokar's PHONETIC WRITING. Chap. VIII. § 4. 

first fa'l of Ad-am, so iz dhe saam enkrees-ed be e'g-norans : dhowh 
sum wuuld ter'm it tuu bii dhe mudh'er of goddmes : for if men 
weer not e'g-norant, but did knoou wheer-en tryy felis-iti did 
kons/st, dhei wuuld not fa'l eirtuu soo maii'j erorz, tuu dis-kwret 
dheir mee'ndz, and enda'n'dzher dheir bod'e'e'z for tran'se'tore the'qz, 
and snm'tnmz for vere tre'f''lz. But sum wil sai, a'l the'qz in dhe's 
wor'ld aar tran'se'tore, whe'tsh li wil konfes - , az tuutsh'e'q a'l 
kree'tyyrz and ek'serse'e'zez in dhe saam. 

Jet dhe gift of spiitsh and wrwWq iz liik'liest tuu konte'n'yy 
with dhe last, az loq az dheer iz asvi bii'e'q of man : and for dhat, 
it iz dhe spesw'a'l gift of God, wheer-be wii bii ehstrukt'ed of uur 
dyyte'z from te'ein tuu teYm, booth nuu, Hav biin, and sha'l bii az 
loq az dheer iz an'i bii'e'q of man, let us yyz dhe saam eh dhe 
perfetest yys, for eez, prof-it, and konteiryyans, whe'tsh dhis 
amend'ment wil perfoo'r'm eh iiq'leah spiitsh, and Heh'dereth not 
dhe reed'e'q and wre'e't'e'q of udh'er laq-gadzhez : for li Hav left uut 
no let'ter biifoor' in yys. And dhowh wii duu sum- what vara' from 
udh'er nas'e'onz in dhe naanreq of sum let'terz, (spes'fa'llt wheer 
wii nav d/ffereq suundz in vois,) jet dheer iz no fa' It in it, as loq 
az wii yyz naamz agrii'e'q tuu uur ooun laq'gadzh : and in udlrer 
laq-gadzhez, let us yyz naamz akkord'e'q tuu dhe suund of dhe saam 
laq-gadzh, dhat wii wuuld leer'n, if dhei bii prove'e'd'ed of suf*s"«ent 
let'terz : and if dhe ortog'rafe for dheir laq-gadzh bii unperfet, whuu 
niid tuu bii offend'ed, if wii (for spiicW lee'r'm'q) yyz f/g-yyrz and 
naamz of let-terz, akkord'e'q tuu dhe suundz of dheir spiitsh. 

Dhe Lat'e'n mai remain - az it duuth, bikauz- it iz yyz-ed in so 
man'e kun'treYz, and dhat buuks prmt'ed in Iiq-land mai bii yyz - ed 
in udh-er kmrtre'z, and leYk-we'e'z dhe preht-e'q in udh'er kun'treYz, 
mai bii yyz-ed mir : but if a teetsh-or (for dhe eez of a juq iiq-le'sh 
lee-r'nor of dhe Lat'e'n) duu ad dhe stre'e'k tuu c. g. i. v. 1 bikauz* of 
dheir de'verz severa'l suundz, and naam th az it weer but oon 
let'er, az th : and sai dhat : u : after q iz syyperflyyus : - and 
tsba'ndzh :z: for :s: so suund - ed biitwiin* twuu vuu'elz, whuu 
kuuld dzhust'le fiind fa'lt we'th-a'l? when dhe Lat'e'n iz so suund'ed 
hi us iiq-l/sh : whe'tsh unper-fetnes must bii maad plain be oon wai 
or udh-er tuu a lee-r'nor and must bii duunn eidh-er hi per-fet 
fe'g'yyr of perfet naam agriWq tu He'z suund in a word, or be dub-'l 
naanreq of let-terz dub-'l suund-ed : udlrerweYz, dhe lee-r'nor 
must of neses's/te leer'n be root, ges, and loq yys : az uur nas'ebn 
waz driven tu duu en lee'r'neq of iiq-h'sh spiitsh wh/tsh waz 
Hard-er tuu bii lee-r'ned (dhowh nii Had dlie suund and yys 
dheer-of from He'z eh-fanse") dhan dhe Lat-e'n, wheer-of lii un-derstuud 
never a word, nor skant mrardd an'i word dheer-of, suund-ed in 
a'l He'z le'e'f biifoor' ; dhe rez*'n Heer-of waz, bikauz- dhe let'terz 
in yys for Lat-e'n, did a'bmoost furn/sh ever* severa'l diriz-ion en 
dhe saam spiitsh: eksep-teq dhe dub-'l suund-ed lett'erz afoor-said: 

1 Bullokar uses e', g\ v' for (s, dzh, 2 Bullokar "mites q alone for qu in 

v), and i, for (dzh). Italics here in- the sense of (kw) or rather (kw). 
dicate ordinary spelling. 


whetsh dub-'l and treb''l suund'/q (no duut) giyy 1 hi korrup'tzq 
dhe saam from t//m tuu turn, hi udher nas'/onz, or hi dhe Lat'mz 
dhemselvz' nu'q-g'led With uth'er nas'zonz : for (Ii suppooz - ) dbe 
ZtaWan duuth not at dbis dai maak :»: a kon'sonant biifoor' an - * 
vuu'el, and giiv un'tuu it dhe suund of :dzh: az wii iiq'h'sh duu 
aTwaiz in dhat plas ; but maak'eth it a stTlab'l of it-self, az in 
dhis word : iacob : of thrii sil'lab'lz in Lat'm : iacobus of foou'r 
siHab'lz ; and wii iiq'h'sh sai, dzhak'ob : of twuu siHab'lz, 
dzhakob - us of thrii sil'lab'lz ; and in miir iiq'lish : Dzhaamz : of 
oon sil'lab'l ; dhe /taWan a'hso for dhe suund of uur : dzh : wmt'eth 
gi: whitsh iz not yyz'ed in dhe Lat'in hut \g\ oon'li for dhooz 
twuu suundz of ,g, and, dzh : or, i, biifoor' a, o, u, and sum'tiim 
biifoor' ,e, in Lat'm : hi whitsh wiimai a'kso ges, dhat ,c, in Lat'in 
at dhe biigmiq Had dhe suund of ,k, oon'li, for dhat, dhat dhe 
Lat*m Hath dhe suund of : k : and noo udlrer let'ter jiild'ed dhat 
suund, but ,c, oon'li in dhe Lat'in : ekssept' :qu: suplred dhe ruum 
sum tiim : for dhe Lat'm reseiv 2 not ,h, in'tuu dhe nunvber of dheir 
let'terz. And for dhe His'iq suund of ,c, (thownt radh'er tuu bii 
krept in bi lit''l and l«t''l) dhe Latin was sufis'ientli proviid'ed hi 
dheir let'er ,s, whuuz suund wii iiq'lish duu moost tiimz m dhe 
Lat*m, and in uur o'ld ortog-rafi, yyz in dhe suund of ,z, when ,s, 
kum'eth biitwiin' twuu vuu'elz : whitsh ,z, iz tbowht tu bii no 
Lat-m let'ter : and dheer-foor it mai bii thowht dhat dhe Lat'm 
iint'li suund'ed dm not riild so groon'iq a suund in dheir his'iq 
suund of : s. 

And for uur thrii suundz yyz'ed in ,v, dhe Frentsh duu at dhis 
dai yyz oondi twuu un'tuu it : dhat iz, dhe suund agrii'iq tuu mz 
o'ld and kontm-yyed naam, and dhe suund of dhe kon'sonant ,v, 
wheer-bi wii mai a'l'so ges, dhat dhe Lat'm at dhe biigin'iq yyzed 
,v, for dhe suund of dhe kon-sonant: and yyz'ed :u: for dhe sound 
of dhe vuu'el. 

But Huu-soever dub''l or treb''l suuncl'iq of let'erz kaam m : 
whi iz it not lau'ful tuu enkrees'let'terz and fYg'yyrz, when suundz 
m spiitsh aar enkrees'ed ? for spiitsh waz kauz of let'terz : dhe 
whitsh whuu-soever first mvent'ed, Hii Had a regard tuu dhe 
dmz'wnz dhat mint bii maad in dhe vois, and waz wil'iq tuu 
proved* for even of dhem, az wel az for oon, or sum of dheni : 
and if (sins dhat tiim.) dhe suundz in vois Hav biin fuund tuu bii 
man'i moo and diverz, amoq' sum udh'er pii'p'l, whi shuuld not 
let'terz bii aksept'ed, tuu furnish dhat laq-gadzh whitsh iz prop-'r 
tuu a god'li and sivil nas'ion of kontm-yya'l guver'nment, az 
dhis uur nas'ion iz? and dhe bet'er iz, and ev'er sha'l bii if leer'niq 
(with Godz gras) flurish m dhe saam : dhe gruund of whitsh 
lee'r'niq, and dhe yys and kontin-yyans dheer-of iz let'terz, dhe 

1 Bullokar writes "gre'w, thre'w." 11th Chap, he marks as synonymous 

He represents (ii) by e', and (u) by the signs : e'v, e'i<, v, u, e'w. Hence 

v or u with a small semicircle below his gre'w, thrc'w = (gryy, thryy) and 

which may be indicated by Italics. have been so transcribed. 
Then after distinctly referring hia 

simple v or u to French (yy), in his 2 Misprinted (reseui). 


842 bullokar's PHONETIC "WRITING. Chap. VIII. § 4. 

un-perfetnes wheer-of over-thryy man'i gud wets at dheir biigiiri'q 
and waz kauz of loq tiim. lost in dhem dhat spiidd best. 

Dhe LaWn waz nioost-eez'e tuu us iiq'Ksh tuu bii lee-r'ned fr'rst, 
biikauz* of xxj. letterz, xiij. or xiiij. weer perfetK perfet, agriWq 
in naam and suund, and no let'ter m/spla'sed, syyperflyyus, or 
suund'ed, and not wmt'n, eksept' in abrevas'/onz, and eksept" hi 
nus-yys (az Ii taak it) wii iiq'Ksh suund'ed ignarus az eqnarus : 
magnus az maqmus. A'lso lignum az Kg'num, and so of udh'er 
wordz, wheer a vuu'el kaam nekst biifoor* : g : in oon saTlab'l, and 
:n: biigan- an udh'er si'Hab'l fokoouzq : a'l-so dhe un-perfet 
let'terz of dub*'! or treb''l suund in LaWn, Had oon of dhooz 
suundz, agriWq tuu dbe naam ov dhem, so dheer want'ed but fix 
or siks Kg'yyrz or let'terz tuu furm'sh even several diviz'ion of 
dhe vois in dhe LaWn, az wii iiq'Ksh suund dhe saam : wh/tsh bii 
dheez, c' g' i v v' 1 (tuu bii suppooz'ed radh'er ab-yyz'ed hi 
tsha'ndzh of tiim, dhan so un-ser'tein at dhe biigm'/q,) biiseYdz - 
diis, dhe LaWn natli dhe aspwras'/on or let'ter (h) veri snTdum 
aft'er an-i kon*sonant in oon s/Hab'l, and dhat aft'er :t: in dhe 
suund of :th: oon'K and after :c: in dhe suund of :k: oon'K, and 
aft'er :r: in dhe suund of :r: oon'K, in a feu wordz demved from 
dhe griik : neidlrer nath dhe LaWn dhe suund of, tsh. ii. uu. sh. 
dh. w. wh. J, (nor dhe suund of the thrii half vuu'elz, '1. 'm. 'n. 
in dhe per-fet suund of iiq'Ksh. spiitsh) neidlrer in s/q.g'l let'ter, 
sj'Hab'l, nor suund in word : a'l wlu'tsh aar veWkonron in iiq'Ksh 

"Wheer-for dhe LaWn teetsh'orz, with. LaWn ortog'raK, did not 
(nor kuuld) suffrWentK furm'sh iiq-Ksh spiitsh with let'terz, hut 
patsh-ed it up az wel az dhei kuuld (or at dhe leest, az wel az dhei 
wuuld) but nottuq perfet for iiq'Ksh spiitsh, az appiireth hi dhe 
foormer tree'tis, so dhat of, xxxvij. severa'l diviz-ionz in vois 
for iiq'Ksh spiitsh, 2 oon'K dheez siks, a. b. d. f. h. x. weer perfetK 
perfet, and dheer-be xxxi diviz'ionz in vois unperfetK furn/shed : 
wheer-of sum aar ut'erK wanWq, sum dub''l or treb"'l suund'ed, 
and sum mis-naanred, biisnd- sum m/s-plaas'ed, sum wr«fn, and 
not suund'ed, and sum suund'ed dhat aar not wn'rt'n. "WTKtsh 
un-perfetnes maad dhe naWV iiq'Ksh tuu spend loq t?Vm in lee'r'n/q 
tuu reed and wrw't dhe saam (and dhat tshiif'K hi root) Hokp'n hi 
kontm'yya'l ek'sersnz biifoor' Had in n/z eerz, hi Hii'arzq 
udh'er, and hi uiz ooun yys of speek'/q wh/tsh Hii waz fain 
tuu leen moor untuu - , dhan tu dhe gnd'Mj of dhe o'ld ortog'rafV, 
so far un-pei"fet for iiq'Ksh spiitsh : wh/tsh Help of ek'serswz 
biifoor* shelved m dhe naWv iiq'Ksh, dhe stra'n'dzher was 
ut'terK void of, biiszYd' sum stra'ndzh diviz'ionz of suundz in 
vois in iiq'Ksh spiitsh, amoq' stra'n'dzherz, ut'terK un-yyz'ed : 

1 Bullokar's 37 letters as given in his a second enumeration he adds k, ph, r 

eleventh chapter will be found supra p. = (k, f, 'r). 
37, 1. 19 from bottom. Several of his 

letters are in duplicate, for the purpose 2 Bullokar's signs for (s, dzh, dzh, 

of keeping his spelling like the old, and u, v) respectively, the second and third 

making changes chiefly by points. In being the same. 


whitsh kauz*ed dhem at dhe first simt, not oondi tuu kast dhe 
buuk awar, but aTso tuu thiqk and sai, dbat uur spiitsh waz 
so ryyd and barbarus, dbat it waz not tuu bii lee'med, bi wriit'iq 
or print* iq : whitsh despair - main' of uur ooun nas*ion (wil*iq tuu 
leer'n) did fa'l in*tuu : for dbe moor wibiq Hii was tuu fokoou dhe 
naam of dbe let*ter, dhe fard*er-of nii waz, from dhe tryy suund of 
dhe word : and ad*iq Hiir-untuu* an un-pas*ient and un-diskreet* 
teetsh*or, man*i gud wets weer over-throou'n in dhe biigin*iq, 
whuu (udh*erwiiz mint nav gon foo'rward, not oondiin reed'iq 
and wriit*iq dheir nat*iv laq*gadzh, but a'bso (hi dhe abtl'tt* of 
dheir friindz) prosiid*ed in greet*er drnriqz, tuu dheir ooun profit 
and stei in dhe konron welth aTso : of whitsh sort, weer dhe juth 
of noo'b'l blud, and sutsh az Had parents of greet abiWti : whuuz 
parents (throwh tend*er luv 1 ) kuuld not hard'lt' enfors* dhem tuu 
treed dhat pain*ful maaz : and dhe xuth fiihd'iq it Hard, and clheer- 
hi Had noo delmt* dheer-in, took an*i dhe leest okkaz*ion tuu bii 
ok*kyypied udlrerwiiz wheer-bi knoou*ledzh waz lak*iq in sutsh, 
in whuum dhe konron welth (for dheir abibiti and kred*it) re- 
ktvivred moost, and sutsh az hi a'l reez-'n mint bii lists tuu giid 
udlrer, and steiz tu up-no'ld udlrer, nav biin driv'n man*i tiimz 
tuu bii giid*ed hi udlrer dheir far-inferiorz : whuu (for neses'siti 
or udher okkaz*ion) nian*i tiimz ab-yyz* duu'iqz privat, and sunr- 
tiim. pertanriq tuu dhe konron welth, whitsh iz tshiifli maintenred 
hi lee*r'niq (Godz gras biifoor a'l thiqz preferred) : whitsh 
lee*r'niq in dhe inferiorz, kauz*eth dyy oberdiens toward" dhe 
syyperiorz, andbii*iqin dhe syyperiorz teecheth dyy giiv*er'nrnent, 
and fiina'lli teetsh*eth a'l estaats* tu liv in oon yyniti of dhe estaat* 
of dhe kom'on welth, ever* estaat* in dheir degrii* and ka'Wq, 
not withuut* dhe partik*yylar profit, kiv retnes, and saaf-gard of 
ever* estaat* : wheer-untuu* if Ii nave ad'ed an*i th/q bi dhis mi 
amendment of ortog'rafi, for dhe yys and profit of lecr'norz and 
dhe saam aksept*ed akkord'iqli, Ii wil not oon*li spiid'ili imprint. 
dhe Grammar, but a'bso put mi Help*iq Hand untuu. a nes*essari 
Dik - sionari agririq tuu dhe saam, if God lend me liif, and dbat 
Ii mai bii eez*ed in dlie burd'n, dhat dyyti bi nat - yyr kompebcth 
mii spesia'lli tuu taak kaar of. 

English Pronunciation of Latin in the xvith Century. 

Information respecting this subject is given incidentally by Pals- 
grave, Salesbury, Smith, Bullokar and Gill. Palsgrave generally 
illustrates the French sounds by the Latin, "when pronounced 
aright" (supra p. 59), implying that there was a wrong, and there- 
fore perhaps a usual pronunciation, which is the one we most desire 
to learn. By combining these authorities the result seems to be as 

A aa, a, M ee, B b, C k, s, CH k, D d, dh, th, E ee, e, F, f, 
G g, dzh, GN qn, H h, I ei, i, J dzh, K k, L 1, M m, N n. KG qg, 
oo o, u, (E ee, P p, QU kiv, R r, S s, z, T t, th, TH th, U, vv, u. 
Vv, Xks, Y=I, Zz. 

1 By omission of the diacritics, this word is misprinted (lou). 


A may have been (a, a, se), but probably (a) only. 

M, (E Palsgrave says (i, 10) "be written in latine and nat 
sounded," i.e. I suppose, not sounded as diphthongs. It seems 
clear from Smith (supra p. 121) that the real sound of JE, and 
therefore probably of (E, was (ee). 

C was (k) before a, o, u and (s) before e, i according to 
present custom, and probably (s) before se, oe. 

CH=(k) according to Bullokar, supra p. 842, 1. 19. 

D. The only proper sound was (d), but we find Palsgrave saying 
of French D (i, 30) : " D in all maner thynges confermeth hym to 
the general rules aboue rehersed, so that I se no particular thyng 
wherof to warne the lemar, save that they sounde nat d of ad in 
these wordes, adultere, adoption, adoulcer, like th, as we of our 
tonge do in these wordes of latine ath athjuuandum for ad adjuuan- 
dum corruptly." I have assumed this th to mean (dh) as being 
derived from d. But Salesbury writes (kwith) for quid. 

E. Besides the regular sound of (ee, e), Salesbury shews that 
(ii) had crept in occasionally, compare (liidzh* it) = legit, p. 767. I 
do not find this mentioned by any other authority. 

G=(g) before a, o, u and (dzh) before e, i, as at present. Both 
Salesbury and Bullokar note and stigmatise the use of (qn) for GN, 
which seems to have been in general use. 

I short = (i) throughout. I long = (ei) in Salesbury, (oi) in Gill 
most probably. "Whether Bullokar said (ii) or (ei) depends on his 
English pronunciation of long I. It is to be observed that he as 
well as Smith (p. 112), does not admit the sound of (ii) in Latin. 
Hence Bullokar' s sound of long e'must have been quite distinct from 
(ii), as (ii, ii) are at this day kept quite distinct in Iceland and 
Teviotdale, in both cases perhaps by incliniug (ii) towards (ee), 
p. 544. 

T, usually (t), but when final often (th) as (anrath) amat, ac- 
cording to Salesbury, see D. Palsgrave also finds it necessary to 
say, in reference to the French word est : "if the next worde 
folowyng begyn with a vowell, it shall be sounded et : but neuer est 
sounding s, nor eth, soundynge t like th, for t hath neuer no suche 
sounde in the frenche tonge," (i, 44), which seems to be directed 
against this Latin usage. 

TH=(th) see supra p. 842, 1. 19. 

U vowel, when long seems to have been generally (yy) supra 
p. 841. But Palsgrave seems to consider this wrong, and to prefer 
(uu), supra p. 149. The short vowel could have been nothing 
but (u, «). 

Examples. — Latin spelling in Italics, pronunciation in Eoman 

Salesbury gives : agnus aq-nus, amat anrath, dederit ded'erith, 
dei dee - ei, dico derku, ego eg*u, ignis iq'm's, Jesu Dzhee*zyy, 
legit lirdzhtth, magnus maqmus, qui kwei, quid k^ith, sal saul, 
sanctus san'tus, sol sooul, tibi tei'bei, tollis tooud/s, lu tyy, vidi 
veidei, but objects to every one of these pronunciations. 

Bullokar writes, translating his symbols literatim : Cicero rheto- 


rica singulos vicit, SzVero rethor^ka sz'q'gyylooz vrs/t, corvus non voce 
cucidlum korvus non vo*se kyykuldum, p. 4. Georgius Gigas et 
Gilbertus gerunt gladium ad extinguendum gibbum germinantem in 
gula Dzheordzhms Dzhfgas et Gsdbertus dzherunt glacVmm ad 
ekst/qguen - dum gjdrbuni dzhermmandeni in gyyda, p. 5. Injustus 
jejunat jactuose non juxta juramentum Johannis mdzhusdus dzhe- 
dzhyynat dzhaktyyo'ze non dzhuksda dzhyyramen'tum DzhoHan - - 
nts p. 5. I?ivisus miser non deleciatur placidis musts mvrzus nirzer 
non delektadur plas*/d?'s niyyzz's, p. 6. Vitiosi judicium fugiunt ob 
punitionem stultitice suaxmo'zi dzhyyd«V«umfyy*dzh2unt ob pyyn*- 
sj'o'nem stult?Wee syyee. Unus vestrum cumulavit hunc acervum 
yynus vesdruin kyynryykvvit Huqk aser'vuni, p. 7. Thraso, 
Thales, Thessalia, Thra-so, Thades, Thessadf'a. Ignarus, magnus, 
lignum, iqna-rus, maqmus, hq/num. Bullokar in tbese examples 
has neglected to use his accents which mark length. 

Gill writes a few Latin names thus, the numbers refer to the 
pages of his Logonomia : Julius Ccesar Dzhyydras Se - zar 43. Cicero 
S»z - eroo 43, 85. Terentia Terendia 84. Crassus Rras'us 85. 
Hippia H»]Wa 85. Sylla Siha 85. Quintius Kwirrsms 86. Venus 
Ven-us 100. Cynthia Sindh/a 101. Phoebe Fee*be 101. Charissa 
Karis'a 101. Corydon KoWdon 103. Pyrocles Pirooddes 108. 

The use of (ei) for long I, seems to guarantee the old use of (ii), 
which may have been Bullokar' s pronunciation. And the use of 
(yy) for long U, seems to confirm the conjecture of its old use in 
the same sound, supra, p. 246, rather than (uu), because as (ii) 
changed into (ei), so would (uu) have changed into (ou), whereas 
(yy) is naturally preserved. This confirms to some extent the 
remark on p. 583, note 8. The only other important point is the 
non-development of si-, ti- before a vowel, into (she-), hereby con- 
firming the absence of this development in English, supra p. 214. 

§ 5. Alexander Gill's Phonetic Writing, 1621, with an 
examination of Spenser's and Sidney's Rhymes. 

Dr. Gill, born in the same year as Shakspere, and occupying the 
high literary position of head master of St. Paul's School, London, 
at the time of Shakspere's death, must obviously be considered as 
the best single authority for the pronunciation of the more educated 
classes in Shakspere's lifetime. Hence it is necessary in these 
examples to give prominence to what has fallen from his pen. We 
have had frequent occasion to lament that Dr. Gill has not ex- 
plained the value of all his signs with sufficient clearness. The 
reasons why I suppose his j to have been (oi), and his d and au to 
have been (aa) will be found on pp. 115, 145. 

The greatest difficulty in transcribing Dr. Gill's phonetic passages 
arises from the carelessness of the printing. Dr. Gill has furnished 
a list of Errata, which he requests may be corrected before reading, 
but in some instances these contain no corrections at all, and they 


are exceedingly deficient. The commencing and concluding obser- 
vations create difficulties : 

" Syllabai quae natura, sua, communes sunt, possunt etiam indif- 
ferenter per vocales longas aut breves describi, vt (sbal) aut (sIiaaI), 
(dans) aut (dAAns), (bi bii, ded deed, whoom whuum, modher, 
mudher, sai saai, mai maai, &c.) QuaBdam accentu variant, vt ibi 
dictum est : itaque in his nil titubabis. Errata leuiora prseteribis : 

cognita et agnita sic restitues Quinetiam characterum 

penuriam in I, pro J, quoties opus refarcies. Denique capite 25 et 
deinceps, accentuum notatio, longarum vocalium quantitati veniam 

It is evident that owing to these errors much doubt must be felt 
by a reader of the xixth century on many of the very points 
respecting which precise information is desirable. I had en- 
deavoured to correct errors by a reference to other occurrences of 
the same word. But after much consideration I determined to 
give a literal transcript of the text as it stands, as I have done 
for Hart and Bullokar, correcting only the errors marked in the 
errata and supplying the accent mark (•), so that the reader will 
be able to form his own opinion. I have used (i) for the short i, 
believing it to have been the sound intended by Dr. Gill. See also 
§ 7 of this Chapter. But I have let (i) stand for short * when it 
appeared to be a misprint for i'=(ii). 

Almost the only examples of phonetic writing as such, given by 
Dr. Gill, are Psalms 62, 67, 96, 97, 104 according to the Authorized 
Version, and as that version had only been published ten years 
when his book appeared, these transcripts possess a peculiar interest 
and are given at length. 

The poetical examples ate chiefly adduced to give instances of 
rhetorical figures, and are principally taken from Spenser and 
Sidney, — not one line from Shakspere being quoted throughout the 
book, which need not excite surprise, as the first folio edition of 
Shakspere's plays did not appear till two years after the publication 
of Gill's second edition. There are a few epigrams from Harring- 
ton, a poem of Withers, a song of Ben Jonson, and one or two 
other songs cited. I have thought it best to give all the longer 
quotations from Spenser's Faerie Queen in the order in which they 
occur in the poem, and to collect the other quotations according to 
the authors. We have thus a very tolerable collection of literary 
examples differing materially from the dry sticks furnished by 
Hart and Bullokar. Their main interest, however, consists in their 
being written phonetically by a man who was contemporary with 
nearly all the writers, and who therefore was able to furnish us 
with the pronunciation of English current in their time. We shall 
not go far wrong if we read like Dr. Gill. At the same time he 
clung to the older form of pronunciation, not admitting Harts (ee) 
for at, although lie does allow (deseev, konseev) which were the 
current pronunciations of the xvn th century, and apparently ad- 
mitted (oi, aa) which properly also belong to that period. It will 


be found that his quotations from Spenser often differ from Mr. 
Morris's (Globe) edition, sometimes designedly, sometimes perhaps 
from carelessness. 

How far Dr. Gill's pronunciation represented that of Spenser, 
Sidney, and the other authors themselves, is an interesting question ; 
but there is no direct means of answering it. The only path open is 
an examination of their rhymes. Accordingly Spenser's and Sidney's 
rhymes will be considered immediately after the specimens which 
Gill has given. And in the last section of this chapter not only 
Shakspere's rhymes, but also his puns will be examined for the 
purpose of determining his individual pronunciation. 

Extracts from Spenser's Faerie Queen. 

The references are to the book, canto, and stanza of the F. Q., and to the page 
of Gill's Logonomia. 

Mutsh gan dhei praaiz dhe triiz so straikht and Hai 

Dhe saiWq pain, dhe see'dar proud and tAAl, 

Dhe vainprop elm, dhe popdar never drai, 

Dhe biild'er ook, sool k«q of forests aaI, 

Dhe as - pm gud for staavz, dhe sai'pres fyyneral. 

1, 1, 8, p. 105. 
Dhe laa - dV sad tu sii ~B.iz soor konstraint - , 
Rraid out, ISou nou, sir knaikht, sheu what juu bii. 

1, 1, 19, p. 108. 
Nou, when dhe rooz^'-ftq/gred monWq faier 
"Wee-n of aadzhed Tarthoonz safem bed, 
Had spred Her purpl roob thrukh deu*i aier, 
And dhe Haikh mlz Trtan diskuvered. 

1, 2, 7, p. 106. 
Az when tuu ramz, st/rd w^'th amb«Wus praid, 
Faikht for dhe ryyl of dhe fair fliis-ed flok ; 
Dheir Horn'ed fronts so feers on eidlrer said 
Du miit, dhat with dhe termor of dhe shok 
Aston^'ed booth stand sensdes as a blok, 
Forget'ful of dhe Haq-«q vaktorai : 
So stuud dheez twain unmuuved az a rok. 

1, 2, 16, p. 99. 
. . . Mersi, mersi (Sir) voutsaar tu sheu 
On sil'i daam subdzhekt* tu hard nu'stshans\ 

1, 2, 21. p. 116. 
He'z direrest Laa"d« deed with feer Hii found, 

1, 2,44. p. 111. 

Her siinriq deed Hii found, with fahred feer. 

1, 2, 45. p. 111. 
gi mai frail eiz dheez lainz w?'th teerz du stiip, 
Tu th?'qk hou shii, thrukh goihful, han'dhq 
Dhokh tryy az tutsh, dhokh daukh'ter of a kiq, 
Dhokh faair az ever Kv«q waikht waz fair, 
Dhokh not in word nor diid il mer/t/q, 
Iz from Her knaikht divors'ed m dispair*. 

1, 3, 2. p. 114. 

848 gill's PRONUNCIATION OF SPENSER. Chap. VIII. § 5. 

Of graizdi Phrto shii dhe cLukht'er waz, 

And sad Proserpina dhe kwiin of hel : 

Jet shii did thiqk Her pirerles wurth tu pas 

Dhat parentadzh, -with, praid shii so did swel : 

And thurrdriq Dzhoov dhat Haikh in Hevn duth dwel 

And wiild dhe world, shii klainred for her sair ; 

Or if dhat an*i els did Dzhoov ekseb ; 

For tu dhee Harest shii did stil aspair 

Or if ooukht Hai-er weer dhen dhat, did it deezair. 

l, 4, 11. p. no. 
Ful man*i mis'tshiifs fobou kryyel wrath ; 
Abhored blud-shed, and tyymubtyyus straif, 
Unmandi murdher, and unthrrfti skath, 
Ik't'er dispait, -with, raqk'erus rust**" knaif, 
Dhe swebiq spliin, and fren'zi radzlriq raif. 

1, 4, 35. p. 106. 
Dhe waaIz weer Hai, but noth-iq stroq, nor thik ; 
And gookbn fuuil aaI over dhem displaaid* : 
Dhat pyyrest skai with, braikht'nes dheei dismaaid*. 

1, 4, 4. p. 98. 
With Hid'eus Horor booth togeedlrer smait, 
And sous so soor, dhat dheei dhe Hevn afrar. 

1, 5, 8. p. 98. 
Hii dzhentdai askt, wheer aaI dhe piipd bii, 
Whe'tsh in dhat staatdi biild'iq wunt tu dwel ? 
Whuu an-swereed Him ful soft, Hii kuuld not tel. 
Hii askt again*, wheer dhat saam knaikht was laid, 
Whoom greet Orgodio with pyyis*ans fel 
Had maad Hiz kartiv thral ? again* Hii said, 
Hii kuuld not tel. Hii asked dhen, whitsh wai 
Hii in maikht pas ? ignaa*ro kuuld not tel. 

1, 8, 32. p. 111. 
But, neidlrer dark'nes foul, nor fibthi bandz 
Nor norus smel, Hiz purpooz kuuld withHoold*. 

1, 8, 40. p. 104. 
But norus smel Hiz purpooz kuuld not Hoould 
But dhat with kon - stant zeel and kouradzh boould, 
AfVer loq painz and laa'bors man-ifoould ; 
Hii found dhe meenz dhat prizner up tu reer. 

1, 8, 40. p. 105. 
Dhen shal ai juu rekount* a ryyful kaas 
(Said nii) dhe whitsh with dhis unluk'i ei 
g;i laat bimelcb ; and Had not greet'er graas 
Mii reft from it, had biin partaak'er of dhe plaas. 

1, 9, 26. p. 100. 
"Wii met dhat viban, dhat vail mis'kreant, 
Dhat kurs-ed waikht, from whoom ai skaapt whaileer, 
A man of Hel, dhat kAAlz Himself- Despair*. 

l, 9, 28. p. 105. 
For what Hath loif, dhat mai it luved maak ? 
And givz not raadh'er kAAz it daidai tu forsaak? 


Feer, siknes, aadzh, los, laa'bor, soroou, straif, 

Pain, Huq-ger, koold, dhat maaks dhe Hart tu kwaak ; 

And ever fYkd fortyyn radzlri'q raif ; 

:Aa1 whitsh, and thouz^andz moo, duu mak a loth "sum laif. 

1, 9, 44. p. 103. 
Hii dhat dhe blud-red biToouz, laik a waaI 
On eidlrer said dispart - ed with Hi'z rod ; 
Til aaI h«z arnrai drai-fuut thrukh dhem jod. 

1, 10, 53. p. 106. 
Dim said, adoiur Hii luuk - ed tu dhe ground 
Tu Haav returnd* ; hut daazed weer ro'z ein 
Thrukh pas-i'q braikhtmes whitsh di'd kwait konfound - 
Hi'z fiib'l sens, and tuu eksiid'i'q shain. 
So dark aar thi'qz on eerth kompaard tu thi'qz di'vain*. 

1, 10, 67. p- 116. 
So doun Hii fel, and fuurth Hi'z laif did hreeth 
Dhat van'i'sht i'n'tu smook, and kloud % ez swift : 
So doun mi fel, dhat dh-erth Him underneeth- 
Did groon, az fiib'l so greet lood tu lift : 
So doun Hii fel, az a Hyyclzh rok'i khft 
"Whuuz £aa1s foundaa'Sibn waavz hav washt awai*, 
And rooul'ihg doun greet Nep - tyyn duth disniar, 
So doun Hii fel, and laik a heep'ed momrtain lai. 

1, 11, 54. p. 121. 
. . . moost wretsh'ed man 

Dhat tu afek'sibnz duz dhe braid'l lend : 

In dheir begiirm'q dhei ar week and wan, 

But suun throukh suf'ferans, groou tu feer'ful end : 

Whailz dhei are week, bi'taimz - with dhem kontend', 

For when dhei oons tu perfekt streqth du groou, 

Stroq warz dhei maak, and kryyel bat'ri bend 

Gainst fort of Eeez-n, it tu overthroou. 

Wrath dzhel'osi, griif, luv, dhi's skwair Hav laid thus loou. 

Wrath dzhel'osi, griif, luv, du dhus ekspel* 
Wrath is a fair, and dzhehosi a wiid ; 
Griif i'z a flud, and luv a monaster fel : 
Dhe fair of sparks, dhe wiid of h'td siid ; 
Dhe flud of drops, dhe mon-ster filth did briid : 
But sparks, siid, drops, and filth du thus delai - : 
Dhe sparks suun kwentsh, dhe spnq/iq siid outwiid', 
Dhe drops drei up, and filth waip kleen awai*, 
So shal wrath, dzhehosi, griif, luv, dai and dekai\ 

2, 4, 34. 35. p. 123. 
No trii, whuuz bran*tshez did not braavli spri'q ; 
No brantsh, wheron- a fain burd di'd not sit ; 

No burd, but did ma shri'l noot swiitdai si'q ; 

No soq, but d/d kontahr a luvdai di't, 

Triiz, bran - tshez, burdz, and soqz, weer fraanred fit 

For to alyyr - frail maindz tu kaardes eez : 

Kaarles dhe man suun woks, and Hi'z week Wit 


"Waz overturn of thiq dhat did mm pleez. 

So pleez - ed, did mz wrath-ful kuuradzh fair apeez\ 

2, 6, 13. p. 123. 
And iz dher kaar in Heevn ? and iz dher luv 
In Heevnlai sptWts tu dheez kree'tyyrz baas, 
Dhat mai kompas'ion of dheir iivlz muuv ? 

2, 8, 1. p. 118. 
. . . AaI dhat plees'iq iz tu liviq eer, 
Waz dheer tonsort'ed in oon Harmonii. 
Burdz, vois'ez, in*stryyments, waa - terz, waindz, aaI agrii. 

Dhe dzhorus burdz shroud-ed in tsheerful shaad 

Dheir noots un - tu dhe vois attenrpred swiit : 

Dh- andzheekikal soft trenvbliq vois'ez maad 

Tu dh- wrstryyments divahv respomdens miit : 

Dhe sikver sound'iq in-stryyments did miit 

"With dhe baaz murmur of dhe waa-terz fAAl : 

Dhe waa-terz fAAl with dif-erens diskriit - 

Nou soft, nou loud, un'tu dhe waind did kAAl, 

Dhe dzhentd warbliq waind loou answered un-tu aaI. 

2, 12, 70. 71. p. 118. 
Ne let m'z faairest Sin - thia refyyz - 

In mirorz moor dhen oon Herself- tu sii, 

But eidh-er Glooriaa-na let Hir tshyyz 

Or in Belfee-be fash'ioned tu bii : 

In dh- oon Her ryyl, in dh- odh-er Her raar tshas-titii. 

Pre/, to 3, st. 5. p. 101. 
Hyydzh see of sor-oou, and tempest'eus griif, 
Wheerin* mai fiibd bark iz tos-ed loq, 
Par from dhe Hoop*ed Haavn of reliif- : 
"Whai du dhai kryyel bikooz beet so stroq, 
And dhai moist nioun-tainz eetsh on odher throq, 
Threet-iq tu swakoou up inai- feer-ful laif ? 
du dhai kryyel wrath and spait-ful wroq 
At leqth alai-, and stint dhai storm -i straif, 
"Whitsh in dheez trubded bou'elz rainz and raadzlreth raif. 
For els mai fiibd ves-el, kraazd and kraakt, 
Kan-ot endyyr. 

3, 4, 8, p. 99. 

Fordhai* shii gaav Him warn-iq everi daai 
Dhe luv of winren not tu entertain - ; 
A lesm tuu tu Hard for liviq klaai. 

3, 4, 26. p. 100. 
So tikd bii dhe termz of mor-tAAl staat, 
And ful of sut'1 sof'izms whitsh du plai 
"With dubd scns-ez, and with ±'aa1s debaat.* 

3, 4, 28. p. 97. 
Unthaqk-ful wretsh (said Hii), iz dhis dhe miid 
"With whitsh Her soverain mei"si dhou dust kwait ? 
Dhai laif shii saaved bai ner graa-sius diid : 
But dhou dust meen with vikenus dispart* 


Tu blot Her oiror and Her neevnk' laikkt. 
Dai, radk'er dei, dhen so dj'sloralai 
Diiui of Her Haikk dezert - , or siim so laikkt, 
Paair deetk it iz tu shun moor skaam, dken dai ; 
Dai, racUrer dai, dken ever luv d/sloi - alai. 

But if tu luv d/sloi-altai it bii, 

Shal ai dken Haat Her [dkat] from deetk - ez door 

Mii broukkt ? an, far bii sutsk reprootsk* from mii, 

Wkat kan ai les du dken Her luv dkerfoor - , 

S?tk ai Her dyy reward - kannot - restoor ? 

Dai, raadk-er dai, and daWq duu Her serv, 

DaWq Her serv, and liWq Her adoor - . 

Dkai laif skii gaav, dkai laif skii dutk dezerv. 

Dai, raadk'er dai, dken ever from Her serves swerv. 

3, 5, 45. 46. p. 121. 

D/skurteus, dzsloi'AAl BnVomart ; 
Wkat ven - dzkans dyy kan ek - wal dkei dezart ; 
Dkat Hast with, skaanrful spot of sen'ful lust, 
Defaild - dke pledzk komiVed tu dkai trust ? 
Let ugdai skaam and end - les m'famai 
Kuher dkai naam w^tk foul reproo - tskez rust. 

4, 1, 53. p. 118. 

Amoq* dkeez knaikkts dkeer weer tkrii bredk'ern boould, 

Tkrii booulder bredk'ern never wer iborn - , 

Born of oon mudk - er m oon Hap - e moould, 

Bom at oon burdk - en in oon nap - ^ morn, 

Tkraiz Hap^" mudk - er, and tkrais kap - i morn, 

Dkat boor tkrii sutsk, tkrii sutck not tu bii fond. 

Her naam waz Ag - ape, wkuuz tskz'hdren weem 

:Aa1 tkrii az oon; dke first Haikkt Praraniond, 

Dke sek'ond Daramond, dke Juq-gest Traraniond. 

Stout Praraniond, but not so stroq tu straik ; 
Stroq Daramond, but not so stout a knaikkt ; 
But Traramond, waz stout and stroq alaik\ 
On Hors-bak yyzed Traramond tu faikkt, 
And Praraniond on fuut Had moor delait* ; 
But Hors and fuut knyy Daramond tu wiild, 
"WYtk kurt'aks yyzed Daramond tu smait ; 
And TYarainond tu Handd speer and skiild, 
But speer and kurt - aks botk, yyzd Praraniond in fiild. 
4, 2, 41, 42. p. 124. 

. . . Doun on dke bhuW plain 
Herself* skii tkryy, and teerz gan sked amain - , 
Amoqst - Her teerz irnuuks'/q prarerz miik, 
And w^tk ner prarerz, reez-nz tu restrain - 
Prom bhuW straif. 

4,3,47. p. 110. 

852 gill's pronunciation of Sidney. Chap. VIII. § 5. 

Shii Held nir wratlrful Hand from veirdzhans soor. 
But drAA'fc'q neer, eer mi Her wel biheld : 
Iz dhes dhe faith (shii said ?) and said no moor, 
But turnd nix fast, and fled awar for evermoor. 

4, 7, 36. p. 103. 
Fresh shad-oouz, f«t tu shroud from snn'i rai ; 
Fair landz, tu taak dhe sun in seezm dyy ; 
Swiit spn'qz, in wlu'tsh a thouz*and mmfs did plai ; 
Soft runrbh'q bruuks, dhat dzhentd sluniVer dryy ; 
Heikh reerea mounts, dhe landz about tu vyy ; 
Loou luuWq daalz, dzsloind - from konron gaaz ; 
Delait-ful bourz, tu sobas luverz tryy ; 
Fair lab'ermths, fond run - erz eiz tu daaz : 
:Aa1 wbitsh bai naa'tyyr maad, did naa-tyyr self amaaz - . 

4, 10, 24. p. 114. 
But nii Her supd/ant Handz, dhooz Handz of goold ; 
And iik Her f iit, dhooz f iit of silver trar 

"Wlu'tsh sooukht unraiklrteusnes and dzhusWs soold, 

Tshopt of, and naild on Haikh, dhat aaI maikht dhem bmoold". 

5, 2, 26. p. ill. 

Extracts from Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia. 

. . . Reez-n tu mi pas - e'on iild-ed 
Pas'ton un'tu mi raadzh, raadzh tu a HasW revendzh*. 

3, 1. p. 110. 

And Haavt'q plaast mai thoukhts, maithoukhts dhus plaa'sed mii, 
Mii thoukht ; nai, syyr ai waz, ai waz in faairest "Wud 
Of Samothe^a land, a land dhat whaibum stuud 
An on*or tu dhe world, whail on-or waz dheir end. 

4, 9. p. 113. 
Dhe feir tu sii mii wroqd for aq*ger bunreth, 
Dhe aarer in teerz for main afk'k'sz'on wiip*eth, 
Dhe see for griif tu eb m'z floou^'q tunreth, 

Dhe eerth with nit'i dul Her senior kiip*eth, 

Faam iz with wund - er blaaz-ed, 

Taim fliiz awar for soroou, 

Plaas stand - eth stil amaaz*ed, 

Tu sii mai naikht of iivlz wlu'tsh Hath no moroou. 

Alas, aaI oondai shii no nit'i taak - eth 

Tu knoou mai nu'z'eraiz, but tshaast and kryyel 

Mai fAAl nir gloo'ro maak*eth. 

Jit stil niz eiz giv tu mai flaamz dheir fyyel. 
Fair, burn mii kwait til sens of bunWq leev mii : 
Arer, let me drAA dhis breth no moor in aq-gm'sh : 
See, dround in dhii of vrtal breth bireev mii : 
Erth, taak dhis eerth wheenir mai spirits laq*gu«sh : 

Faam, sai ai waz not born, 

Taim, Hast mai daWq ou*er : 

Plaas, sii mai graav uptorn* 

Fair, arer, see, eerth, faam, taim, plaas, sheu juur pour. 


Alas - , from aaI dheir helps am ai eksaild-, 
For Herz am ai, and deeth feerz mv displeez-yyr ; 
Fai deeth, dhou art bigaihed, 
Dhokh ai bii Herz, shii sets bai mii no treez-yyr. 

3, 15. p. 125. 

Extracts from Sir John Harrington's Epigrams (a.d. 1561-1612. 
Fai but a mans d/sgraast*, noo'ted a nova's. 
Yee but a mans moor graast, noo - ted of no vais. 
Dhe miid of dhem dhat luv, and du not h'v aim's-. 

2, 17. p. 113. 
gi kAAld dhii oons mai dii-eerest Mai m vers. 
"WTu'tsh dhus ai kan interpret ^f ai w*l, 
Mai direrest Mai, dhat iz, mai kost'hest i\. 

2, 81. p. 112. 
Tu praaiz mai waif, juur dAAkht'er, (so ai gadh-er) 
Juur men sai shii resenrbleth moost »r fadh-er. 
And ai no les tu praiz juur sun, mv brudh-er, 
Affirm- dhat mi iz tuu mutsh laik roz mudlrer. 
Ei knoou not «'f wii dzhudzh araikht - , or er, 
But let nim bii laik juu, so ai laik Her. 

2, 96. p. 112. 
Markus neer seest tu ven-ter aaI on praim, 
Til of m'z adzh kwait waas-ted waz dbe praim. 

2, 99. p. 112. 

"Wheer dwelz Mister Kaarles ? 

Dzhest'erz Hav no dweWq. 
Wheer laiz Hi ? 

in ro'z tuq bai moost menz teWq. 
Wheer boordz Hi ? 

Dheer wheer feests aar found bai smeWq. 
"Wheer baits Hi ? 

:Aa1 behaind - , gainst aaI men jeWq. 

3, 20. p. 118. 
Konsenr/q waivz Hoould dh/s a sei-tain ryyl, 
Dhat ii at first juu let dhem Haav dhe ryyl, 
Juurself" at last with, dhem shal Haav no ryyl, 
Eksept' juu let dhem ever-moor tu ryyl. 

3, 33. p. 109. 

Songs and Miscellaneous Extracts. 
"What ii a dai, or a munth, or a Jeer, 

Kroun dhai dezairz* with a thou-zand -wislit konten-foqz ? 
Kannot dhe tshauns of a naikt or an ouer 

Kros dhai delaits- with, a thousand sad tormen-ti'qz ? 
Fortyyn, on*or, beu-fa', Jyyth, 
Aar but blos-umz draiq [daWq] : 

"Wan-ton pleez-yyr, dooWq luv, 

Aar but shacbdoouz flor/q. 

:Aa1 our dzhoiz, aar but toiz 

g[idd thoukhts deeseev^'q. 


Noon Hath poirer of an ou'er 
In. dheir laivz bireev'tq. 

Tkomas Campion, p. 144, with the music. 
Faaier bai na'tyyr biWq born, 
Borooud beu't* sbii duth skom. 
Hii dhat k/s - eth Her, niid feer 
Noo unHool'sum verm'sh dheer ; 
For from dhens, mi oondei seps 
Dhe pyyr nek'tar of Her lips : 
And with dbez at oons Hii klooz'ez, 
MelWq ryy'biz, tsher/z, rooz-ez. 
George Withers, p. 98. 

Nou dhat dhe Herth iz kround w^th smaiWq faier 
And sum du drtqk, and sum du dAAns, 
Sum nq 
Sum siq, 
And aaI du straiv t- advAAns - 
Dhe myyz^'k Harer : 

Wheerfoor shuuld ai 
Stand srlent bai ? 
"Whuu not dhe leest 
Booth luv dhe kAAz and AA'torz of dhe feest. 

Ben Jonson, ode 14. p. 143. 
Main eiz, no eiz, but foun-tainz of mai teerz : 
Mai teerz, no teerz, but fludz tu moist mai Hart : 
Mai Hart, no Hart, but Harbour of mai feerz : 
Mai feerz, no feerz, but f iiWq of mai smart. 

Mai smart, mai feerz, mai Hart, mai teerz, main eiz, 
Ar blaind, draid, spent, past, waast'ed with, mai kraiz. 
And Jit main eiz dhokh blaind, sii kAAz of griif : 
And jit mai teerz, dhokh draid, ran doun amaahr : 
And lit mai Hart, dhokh spent, atendz" reliif - : 
And jit mai feerz, dhokh past, mkrees' mai paain : 
And Jtt ai LV, and liviq fill moor smart : 
And smarWq, krai m vain, Breek hev'i Hart. 

Song, "Break Heavy Heart." p. 119. 
Swiit thooukhts, dhe fuud on wh&tsh ai fiid't'q starv ; 
Swiit teerz, dhe drtqk dhat moor AAgment* mai thirst ; 
Swiit eiz, dhe starz bai whrtsh mai kours duth swarv ; 
Swiit Hoop, mai deeth whe'tsh wast mai loif at ftrst ; 
Swiit thooukhts, swiit teerz, swiit Hoop, swiit eiz, 
Hou tshAAnst dhat deeth iu swiitmes laiz ? 

Song, " Deadly Sweetness." p. 119. 
Maa'tshil iz Haq'ed, Dhe diil Haz -im. faq-ed 

And hrened iz h/z byyks. In h/z kryyk'ed klyyks. 

Dhokh Maa'tsh/1 iz naq^ed Maa*tsh?l iz Haq*ed 

JYt mi iz not wraq - ed. Anb [and] bren-ed iz mz byyks. 

Reus Macchiamllus, Northern Dialect, p. 122. 
Raaz-zq mai Hoops, on h/Iz of Haikh dezair, 
Thfqk'zq tu skaal dhe neevn of n/r Hart, 
Mai slend - er meenz prezumd 1 [prezyymd*] tuu Hai a part. 


Her thund - er of disdain - forst mii retair, 
And thryy mii doun &c. 

Daniel, Delia, Sonnet 31. p. 99. 
Kontent - whuu Hvz with traid estaat, 
Niid feer no tshandzh of froun - iq faat : 
But Hii dhat siiks, for un - kno.oun - gain, 
Oft h'vz bai los, and leevz w«th pain. 

Specimen of Phonetic Spelling, p. 20. 
Dhe loq ar laa - zi, dhe litd ar loud : 
Dhe fair ar slut'f'sh, dhe foul ar proud. 

p. 76. 
Praiz of an Haikh rekmiq-, an a trik tu bii greet - lii renoun-ed 
Juu with juur prik-et purtshast. Lo dhe vik - tori faa - mus 
"With tuu godz pak'/q* oon wunran s«TK tu kuz-n. 

Accentual Hexameters. Stanihurt's Translation of 
Virg. Mn. 4, 93-95. p. 100. 

Psalm 62. p. 20. 

1 Tryydai mai sooul wait - eth upon - God : from mm kum - eth mai 
salu[v]aa - s«'on. 2 Hii oondai iz mai rok and mai salvaa - sibn: Hii iz 
mai defens - , ai shal not hi greetdai muuved. 3 Hou loq wil jii 
linadzlrm nus-tshiif against" a man ? jii shal hi slain aaI of juu : 
az a bou - «q waaI shall ji bii : and az a tot'eiv'q fens. 4 Dheei 
oondai konsult - tu kast mm doun from He's ek - selensai, dheei delart 
in laiz : dheei bles with dheeir mouth, but dheei kurs m - wardlai - 
SehaH. 5 Mai sooul wait dhou oondai upon - God : for mai ekpek- 
ta'sibn iz from mm. 6 Hii oondai iz mai rok and mai salvaa - s?'on ; 
Hii iz mai defens - ; ai shal not bi muuved. 7 In God iz mai sal- 
vaa - s/on and mai gloo'ri; dhe rok of mei streqth and mai ref-yydzh 
iz in God. 8 Trust in mm at aaI taimz ji piipd ; pour out Juur Hart 
bifoor - mm : God iz a ref-yydzh for us. Sel-am 9 Syyr - lai men 
of loou degrii - ar van - ?tai, and men of nai degrii" ar a lei : tu bi 
laid in dhe bahans, dheei ar AAltogedlrer laikht - er dhen vamitai. 
10 Trust not m opres - /on, bikum - not vain in roberai ; if n'tsh-ez 
mkrees - , set not Juur Hart upon - dhem. 11 God Hath spookm 
oons ; twais Haav ai Haard dhis, dhat pour biloq - eth un - to God. 12 
:Aa1 - so un - to dhii, oo Lord, biloq - eth niersi : for dhou remderest 
tu everai man akkord - iq tu m'z wurk. 

Psalm 67. p. 21. 
1 God bi mers/ful yy[u]n - tu us and bles us : and kAAz m'z faas tu 
shain upon - us. Sehan. 2 Dhat dliai waai maai bi knooun upon 
eerth, dhai saav/q neelth amoq - aaI naa - sionz. 3 Let dlie piip-1 
praiz dhi, oo God; let aaI dhe piip-1 prais dhii. 4 O let dhe 
naa - s«'onz bi glad, and s/q for dzhoi : for dhou shalt dzhudzh dhe 
piipd raikht-euslai, and govern dhe naa - s*bnz upon - eerth. Sehan. 

5 Let dhe piip-1 praiz dhii oo God ; let aaI dhe piipd praaiz dhii. 

6 Dhen shal dhe eerth jiild m'r ?h - krees ; and God, iivn our ooun 
God, shal bles us. 7 God shal bles us, and aaI dho endz of dhe 
eerth shal feer Him. 


Psalm 96. p. 22. 

1 stq uirtti dhe Lord a nyy soq ; s«q un - tu dhe Lord aaI dhe 
eerth. 2 Sz'q un - tu dhe Lord, bles uiz naam ; sheu fuurth hzz 
salvaa*sion from dai tu dai. 3 Deeklaar mz gloo'ri amoq - dhe 
Heedh'en : mz wiurderz amoq* aaI piipd. 4 For dhe Lord iz 
greet, and greetdai tu bi praiz - ed : Hii iz tu bi feered abuv aaI 
Godz. 5 For aaI dhe godz of dhe naa - szbnz ar ai - dolz : but dhe 
Lord maad dhe Heevnz. 6 On - or and Maa - dzhestei ar bifoor 
H?m : streqth and beu - tz ar in h?'z sank - tuarai. 7 Giv un'tu dhe 
Lord (oo jii km - drez of dhe piip'l) giv un - tu dhe Lord gloo - n and 
streqth. 8 Giv un'tu dhe Lord dhe gloo - r? dyy un-tu h«z naam : 
brtq an of - nq and kum m - tu h/z kuurts. 9 worship dhe Lord 
in dhe beu - ti of Hoodmes : feer bifoor' Him aaI dhe eerth. 10 
Saai amoq* dhe Heedlren dhat dhe Lord reeimeth : dhe world 
aa1 - so shall bi established dhat it shal not bi muuved : Hii shal 
dzhudzh dhe piipd raiklrteuslai. 11 Let dhe Heevnz redzhois - , 
and let dhe eerth bi glad : let dhe see roor and dhe fulmes dheerof - . 
12 Let dhe fiild bi dzhorful, and aaI dhat iz dhenir : dhen shal 
aaI dhe triiz of dhe wud redzhois - 13 Bifoor - dhe Lord; for Hii 
kunreth, for Hii kunreth tu dzhudzh dhe eerth : Hii shal dzhudzh 
dhe world with, raiklrteusnes, and dhe piipd with, mz tryyth. 

Psalm 97. p. 22. 

1 Dhe Lord reehreth ; let dhe eerth redzhois : let dhe muHi- 
tyyd of dhe ailz bi glad dherof. 2 Kloudz and darkmes ar round 
about Him : raiklrteusnes and dzhudzlrment ar dhe Habitaa - sibn of 
mz throon. 3 A fai - er go - eth bifoor* mm : and bunreth up uiz 
en - emaiz round about* 4 H*'z laikht - n?qz - hlaikht - ned dhe world : 
dhe eerth sau, and trenrbled. 5 Dhe rolz mehVed laik waks at 
at dhe prez*ens of dhe Lord ; at dhe prez*ens of dhe Lord of dhe 
whool eerth. 6 Dhe Hevenz deklaar* mz raiklrteusnes : and aaI 
dhe piipd sii mz gloo*re. 7 Konfound-ed bi aaI dheei dhat serv 
graavn ai'madzhez, and boost dhemselvz of ardolz : wur*sh*p Him 
aaI ji godz. 8 Sron Haard, and waz glad, and dhe dAAkh*terz 
of 7u*da redzhois*ed : bikauz* of dhai dzhudzh -ments, oo Lord. 
9 For dhou Lord art haikh abuv aaI dhe eerth : dhou art eksahted 
far abuv aaI godz. 10 Jii dhat luv dhe Lord, Haat iivl ; Hii 
prezerveth dhe sooulz of hzz saints : Hii del-'vereth dhem out of 
dhe Hand of dhe wz k*ed. 1 1 Laikht iz sooun for dhe raiklrteus, 
and gladmes for dhe up - raikht in Hart : 12 Redzhois - in dhe Lord, 
jii raikdrteus : and giiv thaqks at dhe remenvbrans of mz Hoodmes. 

Psalm 104. p. 23. 

1 Lies dhe Lord, oo moi sooul : oo Lord mai God dhou art vert 
greet : dhou art kloodlred with On - or and Madzh - estai. 2 Whuu 
kuverestdhai self with. laikht, az with a garment: whuu stretsh - est 
out dhe Hevnz laik a kurtain ; 3 Whuu lai'eth dhe beemz of h?'z 
tsham - berz in dhe waadcrz ; whuu maaketh dhe kloudz h/z 
tshar'et : whuu walk - eth upon - dhe wi'qz of dhe waind. 4 Whuu 

Chap. Till. $ 5. GILl/s BIBLE PRONUNCIATION. 857 

maak*eth mz an*gelz sp«Wts : m'z rmh*«sterz a flaanWq fai*er. 
5 "VThuu laid dhe foundaa*s?bnz of dhe eerth : dhat it shuuld not 
bi remuuved for ever. 6 Dhou kuverest it with dhe diip az with. 
a garment : dhe waa*terz stuud abuv dhe moun-tainz. 7 At dhai 
rebyyk* dheei fled: at dhe vois of dhai thund*er dheei Haast*ed 
awai. 8 Dheei go up bai dhe mount*ainz, dheei go doun bai dhe 
valdeiz un*tu dhe plaas wh/tsh dhoti Hast found*ed for dheni. 9 
Dhou Hast set a bound dhat dheei mai not pas over : dhat dheei 
turn not again tu kuver dhe eerth. 10 Hii sendeth dhe spriqz 
m*tu dhe vaHeiz ; whz'tsh run amoq* dhe mlz. 11 Dheei g»v drtqk 
tu evrai beest of dhe fiild ; dhe waild as*es kwentsh dheeir thirst. 
12 Bai dhem shal dhe foulz of dhe Hevn Haav dheeir Hab*taa*s*bn, 
whz'tsh seq amoq* dhe bran*shez. 13 Hii waat - ereth dhe h/Iz from 
H«z tshanrberz : dhe eerth iz satdsfaied with dhe fryyt of dhai 
wurkz. 14 Hii kAAz eth dhe gras tu groou for dhe kat*el, and 
Herb for dhe serves of man : dhat Hii mai br*'q fuurth fuud out of 
dhe eerth. 15 And wain dhat maak*eth glad dhe Hart of man, and 
oil tu maak mz faas tu shain, and breed whz'tsh streqthmeth mans 
Hart. 16 Dhe triiz of dhe Lord ar ful of sap: dhe see*darz of 
LeVanon whj'tsh Hii Hath plant*ed. 17 "Wheer dhe be'rdz maak 
dheeir nests : az for dhe stork dhe fYr triiz are Eti hous. 18 Dhe 
Haikh m'lz ar a ref'yydzh for dhe waild goots : and dhe roks for 
dhe kun*«'z. 19 Hii apuuint*ed dhe muun for seez*nz ; dhe sun 
knoou*eth mz goo*eq doun. 20 Dhou maak*est darkmes, and it iz 
naikht : wheerm* aaI dhe beests of dhe forest du kriip fuurth. 
21 Dhe juq laronz roor afVer dheeir prai, and siik dheeir meet 
from God. 22 Dhe sun araiz*eth, dheei gadb/er dheniselvz* tu- 
gedh*er, and lai dhem doun in dheeir denz. 23 Man go*eth 
fuurth un*tu niz wurk ; and tu h«'z laa*bor, until* dhe iivm'q. 24 
Lord hou man*«foould ar dhai wurks ? m w?'z*dum Hast 
dhou maad dhem aaI : dhe eerth iz ful of dhai ra'tsh-ez. 25 
So iz dh?'s greet and waid see, wheerm* ar thzqz kriip *«'q 
innunrerabl, booth smAAl and greet beests. 26 Dheer go dhe 
ships ; dheer iz dhat Levrathan [ Levai*athan ? ] whuum dhou 
Hast maad tu plai dheerin*. 27 Dheez wait aaI upon dhii dhat 
dhou maist giv dhem dheeir meet in dyy seez*n. 28 Dhat dhou 
gi'vest dhem dheei gadh*er : dhou oopmest dhei Hand, dheei ar 
M*ed with gud. 29 Dhou naid*est dhai faas, dhei ar trubded : 
dhou taak*est awai* dheeir breth dheei dai, and return* tu dheeir dust. 
30 Dhou send'est forth [fuurth] dhai spzWt, dhei ar kreaat*ed : 
and dhour enyyest dhe faas of dhe eerth. 31 Dhe gloo'r* of dhe 
Lord shal indyyr* for ever : dhe Lord shal redzhois* m h/z wurks. 
32 Hii luuk'eth on dhe eerth, and it trenrbleth : Hii toutslreth 
[tutsh*eth ?] dhe Hdz and dhei smook. 33 *ji wil s/q mrtu dhe 
Lord az loq as ai li\ : ai wil praiz mai God whail ai naav mai 
biWq. 34 Mai meditaa'sjon of H?m shal bi swiit : ai w/1 be glad 
in dhe Lord. 35 Let dhe snrerz bi konsunred [konsyynred ?] out 
of dhe eerth, let dhe wik*ed bii no moor : bles dhou dhe Lord, oo 
mai sooul. Praiz jii dhe Lord. Amen. 


858 edmund spenser's rhymes. Chap, viii. $ 5. 

An Examination of Spenser's Rhymes. 
An inspection of the examples of Spenser's pronunciation as given 
by Dr. Gill, pp. 847-852, shews that as Dr. Gill read them the rhymes 
were not unfrequently faulty. 1 If then this authority is to be 
trusted we have entirely left the region of perfect rhymes, and have 
entered one where occasional rhymes are no guide at all to the pro- 
nunciation, and very frequent rhymes are but of slight value. Still 
it seemed worth while to extend the comparison further, and see 
how far Spenser in his rhymes conformed to the rules of pronun- 
ciation which we gathered from contemporary authorities in Chap. 
III. Before, however, giving the results of an examination of all 
the rhymes in the Faerie Queen, I shall examine the bad rhymes in 
contemporary poems of considerable reputation, in order that we 
may see and understand what limits of approximation in the sound 
of rhyming vowels and even consonants, some of our best versifiers 
deem to be occasionally or even generally sufficient, that is, how 
closely they approach to final or consonantal rhyme (p. 245) on the 
one side, and assonance on the other. For this purpose I have se- 
lected Thomas Moore and Alfred Tennyson. Every one admits that 
Moore was at least a master of the mechanical part of his art. His 
lines are generally rhythmical, and his rhymes good, as might be 
expected from a song writer with a delicate perception of music. 
Of his writings I choose the most elaborate, the Loves of the Angels, 
and Lalla Rookh, and note all the rhymes which are false according 
to my own pronunciation. Of Tennyson, who is also a master of 
his art, I select the In Memoriam, as his most careful production 
in regular rhymed verse, and do the like with it. The following 
are the results. 

Mode of Reference. 

FW 1, 2 Fireworshippers, part 1, paragraph 2. 

LA prol., Loves of the Angels, prologue. LA 2, 8. Do., story 2, paragraph 8. 

LH 6, Light of the Harem, paragraph 6. 

PP 24, Paradise and the Peri, paragraph 24. 

VP 3, 17, Veiled Prophet, part 3, paragraph 17. 

T 28, Tennyson's In Memoriam, section 28. Tep. Do. epilogue. 

The examples are arranged according to the sounds, which, according to my 
pronunciation, are different, but must have been identical, according to the pro- 
nunciation of the poets, if the rhymes are perfect. 

Faulty Rhymes observed in Moore and Tennyson. 

I. Both rhyming syllables accented. 

(aa)= (je) last hast VP 2, 24 

command brand VP 1 2 [in all these cases the first word is 

command hand VP 3 5 — T ep. occasionally pronounced with (ae), 

glance expanse LA 1, 20. PP 5. more frequently with (ah).] 

1 In the few extracts that are given (Britomart - dezart' 4, 1, 53. Harmonii 

we find: (aaI fyyneral 1, 1, 8. waz agrii 2, 12, 70. tshas'titii bii 3, intr., 5. 

pas 1, 4, 11. whoileer despair 1, 9, 28. disloralai dai 3, 5, 45.) The spelling 

luv muuv 2, 8, 1. mora weern 4, 2, 41. here used is the preceding translitera- 

fbikht smoit 4, 2, 42.) And the fol- tion of Dr. Gill's, the references are to 

lowing seem to be forced, a double book, canto, stanza, of the Faerie Queene. 
value to -er, and -y being assumed, 



(aa)=(A, aa, o, oo) 
bar war VP 3, 14 
guard lord T 124 
haunts wants T 96 [the first word has 

sometimes (aa), and the second either 


(aa.z) = (ei, j.) 
hearth earth T 30. 76 

(aa, xx) — {ee) 
vase grace VP 2, 5. [the first word is 
very rarely called (yees), or (yeez) 
generally (vaaz, vaaz).] 

(A) = (aa), see (aa)=A) 
(AA) = (aa), see (aa) = (AA) 
(aa) =(<#), see (ee) = {w) 
(ae)=(aa), see (aa)=(ae) 
amber chamber FW 4, 37 [the second 
word in these cases is usually 
(tshmn-bj), occasionally (tshaam-b-t); 
I do not know (tshaenrbi).] 
clamber chamber FW 1, 8 
have grave T 54 

death faith T 80. 106. 112. 
said maid VP 1, 28 [the word said is 

perhaps occasionally called (seed.).] 
unsaid maid T 72 

. <&r(0 

heaven driven FW 1, 1. 1, 15. 2, IK 

4, 8. LA 2, 42. VP 1, 33. 2, 33. 
heaven forgiven LA 1, 14. 2, 13. 2, 65. 

FW 4, 1. PP 32. 
heaven given FW 1, 2. 4, 4. 4, 7. 4, 

24. LA 1, 9. 2, 8. 2, 37. 2, 46. 3, 1. 

3, 5. LH 23. VP 1, 3. 1, 19. 1, 25. 

2, 8. 2, 24. 2, 27.— T 16. 39 
heaven o'erdriven T 61 
heaven riven FW 3, 1. LH 6 
heaven unriven VP 3, 11 

[any attempt to say (m'vn) would 

no doubt have been scouted by any 

poet, but all poets allow the 


inherit spirit PP 14 [(speWt) is now 

thought vulgar] 
yes this FW 3, 2 [compare Sir T. 
Smith, supra p. 80]. 

breath beneath LA 1, 15. 2, 2. VP 2, 

breath underneath T 98 
breath wreath LH 18. 22. VP 1, 9 
death beneath FW 1, 17. 1, 18. 3, 6. 

3, 14.— T 40 

death sheath FW 4, 28. VP 1, 2. 

death wreath FW 2, 13.— T 71 

death underneath VP 3, 17 

deaths wreaths LA 2, 63 

heaven even FW 1, 17. LA 1, 6. 2, 

38. PP 26. VP 1, 34 
treads leads v. FW 4, 25 

(ei, i) = (ooi, oo i) 
earth forth LA 3, 13. LH 30 

(ej,j)=(aai) see (aaj)=(ei, j) 

done upon FW 2, 1 1 

done gone LA 1, 12 

dusk kiosk VP 1, 24 

one gone LH 5 

one on T 42. 80. 82. ep. 

one upon LA 2, 71. PP 32 

rough off LH 5 

run upon VP 1, 34 

shun upon LA 2, 43. 2, 62 

sun upon LA 2, 17. VP 1, 1 

(o) = (oo) 
above grove LH 2 
above love wove LA 3, 8 
beloved roved LH 3 
come home LA 2, 74. 3, 8. LH 18 

twice. 22. VP. 2, 33. 3, 17.— T 6. 

8. 14. 39. 
discover over LH 4 
love grove LH 20 
love rove VP. 1, 18. 2, 35 
lover over LH 1. 6. 
loves groves FW 1, 9. LH 6. VP 1, 13. 
one alone LH 24.— T 93 
one shone VP 1, 15. LA prol. 5 
one tone FW 4. 25 


blood good T 3. 33. 53. 82. 104 

blood stood FW 2, 12. 2, 13. 4, 9 

blood understood VP 1, 27. 3, 21 

bud good T ep. 

flood good T 126 

flood stood FW 1, 13. 1, 18. 2, 8. 3, 

11. 4, 29. PP 9 
flood wood LH 25— T 84 
floods woods PP 12.— T 83 
shut put T 35 
thrush push T 89 

(a) = (uu) 
beloved moved T 51 
blood brood FW 1, 2, 3, 1. 4, 4. 
blood food FW 3, 14. 
come dome FW 1,1. 
come tomb FW 2, 9.— T 83 
flood food VP 2, 5, 

love move FW 4, 7. LH 5.— T 17. 
25. 39. 100 



love prove T prol. 26. 47. 83. 

loved proved PP 15. VP 1, 20.— T 103. 

129. ep. 
loved removed LA 3, 10.— T prol. 13. 
loved unmoved FW 1, 3. 2, 12. LA 1, 

16. VP 2, 27 
loves moves T ep. 
some dome -^judgment VP 1, 16 

(el, j) = (oj, ooi) 
curse horse T 6 
words chords LA 2, 36. 2, 67. LH 33. 

VP 2, 17.— T 47 
word lord LA prol. 2. 

(8.1, j) = (oo.i, ooi) 
return' d mouru'd FW 2, 13 
urn mourn T 9 

[some persons say (muum] 
word adored VP 1, 29 
word sword FW. 1, 13. 2, 3 
words swords VP 1, 2. 1, 8 

(ee) = (ii) 
bear fear T prol. 
bears years T 51 
wears tears s. LA 1, 15 

(e<?) = (aa), see (aa) = (ee) 

(ee) = (ae), see{zd)=(ee) 

(ee) = (e), see (e) = (ee) 

(ee) = (ii) 
to day quay T 14 


Christ mist T 28 

Christ evangelist T 31 

behind wind s. VP 1, 8 

blind wind s. VP 3, 5 

find wind s.T8 

kind wind s. VP 3, 2.— T 106 

mankind wind *. T 28 

[many readers always read (woind) 
in poetry instead of wild ; Gill 
has generally (waind) even in 

(8i) = (0i) 
I joy T ep. [the pronunciation (oi 
dzhoi) would be out of the question] 

(8u) = (oo, oou) 
brow below LH 5 
brow know T 89 
down grown VP 2, 10 
down own LA 2, 39. PP 24 
now low T 4 
powers doors T 36 

shower pour LH 2. [the pronunciation 
(poui) is now vulgar.] 

(*)=(e), *«e(e) = (t) 
(i) = (8i), see (8i) = («) 
did seed T ep. 

(ii)=(e), s«*(e)=(ii) 
(ii) = (ee), see (ee) = (ii) 
(ii) = (ee), see (ee) = (ii) 

(iu) = (uu) 
anew through LA 3, 10 
anew two VP 3, 27 
dew through VP 2, 4 
ensue through T 115 
few true FW 1, 17 
hue drew LA 1, 20 
hue knew through LA 1, la 
hue threw LH 25 
hue too VP 1, 36 
hue true FW 3, 10 
hue who VP 3, 3 

[if hue is pronounced (jhuu) and not 
(mu) the six last cases may be 
esteemed rhymes.] 
knew too FW 1,13 
new too T 13 
perfume bloom LA prol. 2 
perfume gloom T 93 
lure sure VP 1, 29 
lute shoot VP 1, 29. [some say (luui, 

mute flute VP 3, 2. [some say (fliut).] 
view true VP 1, 23. [some say (triu).] 
use chose T 34 
yew through T 74 

(o)=(aa), see (aa)=(o) 
(o)=(a), w«(a) = (o) 


font wont T 29. [some say (wont) and 

others (wont).] 
God rode FW 3, 5. 4. 15 
gone alone LA 1, 20. 2, 71. LA prol. 

5. VP 2, 10— T 103 
gone shone FW 2, 9. PP 18. VP 1, 

29. LA 1, 3. [some say (shon).] 
loss gross T 40 
lost boast T 1 
lost ghost T 91 

lost most LA 3, 7. 3, 9— T. 27. 83 
tost host VP 3, 6 
on shone LA 1, 2. 2, 20. VP 1, 7. 

[some say (shon).] 
wan shone FW 4, 15 

(oi)=(ai), see (8i) = (oi) 

(oi)=(sj, .i), see (ar, j) = (o.i) 

(or, oo.i)=(ooj, ooj) 
lord adored FW 4, 12 

Chap. VIII. § 5. 



storm form T 16. [some say (foorm) 
always, others distinguish (fooim) 
shape, (fooxm) seat.] 

(oo) = (a), see (a)=( 00 ) 
(00= (au), see (an)=(oo) 


mode good T 46 

(00= (uu) 
door moor T 28. [some say (moo.x).] 
hope group FW 4, 16 
more moor T 40. [probably a rhyme 

riche p. 246, as : here hear T 35.] 
more poor T 77 

(ooi)=(ej, x), see (ex, j) = (ooj) 

(ooj) = (oj), see (oi)=(oai) 

(001) = (ai, j), see (8.1, j) = (ooj) 

(0011)= (an.), see (au) = (oou) 

(w) = (a), see (a) = (w) 

(tf) = (oo), see (00)= (w). 

foot brute T prol. 
good food VP 2, 33 
woods moods T 27. 35. 87 

(uu) = (a), see (a) = (uu) 

(uu) = (iu), see (iu) = (uu) 

(uu) = (oo), see (00)= (uu) 

(uu) = («), see (m)=(uu) 


breathe wreath s. VP 2, 7 

breathes sheaths FW 1, 2 
breathes wreathes LH 2 

(i)=(oj, ooj), see (oi, ooi) = (i) 
(j) = (ooj, oai), see (001, ooj) = (i) 

(s) = (z) 

bliss his VP 1, 2 

else tells T 75 

face gaze T 32 

grace vase VP 2, 5 [adopting the pro- 
nunciation (vaaz, vaaz) or (veez), 
this is faulty ; only the unusual (\ees) 
saves the rhyme.] 

house s. boughs T 29 

(th) = (dh), see(dh)=(tli) 

(z) = (s), see (s)=(z) 

house s. bows T 35 

house s. vows T 20 

ice flies T 105 

paradise eyes LA 2, 11. VP l r 3.— T 

24. ep. 
peace disease T 104 
peace these T 88 
race phase T ep. 
this is PP 10.— T 20. 34. 83. 

II. An ITnaccented Rhyming toith an Accented Syllable. 

(«!, i) unaccented =(e J, j) accented 
islander myrrh VP 3, 4 

(ei, x unace. =(iix) ace. 
universe fierce VP 1, 25 

(■el, sel) tinacc.=(A.A.l) ace. 
festival all VP 3, 19 
musical fall VP 2, 17 

(im, sen) unace. = (aan, ahn) ace. 

circumstance chance T 62. [some say 
(sj-k^mstaens 1 ) with a distinct secon- 
dary accent on the last syllable.] 

countenance chance T 112 

deliverance trance VP 3, 18 

inhabitants plants LH 10 

utterance trance LH 33 

visitant haunt VP 1, 12 

(tjm, am) unace. = (oom) ace. 
masterdom home T 100 

(un, an) unace. = (an) ace. 
Lebanon sun FW 2, 11. PP 22 
orison one VP 1, 22 

^) unace. = (bi) ace. 
agony I, LA 2, 42 
energies cries Till 
harmony die LA 2, 42 
insufficiencies eyes T 110 
miseries eyes FW 4, 7 
mysteries replies T 37 
obscurity lie LA 2, 60 
prophecies rise T 90 
sympathy die T 30 
sympathy I T 61 
tastefully hie VP 2, 2 

(i) unace. = (ii) ace. 
agonies sees FW 1, 13 
armory see VP 3, 1 
canopies breeze VP, 3, 2 
constancy be T 21 
desperately sea FW 1, 17 
destinies please LA 3, 15 
energies ease VP 2, 7 
eternities seas VP 2, 7 
exquisite sweet FW 3, 13 
harmonies breeze VP 2, 10. LH 17 
history be T 101 

862 edmund spenser's rhymes. Chap. VIII. $ 5. 

immensity see LA 1, 20 partially thee VP 1, 21 

immortality thee VP 2, 9 philosophy he T 52 

impatiently me LH 10 poesy thee T 8 

instantly sea LH 19 purity bee LA 2, 16 

mockeries breeze VP 1, 9 purity be LA 1, 7. 1, 16 

mystery thee T 95 solemnly she LA 2, 44 

mystery sea LA 2, 38 witchery free LH 24 

mysteries these LA, 2, 41 yieldingly three LA prol. 4 

Some of these rhymes, as may be seen, are justifiable by diver- 
sities of pronunciation. Others are really rhymes of long and short 
vowels. But others cannot be made into rhymes with the help of 
any known received pronunciations. Thus : — 1) bar war, guard 
lord, clamber chamber, amber chamber, have grave, heaven given 
[veiy common], heaven even [also common], death beneath, death 
sheath, &c. [common], earth forth, one gone, rough off, above grove, 
oome home [very common], love grove &c, one alone &c, blood, 
good &c, flood stood &c, thrush push, blood food, come tomb, love 
move &c, curse horse, word lord [so that as we have : guard lord, 
we might have : word guard !] word sword, Christ mist, I joy, brow 
below, down grown &c, now low, loss gross, lost boast &c, mode 
good, hope group : — 2) breathe wreath, breathes sheaths, bliss his, 
else tells, house s. boughs &c, ice flies &c. — are about as bad rhymes 
as can be, the first division being purely consonantal rhymes, and the 
second mere assonances. The rhymes of an unaccented and accented 
syllable are all bad, but the double use of unaccented final -y, -ies, 
to rhyme either with (-ii, -iiz) or (-ai, -aiz) at the convenience of the 
poet is really distressing ; compare : agony I, agonies sees ; energies 
cries, energies ease ; harmony die, harmonies breeze ; mysteries re- 
plies, mysteries these &c. It is at once evident that any attempt to 
derive the pronunciation of the xix th centuiy from an examination 
of modern rhymes must utterly fail. 

Now the extended examination of Spenser's rhymes above named, 
leads to a similar result. It would not only be impossible from 
them to determine his pronunciation, but his usages cross the 
known rules of the time, even if we include Hart's varieties, so 
multifariously, that the poet was evidently hampered with the 
multiplicity of rhyming words which his stanza necessitated, 1 and 
became careless, or satisfied with rough approximations. 

The language in which he wrote was artificial in itself. It was 
not the language of the xvi th century, but aped, without reflecting, 
that of the xv th. The contrast between the genuine old tongue of 
Chaucer, or modern tongue of Shakspere, and the trumped up tongue 
of Spenser, which could never have been spoken at any time, is 
painful. Coming to the examination of Spenser's rhymes fresh from 
those of Chaucer, the effect on my ears was similar to that pro- 
duced by reading one of Sheridan Knowles's mock Elizabethan Eng- 
lish dramas, after studying Shakspere. It is sad that so great a poet 
should have put on such motley. 

1 The scheme of his rhymes isababbcbcc, necessitating 2, 3, and 4 
rhyming words. 

Chap. VIII. $ 5. 



Sometimes, either the author or the printer, — it is impossible to 
say which, but in all subsequent citations I follow Mr. Morris, 1 ! — 
seems to think he can make a rhyme by adopting an unusual spell- 
ing. At other times unusual forms of words, long obsolete or else 
provincial, are adopted, and different forms of the same word chosen 
to meet the exigencies of the rhyme. 

Unusual Spellings and Forms for appearance of Rhymes. 

infusd chusd = chose used 2, 2, 5 

fire yre stire = s^> 2, 5, 2. 

draws jawes wa.vres=icaves 2, 12, 4. 
[see Salesbury, supra p. 785.] 

strond hond fond stond = strand hand 
found strand, 2, 6, 19. londfond = 
land found 3, 2, 8. hand understand 
ioni=found 3, 1, 60. [here the two 
first words have been left unchanged.] 

aboord affoord foor& = aboard afford 
ford 2, 6, 19. 

entertayne demayae= demean 2, 9, 40 

paramoure succoure floure =floor poure 
2, 10, 19. 

fayre ha.xre = heir sh.ayre= share 2, 10, 

vreet=wit v. feet 2, 10, 71- [tveet is con- 
stantly used.] 

gate hate awate = aumit 2, 11, 6. 

assault exault withhault = withheld 
fault 2, 11, 9. fault hault assault 6, 

2, 23. 

tooke strooke =«!'?•?«;& 2, 12, 38. strooke 
looke 2, 12, 38. broken stroken 
wroken, 6, 2, 7. tooke strooke 
awooke looke 6, 7, 48. 

\ele = veil unhele concele 2, 12, 64. 
vele appele revele 3, 3, 19. vele con- 
cele 4, 10, 41. Florimele vele 5, 3, 

paynt faynt taynt A.a.jni = dainty 3, 
intr. 2. 

way convay = cowwy assay way 3, 1, 2. 

surcease encrease preasse =press peace 

3, 1, 23. preace = press surcease 
peace 4, 9, 32. 

fayre debonayre com^ayre= compare, 
repayre 3, 1, 20. fayre prepayre = 
prepare 3, 4, 14. chayre = chere, dear, 
ayre, fayre 3, 5, 51. 

sex wex — xvax v. vex flex =fiax 3, 1, 47. 

beare appeare theare 3, 2, 11. 

accomplishid = -ed hid 3, 3, 48. 

dim = climb swim him 3, 4, 42. 

alive deprive atchi\e= achieve 3, 5, 26. 

strowne sowne ower&owne =overfiowed 

3, 9, 35. 

towne crowne downe compassiowne 3, 

9, 39. 

bloud stoud remoud = blood stood re- 
moved 3, 9, 43. 

furst nurst = -first nursed 3, 11, 1 . 

rowme renowme = room renown 3, 11,47- 

food feood =feud blood brood 4, 1, 26. 

craft draft = draught beraffc = bereft 
engraft 4, 2, 10. 

burds = birds words lords 4, 2, 35. 

appeard reard affeard sweard=sMWfi? 

4, 3, 31. 33. 

s\> = speech empeach reach 4, 10, 36. 

yeares peares =peers 4, 10, 49. 

powre recoure — recover boure stoure 4, 

10, 58. lowre conjure recure =recover 

5, 10, 26. 

"Waterford boord = board 4, 11, 43. 
clieffe grieffe = c/;jf griefs, 12, 5. 
grieve misbelieve shrieve mieve =move 

4, 12, 26. 

layd sayd mayd denajd= denied 4, 12, 

course sourse wourse = source worse, 5, 

intr. 1. 
hard outward shard— sheared 5, 1, 10. 
achieved believed prieved =proved 5, 4, 

33. grieved relieved reprieved, 5, 

6, 24. 

enter, bent her, adventer = adventure, 

center 5, 5, 5. 
knew rew = row vew dew 5, 5, 22. 
threw a\evr = halloo few 5, 6, 13. 
hight keight = caught dight plight 3, 

2, 30. fight dight keight 5, 6, 29. 
wond fond koni = ivoned found conned 

5, 6, 35. 

bridge ridge, \idge= ledge 5, 6, 36. 
$mot= smote forgot not spot 5, 7, 29. 

1 The Globe edition Complete "Works 
of Edmund Spenser, edited from the 
original editions and manuscripts by 
R. Morris, with a memoir by J. W . 
Hales, London, 1869. In this edition 
the stanzas of the Faerie Queen are 

numbered, and hence my references to 
book, canto, and stanza can be easily 
verified. It has not been considered 
necessary to extend this examiuation 
beyond the Faerie Queene. 


edmund spenser's rhymes. Chap. Vlll. § 5. 

br&st = burst fast past 5, 8, 8. just lust 

thrust bmst = burst 5, 8, 22. 
strooke shooke quooke = quaked 5, 8, 9. 

betooke skooke quooke 6, 7, 24. 
had bad sprad 5, 9, 25. 
price devise flourdelice 5, 9, 27. 
Eirene [iu two syllables] cleue strene = 

strain, race 5, 9, 22. 
treat extr eat = extract great seat 5, 1 0, 1 . 
happiuesse decesse= decease wretched- 

nesse 5, 10, 11. 
left theft reft gie£t=yift 5, 10, 14. 
streight bright quight des]>igkt= quite 

despite 5, 11, 5. quight sight des- 

pight sight 6, 11, 25. 

strooke smooke = struck smoke looke 

shooke 5, 11, 22. 
doole=dole schoole foole 5, 11, 25. 
askew hew arew=o» a row blew = blue 

5, 12, 29. 
espyde cryde scryde eyde= espied cried 

(de) scried eyed 5, 12, 38. 
erst, pearst =pierced 6, 1, 45. earst 

\>earst=erst pierced 6, 3, 39. 
reliy'd =relieved reviv'd riv'd depriv'd 

3, 8, 3. 
abroad troa& = tread s. 6, 10, 5. 
flud -flood mud 6, 10, 7. 
brest drest chest kest = breast dressed 

chest cast 6, 12, 15. 
gven=yrin v. men when 6, 12, 27. 

Occasionally, but not very often, Spenser indulges in unmistakable 
assonances, or mere consonantal rbymes, or anomalies, which it is 
very difficult to classify at all, as in the following list. 

Anomalies, Eye Rhymes, Assonances. 

mount front 1, 10, 53. 

fyre shyre conspyre yre 1, 11, 14 [here 
shyre was a mere rhyme to the eye.] 

away decay day Spau 1, 11, 30. 

bath wrath h&t , tia.=hateth hath 2, 2, 4. 

bough enough 2, 6, 25 [where enough 
is quantitative and not numerative.] 

mouth drouth couth = could 2, 7, 58. 

towre endure sure 2, 9, 21. [conso- 
nantal rhyme.] 

deckt sett =decked set 2, 12, 49. [an 

Chrysogonee degree 3, 6, 4, [but] Chry- 
sogone alone gone throne 3, 6, 5. 
[the very next stanza, whereas the 
former spelling is reverted to in 3, 

6, 51.] 

nestoverkest = owra?s<, opprest3, 6, 10. 
more store yore horrore = horror 3, 6, 36. 
stayd strayd sayd denayd = dented 3, 

7, 57. day tway demy = deny dismay 

3, 11, 11. 

gotten soften often 4, intr. 5. [an 

health wealth deal' th= dealeth stealth 

4, 1, G. [this may only be a long and 
short vowel rhyming.] 

nialignc benigne indigne bring 4, 1, 30. 
[even if -i»-ne is pronounced (-ign), 
as occasionally in Gill this will only 
be an assonance.] 

follie jollie dallie 4, 1, 36. 

evill drevill devill 4, 2, 3. [even when 
the two last words rhymed, as they 
were usually spelled, as drivel divel, 
they only formed consonantal rhymes 
with the first, and the spelling seems 

to have been changed to make an 
yborn morne morne werne=wi?m* 4, 

2, 41. [see above p. 858, note.] 
mid hid thrid = thread undid 4, 2, 48 
emperisht cherisht guarisht florisht 1, 

3, 29 [consonantal rhymes.] 
discover mother other brother 4, 3, 40 


aimed ordained 4, 4, 24 [assonance] 

ventred= ventured entred = entered 4, 
7, 31 [this would have been a rhyme 
in the xvn th century.] 

dum = dumb overcum mum becum = 
become 4, 7, 44, [here the spelling 
seems unnecessarily changed, the 
rhyme being, probably, good.] 

foure paramoure 4, 9, 6 [consonantal 
and eye rhyme] 

-woont — ivont hunt 5, 4, 29. [change of 
spelling probably used to indicate 
correct pronunciation, compare] 
wount hunt 6, 11, 9. 

neare few 5, 4, 37 [this may be con- 
sidered as an assonance, (neer feeu), 
which takes off much of the harsh- 
ness apparent in the modern (niii 

grovell lcvell 5, 4, 40 

warre marre darre farre = war mar 
dare far 5, 4, 44, [the spelling ap- 
parently altered to accommodate 
dare, which had a long vowel, the 
others having short vowels.] 

thondred sondred encombred nombred 

5, 5, 19, encomber thonder asonder 

6, 5, 19, [assonance] 

endevour labour favour behaviour 5, 5, 


35 [part assonance, part consonantal most ghost host enforst= enforced, 6, 

rhyme.] 3, 39. [not only are the consonants 

attend hemcl = hemmed kemd = kempt different in the last word, hut the 

combed portend 5, 7, 4, [assonance, vowel is probably short and not long 

it is curious that kemd was unne- as in the others.] 

cessarily forced in spelling.] queason reason season seisin 6, 4, 37. 

discover lover endever ever 5, 7, 22 ["With the last rhyme compare Sales- 

[consonantal rhyme]. rjury's seesyn (seez-t'n) for season, 

stronger longer wronger = wrong doer, p. 783.] 

5, 8, 7. [Did Spenser say (stroq-er maner dishonor 6, 6, 25. 

ncoq-er), or (stroq-ger, rwoq'ger), hideous monstruous hous battailous 6, 

or did he content himself with an 7, 41. [consonantal or eye rhyme, 

assonance ? I lately heard (sfq/gj) unless Spenser called hous (hus).] 

from a person of education.] live v. give drive thrive 6, 8, 35. [con- 

desynes betymescrymes clymes = designs sonantal or eye rhyme], forgive drive 

betimes crimes climbs 5, 9, 42. [as- live v. grieve 6, 9, 22. 

sonance.] alone home 6, 9, 16. [assonance.] 

tempted consented invented 5, 11, 50. wood stood bud aloud 0.ud=Jlood 6, 10, 

[assonance.] 6. [Did Spenser, like Bullokar, say 

washt scracht = washed scratched 5, 12, (aluud - ) ?] 

30. [assonance.] turne mourne learne 6, 10, 18. [con- 

roade glade =did ride, glade 6, 2, 16. sonantal rhyme.] 
[consonantal rhyme.] 

The above examples, "which it does not require any historical 
knowledge to appreciate, are amply sufficient to prove that Spenser 
allowed himself great latitude in rhyming, so that if we find him 
continually transgressing the rules of contemporary orthoepists, we 
cannot assume that he necessarily pronounced differently from all of 
them, or that he agreed with one set rather than another. "When 
however we come to examine other words which he has rhymed 
together, where his rhymes, if they could he relied on would be 
valuable orthoepical documents, we find not only apparent anticipa- 
tions of usages which were not fixed for at least a century later, 
but such a confusion of usages that we cannot be sure that he was 
even aware of these later pronunciations. Hence his rhymes not 
only do not shew his own custom, but they do not justify us in 
supposing that the more modern practice had even cropped up in 
stray cases. The principal conclusion then to be drawn from such 
an examination is that we have left the time of perfect rhymes, ex- 
emplified in Chaucer and Gower, far behind us, and that beginning 
at least with the xvi th century we cannot trust rhymes to give us 
information on pronunciation. The previous examination of the 
rhymes of Moore and Tennyson shew that the same latitude yet 
remains. The esthetic question as to the advantage of introducing 
such deviations from custom does not here enter into consideration. 
But it would seem sufficiently evident that they arose at first from 
the difficulty of rhyming, 1 and there is no doubt that they remain in 
the majority of cases for the same reason. Their infrequency, and 
the mode in which they are generally disguised by othography, or 
apparently justified from old usage, would seem to imply that the 
poet did not in general consciously adopt them, as musicians have 
adopted and developed the use of discords, in order to produce a 

1 See what Chaucer says, supra p. 254, note 2. 



Chap. VIII. § 5. 

determinate effect. Hudibras is of course an exception, and all 
burlesque poems, where the effect intended is evident and always 
appreciated, but is not exactly such as is sought for in serious 
poems. 1 The following examples from Spenser may seem over 
abundant, but the opinion is so prevalent that old rhymes determine 
sounds, and Spenser's authority might be so easily cited to upset the 
conclusions maintained in the preceding pages on some points of im- 
portance, that it became necessary to show his inconsistency, and 
the consequent valuelessness of his testimony, by extensive citations. 
The arrangement as in the case of the modern poets is by the sounds 
made equivalent by the rhymes, but Dr. Gill's pronunciation, as de- 
termined by his general practice is substituted for my own. At the 
conclusion a few special terminations and words are considered, 
which I could not conveniently classify under any of the preceding 

Anomalous and Miscellaneous Rhymes in Spenser. 

(a) = (aa) 
awakt lakt = awaked lacked 2, 8, 51. 

blacke lake make partake 5, 11, 32. 
lambe came 1, 1, 5. lam sam dam = 

lamb same dam 1, 10, 57. anie=d« 

dame same 1, 12, 30. 

starr farr ox — are 1, 1, 7- 

gard hard ward prepard =prepared 1, 

3, 9. 
was chace 6, 3, 50. 
waste s. faste waste v. 1, 2, 42. past 

last hast = haste 1, 4, 49. 

1 Those who wish to see the ludicrous 
and consequently undesirable effect 
which is often produced by such false 
rhymes, should consult a very amusing 
book called : Ehymes of the Poets by 
Felix Ago. (Prof. S. S. Haldeman), 
Philadelphia, 1868. 8vo. pp. 56. 
These rhymes are selected from 114 
writers, chiefly of the xvnth and 
xviii th centuries, and were often cor- 
rect according to pronunciations then 
current. The following extract is from 
the preface : "/£ is better to spoil a 
rhyme than a word. In modern nor- 
mal English therefore, every word 
which has a definite sound and accent 
in conversation, should retain it in 
verse ; great should never be perverted 
into greet to the ear, sinned into signed, 
grinned into grind, or tvind into toind " 
(wind, woind). "A few words have 
two forms in English speech, as said, 
which Pope and Th. Moore rhyme with 
laid and head ; and again, which 
Shakespeare, Dryden, and Th. Moore 
rhyme with plain and then, and Suck- 
ling with inn." " The learned Sir 
"William Jones is the purest rhymer 
known to the author, questionable 
rhymes being so rare in his verse as not 
to attract attention. His Arcadia of 
368 lines has but forlorn and horn ; 
god, rode; wind, behind; mead, reed 

{mead of meadow being med and not 
meed)." In a foot note he cites the 
rhymes : mead head, meads reeds 
Dryden, tread head Herrick, mead 
reed Johnson. " Caissa of 334 lines, 
Solima of 104, and Laura of 150, 
are perfect. The Seven Fountains, 
of 542 lines, has only shone — sun, and 
stood — blood. The Enchanted Fruit, 
574 lines, has wound — ground twice, 
which some assimilate. The few ques- 
tionable rhymes might have been 
avoided; and these poems are suf- 
ficiently extended to show what can be 
done in the way of legitimate rhyme. 
Versifiers excuse bad rhymes in several 
ways, as Dr. Garth [a.d. 1672-1719] — 
III lines, but like ill paintings, are allow'd 
To set off and to recommend the good : 
but it is doubtful whether the Doctor 
would thus have associated allow'd and 
good, if he could have readily procured 
less dissonant equivalents. Contrari- 
wise, some authors make efficient use 
of what to them are allowable rhymes, 
and much of the spirit of Hudibras 
would be lost without them. 

Cardan believ'd great states depend 
Upon the tip o' th' Bear's tail's end ; 
That, as she whisk'd it t'wards the Sun, 
Strew'd mighty empires up and down ; 
Which others say must needs be false 
Because your true bears have no tails ! 




(aa)=(aa) ? or=(a) ? 

[in most of the following as in some 
of the preceding one of the words has 
now (ee).~\ 

ame=a«i came shame 1, 5, 26. 
prepar'd hard far'd 2, 11, 3. reward 

hard prepar'd 3, 5, 14. [compare 3, 

8, 14. 4, 2, 27. 5, 4, 22.] 
hast= haste fast 1, 6, 40. haste past 

fast hast v. 1, 9, 39. tast = taste cast 

2, 12, 57. [compare 3, 2, 17. 3, 7, 38. 

6, 10, 35. 6, 12, 16.] 

gave have crave brave 1, 1, 3. wave 
save have 2, 6, 5. brave have sclave 
2, 7, 33. [compare 2, 8, 24. 2, 10, 6.] 

w initial does not affect the 
subsequent a ? 

ran wan 1, 8, 42. man wan a. began 
overran 2, 2, 17. ran wan v. wan a. 
can 2, 6, 41. began wan a. 3, 3, 16. 

farre starre arre=«re warre 1, 2, 36. 

ward saufgard far'd 2, 5, 8. reward 
far'd shard 2, 6, 38. 2, 7, 47. 
hard regard reward 3, 1, 27. 3, 5, 
14. 4, 2, 27. ward unbard = un- 
barred far'd 4, 9, 5. 

dwarfe scarfe 5, 2, 3. 

was gras has 1, 1, 20, was pas 1, 1, 30. 

1, 8, 19. was grass pas alas ! 1, 9, 36. 

2, 1, 41. 2, 6, 37. was masse 2, 9, 
45. has was mas 2, 12, 34. 3, 4, 23. 

5, 7, 17. was chace 6, 3, 50. 

«?=(al, aal, aa!)? 
fall funerall 1, 2, 20. fall martiall call 

1, 2, 36. shall call fall 3, I, 54. vale 
dale hospitale avale = hospital avail 

2, 9, 10. 

(ee) = (aa) 
[The following rhymes in one stanza 
shew that ea could not have had the 
same sound as long a : speake awake 
weake shake sake be strake knee bee = 
be, 1, 5, 12, but the spelling and 
rhyme would lead to the conclusion 
that ea and long a were identical in :] 

weake quake bespake 3, 2, 42. 

dare spear 3, 10, 28, fare share com- 
pare appeare 5, 2, 48. fare whyleare 
prepare bare 6, 5, 8. 

regard rear'd 3, 8, 19. 

grace embrace c&ce = case encrease 2, 

7, 16. 

late gate retrate = retreat 1, 1, 13. 
estate late gate retrate 1, 8, 12. 4, 
10, 57. 5, 4, 45, 5, 7, 35. intreat 
late 4, 2, 51. treat late iugrate hate 

6, 7, 2. entreat obstinate 6, 7, 40 

nature creature feature stature 4, 2, 44. 

veceave =receive gave have 2, 10, 69. 

endevour, save her, favour, gave her 5, 
4, 12. have save gave leave 5, 11, 
46, leave have 6, 1, 9. save reave 
forgave gave 6, 7, 12. 

(ai) = (aa) 
[The word proclaim has a double 
form with or without i, as we have 
seen supra p. 253, and similarly for 
claim ; the latter word has both forms 
in French, hence such rhymes as the 
following are intelligible.] 
proclame overcame dame same 1,12, 20, 
frame same name proclame 2, 5, 1. 
came game fame proclame 5, 3, 7. 
clame shame 4, 4, 9. came name clame 
same 4, 10, 11. came clame tame 
4, 11, 12. 

[The following rhymes, however, 
seem to lead to the pronunciation of ai 
as long a, and if we took these in the 
conjunction with the preceding, where 
ea is equal long a, we should have ai = 
ea as in Hart, and both = long a, con- 
trary to the express declarations of 
contemporary orthoepists, and to the 
rhymes of long a with short a already 
given. ' As Spenser's contemporary, 
Sir Philip Sidney apparently read ai 
as (ee) in Hart's fashion, see below p. 
872, Spenser may have adopted this 
pronunciation also, and then his rhymes 
of ai, a, were faulty. But it is im- 
possible to draw any conclusion from 
Spenser's own usage.] 
Hania day 2, 10, 24. sway Menevia 3, 
3, 55. pray day JEmylia 4, 7, 18. 
say Adicia 5, 8, 20. 
staide= stayed made shade displaide 1, 
1, 14. 5, 4, 38. made trade waide 
= iveighed 1, 4, 27. made dismaide 
blade 1, 7, 47. 6, 10, 28. layd sayde 
made 1, 8, 32. said made laid 2, 7, 
32. displayd bewrayd made 2, 12, 
66. mavd blaed = blade dismayd 3, 
1, 63. playd made shade 3, 4, 29. 3, 
10, 10. decayd disswade 4, 9 34. 
taile entraile mayle bale 1, 1, 16. 
whales scales tayles 2, 12, 23. faile 
prevailc bale 3, 7, 21. assayle flayle 
avayle dale 5, 11, 59. 
slaine paine bane 2, 11, 29. retaine 

Gloriane 5, 8, 3. 
aire rare spare 1, 2, 32. fayre dispayre 
sha.jve= share 1, 3, 2. chaire fare 
sware bare 1, 3, 16. faire bare 1, 4, 
25. ware =aicare faire 1, 7, 1. declare 
fayre 1, 7, 26. fare whylebare dispayre 
rare 1, 9, 28 [see p. 858, note.] fayre 


Chap. VIII. § 5. 

hayre shayre = share 2, 10, 28. 6, 2, 
17. repaire care misfare share 4, 8, 
5. care aire faire 4, 8, 8. haire —hair 
[certainly (ireer)] bare are [certainly 
(aar)] faire 4, 11, 48. faire care 5, 9, 
40. faire despaire empaire misfare, 
5, 11, 48. 

faire compare, 1, 2, 37 [see : compare 
appeare under (ee) = (aa).] payre 
prepare 1, 3, 34. fayre prepaire stayre 
declare 1, 4, 13. fayre hayre = hair 
(certainly (Heer) even in Chaucer,] 
ape prepayre 1,5, 2. rare faire com- 
paire 1, 6, 15 faire repaire v. restore 
rare 1, 8, 50. 3, 2, 22. fayre dis- 
payre ayre prepayre 2, 3, 7 com- 
payre fayre 2, 5, 29, faire debonaire 
prepaire aire 2, 6, 28, ayre prepayre 
2, 11, 36. 3, 4, 14. fair threesquare 
spare prepare 3, 1, 4. fayre debon- 
ayre compayi - e repap-e 3, 1, 26. 3, 5, 
8. faire compare share 4, 3, 39. rare 
fare prepare faire 4, 10, 6. repayre 
fayre prepayre ayre 4, 10, 47- 

grate v. bayte 2, 7, 34. state late debate 
baite, 4, intr. 1. late gate awaite 
prate 4, 10, 14. gate waite 5, 5, 4. 

dazed raizA— dazed raised, 1, 1, 18. 
amaze gaze praize 6, 11, 13. 

(ai) = (ai)? 
streight might fight 5, 10, 31. streight 
bright quight despight 5, 11, 5. 
streight right fight 5, 12, 8 ; [if we 
adopt the theory that Spenser's ei 
was generally (ee), these examples 
shew a retention of the old sound as 
in the modern height, sleight, al- 
though (heet, sleet) may be occa- 
sionally heard.] 

aught = ought, 
raught ought fraught saught = sought 2, 
8, 40. raughtwroughttaughtwrought 
2, 9, 19. 

(ee) = (e) = (ii)=(ai) 
leach ^physician teach 1,5,44. speach = 

speech teach 6, 4, 37. 
proceede = (proseed < ) breede 1, 5, 22. 

doth lead, aread, bred, sead = seed 1, 

10, 61. did lead, aread tread 2, 1,7. 

reed = read weed steed agreed 4, 4, 

39. tread procead aread dread 4, 

8, 13. 
wreake weeke, seeke 6, 7, 13. 
congealed }wa\d = httd conceal'd 1, 5, 

29. beheld veeld 4, 3, 14. beheld 

weld = wield 4, 3, 21. 
beame teme = team 1, 4, 36. esteeme 

streeme extreme missceme 3, 8, 26. 

deemed seemed esteemed stremed 4, 
3, 28. deeme extreme 4, 9, i. 
seene beene cleane keene = (ee, ii, ee, ii) 

I, 7, 33. beene seene clene weene 1, 

10, 58. queene unseene cleene 2, 1, 1. 
meane leen at weene bene = been 2, 1, 
58. keene seene cleane 3, 8, 37. 3, 
12, 20. 5, 9, 49. greene clene beseene 
beene = (ii, ee, ii, ii) 6, 5, 38. 

feend = fiend attend defend spend 3, 
7, 32. freend = friend weend end 
amend 4, 4, 45. defend feend kend = 
kenned send 5, 11, 20. 

keepe sheepe deepe ehene—clieap 6, 

II, 40. 

heare v. [ = (mir) see § 7] neare inquere 
weare 1, 1, 31. teare v. feare heare 

1, 2, 31. feare there requere 1, 3, 12. 
heare teare s. =(tiir) feare inquere 1, 

3, 25. heare = hair beare appeare 
deare 1, 4, 24. deare appeare were 
heare v. 1, 9, 14. fare whyleare dis- 
payre rare, 1, 9, 28. [see under (ai) 
= (aa).] were appeare feare seare 1, 

11, 13. yeare forbeare neare weare = 
were 2, 1, 53. reare cleare appeare 

2, 2, 40. yeares peares=^m\s teares 
s. 2, 10, 62. were dreare teare v. 
beare v. 2, 11, 8. deare, meare = me re 
2, 11, 34. cleare appeare dispeire 
whyleare 5, 3, 1. beare appeare here 
fere = companion 5, 3, 22. beare 
cleare cheare = cheer despeyre 5, 5, 
38. neare eare feare reare 5, 12, 6. 
fere = companion vere=peer, dere = 
dear, c\ere= clear 6, 7, 29. steare = 
steer beare teare v. neare 6, 18, 12. 

were here 1, 8, 49. there neare feare 1, 
9, 34. there heare appeare 2, 12, 14. 
teare v. there heare 5, 8, 41. 

weary cherry merry 6, 10, 22. 

perce ferce reherce = pierce fierce re- 
hearse 1, 4, 50. erst pcarst =pierced 
6, 1, 45. 

peace preace =press release cease 1, 12, 
19. surcease encrease preasse =press 
peace 3, 1, 23. release possesse wil- 
lingnesse 4, 5, 25. cease, suppresse 

4, 9, 2. 

beast brest = breast supprest 1, 3, 19. 

1, 8, 15. beasts behests 1, 4, 18. 

feast beast &eteast= detest 1, 4, 21. 

1, 11, 49. beast, cvea,st = crest feast 

addrest 1, 8, 6. east creast 1, 12, 2. 

beasts crests guests 2, 12, 39. east 

increast gest 3, 2, 24. 
heat sweet eat threat = (ee, ii, ee ?, e) 

1, 3, 33. heate sweat eat 1, 4, 22. 

great heat threat beat 1, 5, 7. seat 

great excheat 1, 5, 25. 2, 2, 20. 2, 11, 

32. great treat intrete [see under 

Chap. Till. § 5. 

edmund spenser's rhymes. 


(ee) = (aa)] discrete 1, 7, 40. heat 
forget sweat 2, 5, 30. threat entreat 
3, 4, 15. greater better 4, 1, 7. en- 
treat threat retreat 4, 7, 37. 

death breath uneath 1, 9, 38. 2, 1, 27. 
together ether = either thether = 
thither 6, 12, 10. 

conceiv'd perceiv'd berev'd griev'd 3, 


left bereft gift lift 6, 8, 1. 

spirit merit 4, 2, 34. 

addrest brest wrest = addressed breast 

wrist 2, 3, 1. 
sitt bitt forgett fitt 1, 3, 14. 

(*) = (ii). 

clieffe grieffe = cliff grief 4, 12, 5. 
field build kild ski\& ='killed skilled 2, 

10, 73. wield shield field skild 4, 4, 


(?) unaccented =(ii) accented. 

tragedie degree hee 2, 4, 27. see jeo- 
pardee thee 3, 4, 10. 

diverslyfree he 1, 2, 11. 

foresee memoree 2, 9, 49. 

bee thee perplexitie 1, 1, 19, knee see 
maiestee = majesty 1, 4, 13. batteree 
bee chastitee see 1, 6, 5. see libertee 
jollitee free 1, 9, 12. courtesee 
modestee degree nicetee 1, 10, 7. bee 
modestee see 2, 9, 18. 

(?) = 8i). 

alive revive give rive 2, 6, 45. liv'd 

depriv'd surviv'd deriv'd 2, 9, 57. 

(i) unaccented = (ai) accented. 

prerogative reprive= reprieve alive 4, 
12, 31. 

avyse lyes v. melodies 2, 12, 17. jeo- 
pardy ly spy descry 2, 12, 18. jeopardy 
cry enimy 3, 1, 22. supply jeopardy 
aby lie 3, 7, 3. abie remedie 3, 10, 3. 

fly fantasy privily sly 1, 1, 46. greedily 
ny 1, 3, 5. diversly jollity hye= high 
daintily 1, 7, 32. envy by continually 

1, 7, 43. thereby die eternally 1, 9, 
54. incessantly eye industry 2, 7, 61. 
suddenly hastily cry 2, 8, 3. furiously 
aby hy fly 2, 8, 33. hy victory readily 
armory 3, 3, 59. cry forcibly dy 3, 
10, 13. fly eye furiously diversely 3, 
10, 14. 

flyes applyes enimies lyes 1, 1, 38. flye 
dye enimy 2, 6, 39. enimy dy destiny 

2, 12, 36. 

harmony sky hj = high dry 1, 1, 8. 
company fly venery eye 1, 6, 22. hye 
ly tyranny by and bye 1, 8, 2. cry fly 

espy agony 2, 12, 27. jealousy fly 
villany thereby 3, 1, 18. eye destiny 
3, 3, 24. lyes supplyes progenyes 3, 
6, 36. eye villany family spie 5, 6, 35. 
victorie lye armory enimie 1, 1, 27. 
eyes miseryes plyes idolatryes 1, 6, 
19. ^thereby memory dy 1, 11, 47. 
perjury fly injury 1, 12, 27. despise 
miseries 2, 1, 36. eye skye chivalry e 
hye 2, 3, 10. I enimy victory 2, 6, 
34. arise flies skies injuries 2, 9, 16. 
fealty agony dy 1, 3, 1. deitye flye 
nye= nigh 1, 3, 21. cry dishonesty 
misery chastity 1, 3, 23. eye skye 
chastitye 1, 6, 4. eye hye majestye 
tye, 1, 7, 16. enimy tragedy cry 
libertie 1, 9, 10. mortality by fly 
victory 1, 10, 1. apply melancholy 
jollity 1, 12, 38. flye hye=hie per- 
plexitye 2, 4, 13. skye envye princi- 
pality incessantly 2, 7, 8. thereby sty 
dignity 2, 7, 46. envy soverainty 
enmity fly 2, 10, 33. majestie victorie 
faery dy 2, 10, 75. apply captivity 
infirmity tyranny 2, 11, 1. eye tran- 
quillity boystrously 3, 10, 58. 
[Numerous poeticus proparoxytonis 
in [i] ssepe vltimam productam acuit, 
vt, (mizerai - , konstansai - , destinai - ) : 
vnde etiam in prosa fere obtinuit, vt 
vltima vel longa vel breui aaqualiter 
scribatur, et pronuncietur, non acu- 
anturtamen. — Gill Zogonomia, p. 130.] 

wilde defilde vilde jilie=wild defiled 
vile yield 1, 6, 3. 

(oi) = (ai). 

chyld spoild beguyld boyld 5, 5, 53. 
exyled defyld despoyled boyled 5, 
9, 2. 

beguild recoyld 1, 11, 25. 

while foyle guyle style 4, 2, 29. despoile 
guile toile 6, 6, 34. 

awhile toyle turmoyle 2, 12, 32. spoile 
turmoile while toile 6, 8, 23. 

stryde ryde annoyd guide 4, 8, 37. re- 
plide annoyd destroyd 6, 1, 7. side 
annoyde destroyde pryde 6, 5, 20. 

vile spoile erewhile stile 2, 8, 12. pyle 
guyle spoile toyle 2, 11, 7. wyld des- 
poyld toyld 3, 10, 39. awhile vile 
exile spoile 3, 1 1, 39. while toyle 
spoyle 4, 9, 12. 5, 2, 11. guile des- 
poile 5, 4, 31. awhile mile toile spoile 
6, 4, 25. 

spyde destroyd applyde 3, 8, 2. 

awhile soyle 3, 3, 33. toyle awhile 
soyle 4, 3, 29. 4, 4, 48. 



Chap. VIII. § 5. 

rose expose lose 3, 1, 46. disposed 
loosd 4, 5, 5. loos'd enclos'd disclos'd 
4, 5, 16. whom become 4, 7, 11. 
wombe come roam home 4, 12, 4. 
groome come somme =sum 5, 6, 8. 

(oo) = (o) = (w). 

rocke broke 2, 12, 7. wroth loth 
goth=$roeth 2, 12, 57. wroth loth 
bio' th = bloweth 3, 7, 8. alone anone 
bemone swone = bemoan swoon 6, 

lord ador'd scor'd word 1, 1, 2. sworne 
retourne mourne 1,12,41. sword word 
abhord 2, 1, 11. abord ford word 
lord 2, 6, 4. foure paramoure 2, 9, 
34. paramoure succoure floure poure 
=fioor pour 2, 10, 19. attone done 
on 5, 6, 17. retourne forlorne 5, 

long wrong tong 1, int. 2. along tong 
strong hong 1, 5, 34. tong hung 
stong 2, 1, 3. wrong tong strong 2, 
4, 12. prolong wrong dong long 2, 
8, 28, strong along sprong emong 
2, 12, 10. sprong emong ilong 3, 4, 
41. hong strong 3, 11, 52. 

ou, ow — (ou) ? or =(uu) ? 
downe sovme= sound swowne = swoon 
towne 1, 1, 41. bowre howre stowre= 
bower hour stour 1, 2, 7. 2, 3, 34. 
towre powre scowre conqueroure 1, 
2, 20. howre lowre powre eraperour 

1, 2, 22. wound stound found 1, 7, 
25. wound sownd 1, 8, 11. found 
hound wound 2, 1, 12. bower haviour 

2, 2, 15. towre endure sure 2, 9, 21. 
wonderous hideous thus piteous 2, 
11, 38. hous valorous adventurous 
victorious 3, 3, 54. Hesperus joyeous 
hous 3, 4, 5 1 . hous ungratious hideous 

3, 4, 55. hous glorious 3, 6, 12. thus 
hous 3, 11, 49. thus outrageous 4, 

none owne unknowne 1, 4, 28. foe flow 
show grow 1,5, 9. so foe overthroe 
woe 2, 4, 10. overthrowne knowne 
owne none 6, 1, 14. 

sV=(ur) ? 
foorth worth birth 2, 3, 21. 

harts = hearts smarts parts desarts = 
deserts 2, 2, 29. desart part 2, 4, 26. 
serve starve 2, 6, 34. serve deserve 

swerve 3, 7, 53 [(er) or (ar) ?] dart 
smart pervart =pervert hart = heart 
3, 11, 30. Britomart part heart de- 
sart 4, 1, 33. depart hart art revert 

4, 6, 43. hart smart dart convert 5, 

5, 28. parts smarts arts desarts 6, 5, 
33. regard mard prefard =marredpre- 
ferred 6, 9, 40. [In reference to 
this confusion of (er, ar) it may be 
noticed that Prof. Blackie of Edin- 
burgh, in his public lectures, pro- 
nounces accented er in many words, 
in such a manner that it is difficult 
to decide whether the sound he 
means to utter is (Er, ser, ar), the r 
being slightly, but certainly, trilled. 
A similar indistinctness may have 
long prevailed in earlier times, and 
would account for these confusions.] 

marinere tears 1, 3, 31. [does this 
rhyme (er, eer) ?] 


brood mood good withstood 1, 10, 32. 
blood good brood 1, 10, 64. groome 
come somme -=sum 5, 6, 8. mood stood 
woo'd 5, 6, 15. approve move love 2, 

M =( M )?=(TiU)? 

Lud good 2, 10, 46. flood mud blood 
good 5, 2, 27. woont hunt 5, 4, 29, 

push rush gush 1, 3, 35. rush bush 2, 
3, 21. rush push 3, 1, 17. 

but put 1, 6, 24. 

truthensu'th youth ruth 1, 6, 12. 2, 3,2. 


use accuse abuse spues 1, 4, 32. vewd 

rude, 3, 10, 48. newes use 5, 5, 51. 

blis enemis = bliss enemies 4, 9, 16. prise 
= prise thxise = thrice cowardise em- 
prise 5, 3, 15. 

-e, -ed syllabic. 

to the long raynes at her commande- 
ment 3, 4, 33. 

salvayesse sans finesse, shewing secret 
wit 3, 4, 39 [salvaffesse has its final 
e elided, finesse preserved, shewing 

wondered answered conjectured 2, 4, 39. 
accomplishid hid 3, 3, 48. led ap- 
pareled garnished 3, 3, 59. fed for- 
wearied bed dread 6, 5, 60. [but -ed 
is constantly =(-d, -t).] 

formerly grounded and fast setteled 2, 
12, 1. [this is remarkable for both 
the last syllables]. 

Chap. VIII. § 5. 


gh mute. 

spright sight quigbt =quite sight 1,1, 
45. diversely jollity hje=high dain- 
tily 1, 7, 32. 1, 8, 2. 2, 8, 33. unites 
dites = dig Ms smites \ites = lights 1, 
8, 18. exercise emprize lies thies = 
thighs 2, 3, 35. bite night 3, 5, 22. 
write, light, knight 3, 9, 1. bite 
knight might 6, 6, 27. delight [gene- 
rally without gh~\ sight knight sight 
6, 8, 20. 

made trade -wa.ide = tveighed 1, 4, 27. 
[see also (aa) =(ai).] 

bayt wayt strayt = straight sleight 2, 7, 
64. [see also (ai) =(ai).] 

heard = (Hard) = (Herd) ? 
heard emba.r& = embarred 1, 2, 31. re- 
gard heard 1, 12, 16. heard far'dpre- 
par'd 2, 2, 19. heard unbard prepard 
= unbarred prepared 5, 4, 37. heard 
reward 5, 7, 24. heard hard debard 

0, 9, 36. 

heard beard afeard seared 1, 11, 26. 
heard affeared reard 2, 3, 45. 2, 12, 2. 
heard beard heard steared = steered 3, 
8, 30. heard feard reard beard 5, 11, 

heir = (Hair) = (Haar) = (neer). 
fayr hayre 1, 12, 21 
affayres shayres hayres cares 2, 10, 37. 
deare heyre 2, 10, 61. 

inquire =(inkweer') = (inkwair*). 
inquere sj>ere = spear 2, 3, 12. nere = 

near were inquere 3, 10, 19. inquire 

were nere 5, 11, 48. 
retire inquire desire 5, 2, 52. 

-i-on in two syllables, 
submission compassion affliction 1, 3, 6. 
devotion contemplation meditation 1, 
10, 46. Philemon anon potion 2, 4, 
30. upon anon confusion 2, 4, 42. con- 
ditions abusions illusions 2, 11, 11. 
fashion don complexion occasion 3, 6, 
38. fashion anon gon—gone 3, 7, 10. 
[these examples offash-i-on, are valu- 
able, because the sh spelling seemed 
to imply fash-ion in two syllables]. 
compassion upon affliction stone 3, 8, 

1. foundation reparation nation fash- 
ion 5, 2, 28. discretion oppression 
subjection direction 5, 4, 26. Gergon 
oppression subjection region 5, 10, 9. 
Coridon contention 6, 10, 33. 

inclina-tion fa-shion 6, 9, 42. 

[Whether the two last syllables are 
to be divided or no, it is difficult to say ; 
if they are, the lines have two super- 

fluous syllables. The stanza begins 
thus — 

But Calidore, of courteous inclination 
Tooke Coridon and set him in his place, 
That he should lead the dance as was his 

On account of the laxity of Spenser's 
rhymes it is impossible to say whether 
this was a rhyme or an assonance, that 
is, whether the -turn was pronounced as 
-shion. I am inclined to think not. 
See the remarks on Shakspere's rhyme: 
passion fashion, below § 8.] 

witch pitch unlich = unlike twitch 1, 5, 
28. bewitch sich. =such lich = lifce 3, 

love hove move 1, 2, 31. approve move 
love 2, 4, 24. love behove aboye re- 
prove 6, 2, 1. 

one shone gone 1, 1, 15. throne one 
fone =foes 3, 3, 33. gone alone one 3, 
8, 46. 

sheio = (shoo, shoo ; sheu) ? 

show low 1, 2, 21. slow show 1, 3, 26. 
foe flow show grow 1, 5, 9. slow low 
show 1, 10, 5. shewn known, own 
thrown 5, 4, 18. show flow know 5, 9, 
13. forgoe, showe 6, 1, 27. shewed be- 
strowed unsowed sowed 6, 4, 14. moe 
= more showe knowe agoe 6, 11, 11. 

view vew shew 1, 2, 26. 2, 3, 32. 3, 1, 

41. 5, 3, 23. vew knew shew crew 1, 
4, 7. newes shewes 1, 7, 21. subdewd 
shewd 2, 8, 55. shew vew knew hew 

2, 9, 3. 2, 11, 13. grew hew shew 3, 

3, 50. dew shew 3, 6, 3. hew new trew 
shew 4, 1, 18. drew threw shew hew 

4, 8, 6. trew embrew shew rew. 5, 1 , 
16. vew pursew shew 6, 5, 22. vew 
shew askew hew 6, 10, 4. 

would, could, should. 
mould could would 1, 7, 33. tould would 
1, 7, 41. mould should defould 1, 10, 

42. gold bold would mould 2, 7, 40. 
behould should hould 3, 11, 34. be- 
hold hold would 4, 10, 16. wouldhould 

5, 5, 55. mould could should 5, 6, 2. 
could behould 5, 7, 5. gould could 
would hould 6, 1, 29. bold would 
hould 6, 5, 15. 

tcound, sivound. 
wound round sound 1, 1, 9. stownd 
ground wound 2, 8, 32. found swound 
ground 4, 7, 9. 



Chap. VIII. § 5. 

Sir Philip Sidney's Rhymes. 

Gill cites several passages from Sir Philip Sidney (a d. 1554-86) 
who was the contemporary of Spenser (a.d. 1552-99). Mr. N. 
~W. Wycr has kindly furnished me with a collection of rhymes 
from Sir Ph. Sidney's version of the Psalms, which I have arranged 
as follows. It will be seen that Sidney was a more careful rhymer 
than Spenser. But he seems to have accepted the mute gh, Hart's 
pronunciation of ai as (ee), the inexpediency of distinguishing (oou) 
and (oo), and the liberty of making final -y=(«) rhyme with either 
(ii) or (ei). His other liberties are comparatively small, and 
his imperfect rhymes very few. In the following list the numbers 
refer to the numbers of the psalms in which the rhymes occur. 
The arrangement is not the same as for Spenser's rhymes, but 
rather alphabetical. 

Quite certain ai = (ee), seas laies 33, 
sea survey 72, sea way 136, praise ease 
10, daies ease 37, pleased praised 22, 
praise please waies raise 69, staine cleane 
32, meane vaine 2, chaine meane 28, 
streames claims 32, waite greate 26, 
waiteth seateth 1, disdayning meaning 
37, bereaves glaives leaves 78, heyre 
were 90, and hence : aire heire 8, while 
the rhyme ai = (e) in plaint lent 22 
strongly confirms the belief that the 
above were natural rhymes to Sidney's 
ear, and consequently the co-existence 
of (ai, ee) for the sound of ai in the 
xvi th century among polite speakers, 
notwithstanding Gill's denunciation. 

Apparently imperfect Bhymes. 

Cradle able 71, is a mere assonance. 

Hewne one 80, is difficult to under- 
stand, unless hewn like shewn, had oc- 
casionally an (oo) sound. 

Abandon randon = random 89, the im- 
perfection is here rather apparent than 
re?l, as randon is the correct old form. 

Proceeding reading 19, it is very 
possible that in precede, succeed, proceed, 
the e was more correctly pronounced 
(ee), or at least that a double pronuncia- 
tion prevailed. See Spenser's rhymes, 
p. 868, col. 1, under (ee)=(ii). 

Share bare ware = wear 35, this must 
be considered a real bad rhyme. 


Long and short : am game 22, am 
came 37, forsake wrack 37, inviolate 
forgate estate 78, tary vary 71, grasse 
place 37, hast last 9, barre are 82, fair 
are 88, 103, past haste 88, wast =waste 
plast 31, plac'd hast 5. 8, plast fast 31, 
cast defast 74, tast caste 18, orecast 
tast 16, hath wrath 2. 

Have rhymes with : grave 5.16, crave 
16, save 28. 33, wave 72. 

W does not affect the following a, in : 
wast last 9, was passe 1 8, flashed washed 
66, quarrell apparrell 89, wander mean- 
der 143. 


Uncertain, (ai) or (ee) : praies —preys 
staies tay say ay 28, afraid laide 3. 

Probably imperfect, ai = (aa) : praise 
phrase 34, repaire are 9jJ. 

Nearly certain ai = (ee), since even 
Gill writes conceit with (ee), though he 
admits (ei, eei) in they obey : they saye 
3, conceite waitc 20, waite deccite 38, 
conceite seate 40, obey daie 45. 

AU, AW. 

The following few rhymes do not es- 
tablish anything, but they serve to con- 
firm the orthoepist's dictum of the 
development of (u) after (a) when (1) or 
(n) follows : crawl'd appal'd 74, shall 
appall 6, all shall 2, vaunting wanting 
52, chaunces glances 52. 


Probably Sidney said (frend) and not 
(friind) supra p. 779, as in : frend 
wend 38, frend defend 47. 


The confusion of ea and e short in 
spelling, and the rhymes of similar 
orthographies, confirm the general pro- 
nunciation of ea as (ee) : greater better 
71, greate sett 21, greate seate 48, dis- 
tresse release 74, encreast opprest 25, 
rest brest neast 4, head spred 3, treads 
leads 1, leade tread 25, treadeth leadeth 
84, seate treat 100. 102, encrease prease 
144, pearced rehearsed 22, break weak, 

Chap. VIII. § 5. 



The influence of r is felt in the follow- 
ing words, where ea or e would be 
naturally pronounced (ee), but was un- 
doubtedly at times (ii), p. 81, and poets 
may have taken the liberty of using 
either pronunciation as best suited their 
convenience : heere teare, 55, here nere 
91, deere heare appeare 20, heare ap- 
peare 6. 57, eare feare appeare where 
55, appeares yeares endeares spheares 
89, neere cleere 34, there heare 102, 
beare there 55, feare bear 34, beare 
were 22, deere were beare cleare 55, 
beare weare = M«re 48, eare outbeare 
appeare weare cheere feare weare 49, 
sphere encleare 77, heire forbeare mere 
speare 55. 


The rhymes : heard barr'd 34, guard 
heard 11 6, which certainly corresponded 
to a prevalent, though not generally 
acknowledged pronunciation, properly 
belong to the same category as : parts 
harts =hearts 12, avert heart 51, desert 
part hart 6, avert hart 119, preserved 
swarved 37, art subvert 100. 102. See 
supra p. 871, c. 1, under heard. 


These all belong together. The or- 
thoepical distinctions (yy, eu) seem to 
have been disregarded. Whether they 
were sunk into (iu, ju) cannot be deter- 
mined, and is perhaps not very likely at 
so early a period. See however the 
remarks on Holyband's observation in 
1566, supra, p. 838: true adieu 119, view 
pursue 46, ensue grew new view 60, 
pursue dew new 105, you pursue 115, 
you true renewe 31, renew ensue you 78, 
knew true rue 18, new you 96, grew 
imbrue 78, subdue brew 18, chuse re- 
fuse 89. 


"We know that the guttural was only 
faintly pronounced (supra, p. 779) al- 
though even Hart found it necessary to 
indicate its presence by writing (h). 
The poets of the xvith century how- 
ever generally neglected it in rhyming 
as: prayeng weighing 130, waigh 
alway alley stay 55, pay weigh 116, 
surveying waighing 143, day decay 
stray waigh 107, laide weighd 103, de- 
lighted cited 1, sprite wight 9, sight 
quight 25, quite sight spight light 69, 
wight quite 39, bite spight 3, sprite 
might 13, high thy 43, high awry 119, 
eye high 131, I high 46, high dy cry 
9, though goe 43, wrought thought 
caught 9, aloft wrought 77. 


After a vowel the g appears to have 
been regularly mute as : Assigned kind 
find minde 44, assigned encliued 11, 
remaineth rai<meth 3. 

There was probably some little un- 
certainty in the pronunciation of i in 
the following words, as we know that 
Gill had great doubts concerning build: 
build shield 35, shield fil'd yeeld 28, 
field reconcil'd 60, theevery delivery 
75, give releeve greeve 82. 

The uncertainty of the final -y, 
which Gill gives both as (oi) and (ii), 
is shewn by the following examples 
which are quite comparable with 
Spenser's, p. 869, col. 1. 

High apply perpetually 9, unceas- 
santly cry 77, eye effectually 115. 

Sacrifle ly 4, magnify hie 9, fly 
slippery 35, misery supply 79, memorie 
flie I orderlie 50, injuries suffice applies 
lies 58, memory relye 105 ; — but : be 
chivalry 20. 

Jollity eye 31, jolities tiranize 94, 
veritie lie 31, verity hie 57, ly iniquity 
10, high vanity lie 4, high try equity 
6; — but: infirmity me 41, see vanity 
39, equity me thee 4, be vanity 39, thee 
eternity 21, be iniquity he 36, bee thee 
see degree me treachery free enemy 54, 
be constancy 34. 


It would seem that the practice of 
omitting / in folk, was at least known, 
if not admitted, by Sidney, as he 
rhymes : folk cloak 28, folkes in- 
vokes 32, 


The following rhymes all point to 
the pronunciation of long and short o 
as (oo, o) and not as {po, o) : crossed 
engrossed 69, coast boast 33, ones bones 
42, one alone moane 4, mones ones 74, 
none bone 109, therefore adore 66, 
borne scorn 2, floore rore 96, abroad 
God 10, God load 67, upon stone 40, 
folly holy 43, sory glory 42. 

The following imply that o was also 
occasionally pronounced as (uu) or (u), 
though the three last rhymes were more 
probably imperfect : approve love 1, 
love move 12, moved behoved 20, love 
above grove remove 45, doe unto 119, 
beguun undunn doun 11, become dumb 
38, sunn done 79, slumbered encom- 
bered 76, punished astonished 76, dost 




unjust 77, sprong tongue 8, wrong flong 
45, flong song 60, strong dunge 83. 


The rhymes here are insufficient to 
convey much information, yet perhaps 
they rather imply (oi) than (ui) : an- 
noia enjoy'd 81, destroi'd anoi'd 10. 


This is used rather uncertainly, as 
(uu, u) and even as rhyming to (oo) : 
good blood 9, brood bloud 57, poore 
more 69, wordes boordes affordes 78, 
lord worde 50. The rhyme : budds 
goodes, is strongly indicative of the old 
pronunciation of u as (w) without any 
taint of the xvnth century (»). 


The following are quite regular as 
(ou) : wound undrowned 68, wound 
bound found 105, power h.ower= hour 
22, thou bowe 99, thou now 100. 

In: thou two 129, yours towres 69, 
the older sound of (uu) seems to have 
prevailed, and in : mourn turn 69, us 
glorious 115, such touch much 35, we 
have the regidar short (u), belonging to 
the same class. 

In : could gold 21, would hold 27, 

we have the same curious emancipation 
of ou from this category that was ob- 
served in Spenser, p. 872, col. 2, and is 
still occasionally met with, as I have 
heard it in use myself. 

In : soule rowle =roll 26, soule extoll 
103, we have apparently the regular ac- 
tion of I on o long to prod uce (oou) , but the 
following rhymes shew that even if the 
(u) had not been developed the rhyme 
would have been permissible : know so 
72, unknown one 10, knowers after- 
goers 85, alone unknown none forgone 
44, flowes inclose 105, blows foes 3, 
showes goes 10, bestoe goe 100, throw 
show goe 18, woe goe show; woe row 
show 107, repose growes 62, woe growe 
41, own one 16 — and the rhyme: owner 
honor 8. 37, in connection with these, 
shews how indifferent the long and short 
sounds of o were to the ear of a rhymer. 


In: this is 10, is his misse 11, is 
misse 115, blisse is 4, rased defaced 79, 
we have a confusion of (s) and (z), but 
in : presence essence 68, sacrifice cries 50, 
sacrifices sizes 66, the rhymes may 
have been pure. In : sent pacient 6, we 
have an indication of at- untransformed 
into (sh). 

§ 6. Charles Butler's Phonetic Writing, and list of Words Like 
and Unlike, 1633-4. 

The indistinctness with which Butler has explained, and the 
laxity with which he apparently denotes his vowels, have occasioned 
me considerable difficulty in attempting a transcription of his pho- 
netic writing. But inasmuch as he has printed two hooks of fair 
dimensions, his Grammar and his Feminine Monarchy, in his own 
character, so that he is the most voluminous phonetic writer with 
whom we have to deal, it was impossible to pass him over, and I 
have therefore endeavoured to transliterate a short passage from his 
Feminine Monarchy or History of Bees, 1634, which was printed in 
the ordinary as well as well the phonetic orthography. The vowel 
system is, so far as I can understand it, more truly of the xvrth 
century than even Dr. Gill's, and therefore this is the proper place 
for it, although it was published after the first third of the xvnth 
century. At the conclusion are annexed some extracts from his 
List of Words Like and Unlike, in his own orthography, using italics 
to represent his variants of old forms. In the following extract 
probably (i) should be read for (i), but the whole vowel system is 
too uncertain to insist upon such minute distinctions. 


Extract from Butler's Feminine Monarchy, p. 2-4. 

And aul dhis uirder dhe guv "6111106111 of oon Moirark ... of 
whuum, abuv aul thingz, dhei Haav a principal kaar and respekt* 
luuving reverensing and obering Her in aul thingz. — If shii goo 
fourth tu soodaas Hir self, (as suunrteim shii wil) man*i of dhem 
attend* Her, gardfog ndr person bifoor' and bineind* : dhei whitsh 
kuum fourth bifoor* Her, ever nou and dhen retunring, and luukdng 
bak, and maakdng withaul* an ekstra,ord - inari nois, as if dhei spaak 
dhe lang'gwaadzh of dhe Knikht Marshalz men; and soo awai* dhei 
flei tugedlrer and anon* in leik man*er dhei attend* Her bak again* 
. . . If bei Hir vois shii bid dhem goo, dhei swaarm; if biidng abrood* 
shii disleik* dhe wedh*er, or leikh'ting plaas, dhei kwikdi* riturn* 
Hoom again* ; wheil shii tshiir*eth dhem tu bat'el, dhei feikht ; wheil 
shii is wel, dhei ar tshiirfol about* dheir wuurk; if shii druup 
and dei, dhei wil never af *ter endzhoi* dheir Hoom, but eidher 
lang*gwish dheer til dhei bii ded tuu, or jiild*ing tu dhe Rob'berz, flei 
awai* with dhem. . . . But if dhei Haav man*i Prin*ses (as when twuu 
flei awai* with oon swaarm, or when twuu swaarmz ar Heived 
tugedlrer) dhei wil not bii kwei*et til oon of dhem bii cassiired ; 
whitsh suum'teim dhei bring doun dhat iivning tu dhe man*tl, wheer 
ju mai feind Her kuverd with a litd Heep of Biiz, udh*erweiz dhe 
nekst dai dhei kar*ri Her fourth ei*dher ded or ded*li wound*ed. 
Konsern*ing whitsh mat*ter, ei wil Hiir rilaat* oon menrorabl 
eksper*iment. " Twuu swaarmz biidng put tugedlrer, dhe Biiz on 
booth seidz as dheir man*er is, maad a mur*muring noiz, as biidng 
dis*konten*ted with dhe sud*dain kon*gres of strahrdzherz : but 
knoou*ing wel dhat dhe moor dhe merrier, dhe saa*fer, dhe warnrer, 
Jee, and dhe bet*er proveided, dhei kwik*li maad friindz. And 
Haaving agrired whitsh Kwiin shuuld rein, and whitsh shuuld dei, 
thrii or foour Biiz brooukht oon of dhem doun bitwiin* dhem, pukling 
and Haaking Her as if dhei weer leecking Her tu eksekyysiun 
whitsh ei bei tshaans perseeiving, got Hoould of Her bei dhe wingz, 
and with mutsh aduir tuuk Her from dhem. After a wheil (tu sii 
what wuuld kuum of it) ei put Her hrtu dhe Heiv again : noo suun*er 
was shii amung* dhem, but dhe tyymult bigan* afresh* greet*er dlian 
bifoor* ; and pres*entli dhei fel tugedh*er bei dhe eerz, feers*li 
feikht'ing and kihling oon an udh*er, for dhe spaas of moor dhan an 
our tugedlrer : and bei noo miinz wuuld sees, until* dhe puur 
kondenrned Kwiin was broukht fourth slain and laid bifoor* dhe 
duur. "Whitsh duun dhe streif pres*entli end*ed, and dhe Biiz agrii*ed 
wel tugedlrer." 

Index of "Wooed s Like and Yniike. 

" Soom woords of like' sound hav' different writing : as soon filius, 
stjn sol: soom of lik' writing hav* different sound : as a mous mus, 
mods strues pi. of motj : soom of like sound and writing differ in do 
accent: as peeccdent pracedens, precedent exe m plum quia pracedit: 
and soom of lik' sound, writing, and accent, differ yet in signification : 
wic den must hee discerned by the sens of de woords precedent and 



subsequent : as ear auris, ear spica, to ear aro : wenc' eabable 
arabilis. Of wic sorts you hav' hereafter o^er examples." 

The object of the list which is thus introduced by the author 
seems to be to discriminate words of like sound as much as possible 
by various spellings, which in Butler's system would represent 
different but nearly identical sounds. The list therefore is not of 
much value or assistance, especially as the like and unlike words 
are not inserted separately. He seems to have trusted to an ortho- 
graphy which is extremely difficult to understand from his descrip- 
tion. Hence instead of giving the whole list, 28 pages long, it will 
be sufficient to extract those parts in which some mention of 
pronunciation is made, and for these to adopt the author's own 
orthography, as in the above citation, because of the difficulty of 
interpreting it. The italic letters represent generally simple varieties 
of ordinary types, thus, oo, are joined together, forming one type, and 
so for ee, and c, d, &c, have bars through them, £ is ■), a turned t, 
and so on. These will occasion no difficulty. The final (') answers 
to mute e. It is the value of the simple vowels and digraphs and 
the effect of this mute (') as a lengthener, which it is so difficult to 
determine satisfactorily from Butler's indications. The small capitals 
indicate the usual orthography and generally replace Butler's black 

a Cofer, D. Koffer, F. eoffre, (yet 
wee writ' and sound it wit a singl' f, 
to distinguish it from cow^er wic is 
sounded coffer). 

Devil, or ruder neewL not diyel : (as 
soom, far fetcing it from diabolus woold' 
hav it). 

Enou<7 satis, hut importing number 
it is bo£' written and pronounced wifout 
tfeaspirat': as Ecclus. 35. 1. Sacri- 
fices enou. Enou for even nou, modd: 
In de pronouncing of tvic 2 woords, de 
on 'ly difference is de accent: wic de first 
hat in de last, and de last in de first. 
For ENOugr -wee commonly say enuf: 
as for L\vg DAU^ter, soom say laf, 
dafter: for cow*? all say cof: and for 
de Duitc a&ter; wee altogeoJer boi' say 
and writ' after. 

to Enter intrare, to enter in- 

Ear auris, to ear aro, ere before 
prius, erst first primd, (not yer yerst) 
es in Dute ere, erst. Hence erenoon', 
ekewil', and erely i. former : as of 

EREI.Y /INGS I WIL f&ETEL : for tvic is 

nou written (I know not tvy) ferly. 

Certain woords beginning wit es ar 
aoomtim' spoken and written wi/out e : 
as escap', especial, espi ; scape, spe- 
cial, spi : to espous, and to estrange, 
[verbs ;] spous, and strange [nouns :] 



excus' ; vntowi ec, sampl' scus' : and 


Ew not yew ovis fcemella ; as rw 
not yiw, (vid. Iw taxus) dowy de y 
bee vulgarly sounded in dem bo?'. 

.England ... is vulgarly written 
England ; but always sounded JSmgland ; 
as wee now boi' sound and writ' many 
oder woords wit Ee, tvic anciently were 
written wit E : as $eete\ seem', ssex', 

In steed of our f de Netferlanders hav' 
v . . . tvic dialect is yet found in de 
Western partes. 

Ha* fcenuin, of de Sax. hawen 
secare, becaus it is cut grass, a hey or 
cunni-net, of de Fr. hay (wic dey sound 
hey ; . . . and wee ar as reddy, hot in 
sound and writing, to f511ow deir sound, 
as deir writing: wer' dey writ' mouton 
and say mootton, wee writ' and say 
mootton; dey writ' quatre and say catre, 
wee writ' and say cater : dey writ' bon 
and say boone, wee writ' and say boon' ; 
dey writ' plaid and say plead, wee writ' 
and say plead) [a hedg]. 

Iw [TRt'tf] not yiw, doxxg it bee so 
sounded : de Frenc beting If and de 
Duitc iif, iben or eiben : as wee say 
yew, and yet writ' ew ovis fcemella. 

Nic' or coy curiosus, a nias hauk, 


[not an eyas] F. mat's, It. nidaso, taken 
out of the neast : as a hauk flown is 
called a brancer. 

"Wm' vinum, to wind', torqueo, a 
wind' or wind ventus : henc' a wind- 
oor, i. e. a door' for de wind' to enter : 
(as in Gr«'ek' dvph of dvpa) do\?{/ now de 
glas, in most' places, doo't sut it out. 

"Wound, of to wind', tortus, a woond', 

You vos, sounded according to de 
original, yu. [Here Butler refers to 
a former note on his p. 40 : " \ou, D. 
u : so your, D. xrwE, G. uwek. So 
<7at, as wel by original as sound, des' 
woords, shoold' rarfer bee written yu, 
and yur' : for ou is a diphfong, which 

hat an oder sound : as in dov and 


Tb.ov(/ by, or by means of, ?orow, 
from on' sid' or end' to de oder: as 
<roug JTrist', <okow dn wildernes. 

<Seer' pur' or unmixt simplex, as 
seer' corn, seer' boorn', cleer' water : 
[here B. adds in a marginal note : of 
which a toun in Dorcet. and a village 
in Hampt. is called Sheerboorn ;] to 
sear, or rarfer seer', as it is pro- 
nounced, D. sf-eREN tondeo : anciently 
it was written ser', e for ee, as de maner 
den was: henc' sar', a part' or portion ; 
and sir', a counti or part' of a dominion : 
vAc, in de Sou£ part's, is sounded seer', 

§ 7. Pronouncing Vocabulary of the Sixteenth Century, collected 

from Palsgrave 1530, Salesbury 1547, Cheke 1550, Smith 

1568, Hart 1569, Bullokar 1580, Gill, 1621, and Butler 


For ascertaining and comparing the different accounts of the pro- 
nunciation of the xvi th century which have come down to us, it is 
necessary to have an alphahetic list of all or most of the words 
which have been spelled phonetically by various writers, with a 
uniform transcription of their various notations. This is attempted 
in the present section. The following vocabulary contains : 

1) all the English words cited by Palsgrave, p. 31, with the pro- 
nunciations as inferred from his descriptions. 

2) all the English words cited by Salesbury, pp. 32, 34, in his 
accounts of "Welsh and English Pronunciation, with the pronunciation 
he has actually or inferentially assigned to them, as explained in the 
passages cited pp. 789-794. 

3) numerous words from Sir John Cheke' s Translation of Matthew. 1 

4) all the words pronounced in Sir Thomas Smith's Treatise p. 34. 

5) all the examples of diphthongs, and a few other words only 
from Hart, pp. 35, 794, whose pronunciation, as has been already 
frequently mentioned, was in several respects exceptional. 

6) All the exemplificative words in Bullokar' s lists, with many 
others collected from various parts of his Book at Large, pp. 36, 838. 

1 The Gospel according to Saint 
Matthew and part of the first chapter 
of the Gospel according to Saint Mark 
translated from the Greek, with original 
notes, by Sir John Cheke, knight &c. 
Prefixed is an introductory account of 
the nature and object of the transla- 
tion, by James Goodwin, B.D., London, 
Pickering, 1843, 8vo. pp. 124. Cheke 

was born 16th June, 1514, and died 
" of shame and regret in consequence 
of his recantation" of Protestantism, 
13th Sept., 1557. This translation, of 
which the autographic MS. is preserved 
(not quite perfect) at Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, is supposed by 
Mr. Goodwin to have been made about 


7) all, or almost all words in Gill's Logonomia, pp. 38, 845; the 
provincialisms are not quite fully given, but Gill's whole account 
of them will he found below, Chap. XI, § 4, and they are best 
consulted in that connection. 

8) A few characteristic words from Btttlek, pp. 39, 874. 

The modern orthography has been followed in the arrangement 
of the vocabulary. Palsgrave and Salesbury occasionally give an old 
orthography different from that now in use, but the variation is 
not material. The others only give the phonetic spelling. Oc- 
casionally short observations from Smith and Gill have been added 
in the original Latin, and in some cases the Latin translation given 
by these authors is inserted. Some doubts may arise as to the pro- 
priety of retaining so many words about the pronunciation of which 
little hesitation can be felt by those who have mastered the main 
principles, such as, abandon, abhor, abound, absence, absent, fyc. 
bill, bit, bless, boast, boat, Sfc, but after much consideration, it has 
been resolved to retain them, as no rule of exclusion could be 
framed, which did not seem to assume the very knowledge and 
familiarity which the vocabulary was meant to supply, and it 
is only by such accumulated proofs that the certainty of the results 
can impress itself on the reader's mind. These results are however 
extremely important in the history of our language, as they present 
the first sure ground after the time of Orrmin, and the only means 
by which we are able to rise to the pronunciation of Chaucer. 
Thus the certainty of the pronunciation of ou, ow as (uu) by Pals- 
grave and Bullokar, and the probability of their pronunciation of 
long i as (ii), are great helps towards conceiving the general use 
of these sounds in the xrv th century. 

The various phonetic orthographies of the above writers (except 
Cheke's) have been translated into palaeotype to the best of my ability, 
although a few, unimportant, cases of doubt remain, generally pointed 
out by (?). The position of the accent is always hypothetical, except ■ 
for the words cited from G. 128-138, in which Gill has generally 
marked or indicated the accent. It was at first intended to refer 
to Levins (p. 36,) for the position of the accent in each case, but his 
usage was found too uncertain to be made available. The use of 
(w, j) at the beginning of combinations where some writers employ 
(u, i), and conversely the use of (u, i) at the end of combinations 
where some writers employ (w, j), has been consistently maintained. 
The difference between these writers and myself is purely theoreti- 
cal : we mean to express the same sounds in each case. Qu has 
been interpreted as (kw) throughout, because this is believed to 
have been the sound intended. Bullokar uses the single letter q. 
The initial wr has been left, but (rw) has been subjoined with a 
(?) as this is believed to have been the sound. Except in the words 
spangle, entangle, where the sound (q g) is especially indicated, G 1 0, 
the introduction of (qg) for ng in the following vocabulary is quite 
hypothetical, for none of the writers cited seem to have thought 
the distinction between (q) and (qg) worth marking at all times. 

There was a great difficulty in determining the length of the 


vowels. Palsgrave does not note the length and Salesbury is not 
consistent in his notation. Smith, Hart, and Gill generally use 
diacritical signs, and Bullokar does so in many cases. Now when 
this is the case the diacritical sign is often omitted by either the 
writer or printer, and it is difficult to know in any given case 
whether it ought to be added or not (p. 846, 1. 3). The difficulty is 
increased when the diacritic implies a difference in quality as well as 
quantity, thus 'i, i are (ei, i) in Smith but (ii, «)in Gill, and i i are 
probably (ii, i) in Bullokar (p. 113). In these cases I have gene- 
rally searched for other instances of the word, or been guided by 
the use of other writers, or by analogy. In Bullokar y is not un- 
frequent, but iy, yi may be said never to occur, although he gives 
both as marks of the long sound, and i is most frequently used for 
both (ii) and (i) although i ought to have been used in the former 
case. By reference to pp. 110, 114, the reader will see the great 
difficulty which attaches to the value of long i in Palsgrave and 
Bullokar, and the reasons which have induced me, after repeated 
consideration for several years, to consider that it must have been 
(ii) or some closely cognate sound, acknowledging at the same time 
that this pronunciation was quite archaic at the time, just as obleege, 
obleest (obliidzh*, obliist*) in Scotland and obleecht (obliitsht") in 
English are still existent archaic forms, for which the greater 
number of English speakers say (oblaidzh", ohbidzhd-). For the 
reason why Gill's/ has been rendered (oi) rather than (ei) see p. 115, 
and the reason why his a, au, are each rendered by (aa) is given on 
p. 145, where we may add that Gill in adducing "Hali Henriculus, 
hale trahere, et hall aula," says : " exilior est a in duabus vocibus 
prioribus, in tertia, fere est diphthongus," (G. 3,) so that he possibly 
hesitated between (au) and (aa). Hart's (yy) has been considered 
on p. 167, p. 796 note, col. 1, and p. 838. 

Another source of error is the use of an old letter in a new sense. 
Thus Smith employs c for (tsh) and he consequently continually 
leaves c for (k, s) where his old habits misled him. Gill employed 
j for (oi), and the confusion between i, j in his book is very per- 
plexing. Extremely slight distinctions in the forms of the letters 
are also confusing. Thus Smith distinguishes (i, e) as e, e, which 
have a diaeresis mark superposed to imply length. The consequence 
is that it is sometimes extremely difficult to determine whether he 
means (ii) or (ee), and, considering that in his time the distinction 
of the sounds had not yet been thoroughly established by the 
orthographies ee, ea, this confusion is perplexing and annoying. 

For any errors and shortcomings of this kind, the indulgence of 
the reader is requested, and also for another inevitable source of 
error. The nature of the compilation, rendered it impossible to 
verify every word afterwards by referring to the passage from which 
it was quoted. I have therefore had to rely on the accuracy of my 
original transcript, and it is impossible that that should have been 
always correct. 

Sir John Cheke's orthography is rather an attempt to improve 
the current spelling than strictly phonetic Hence it has not been 


transliterated, but left as he wrote it, and is therefore printed in 
Italics. The following appear to have been the values of his sym- 
bols, which were not always unambiguous: aa=(&&), <w'=(ai, ee?), 
ea=(ee?) unfrequent, ee=(ee) and = (ii), ei=(&i, ee?) y=(ei, ii, 
ii?), o = {o) and (u), oa — (oo?), oo = (oo?) and (uu), oo-w ={oou), ou 
= (uu) only ? O2^=(ou), uu—(jj). The i most commonly did ser- 
vice for (i) and (j), but y was sometimes used as (j), although it 
most frequently stands for (th) and (dh), for which also th occa- 
sionally occurs. The use of { is doubtful, sometimes it seems meant 
for «)'=(ei), sometimes as in dm it would seem only to indicate the 
diphthong, but it is used so irregularly that no weight can be at- 
tached to its appearance. The terminations -ty, -lie, occasionally 
appear in the forms -tee, -bil. Final e, being useless when there is 
a destinct means of representing long vowels, is generally, but not 
always omitted. The comparison of Cheke's orthography with the 
phonetic transcriptions of others seems to bring out these points. 

The authority for each pronunciation is subjoined in chronological 
order, but not the reference to the passage, except in the case of 
Gill and Cheke. The figures refer to the page of the second edition 
of Gill's Logonomia (supra, p. 38) and the chapters of Sir John 
Cheke's translation of Matthew. The references to Salesbury will 
be found in the index, supra pp. 789-724. Smith and Bullokar's 
words can generally be easily found in their books, from their 
systematic lists. The example from Bullokar p. 839, and Hart, 
p. 798, are also sufficient guarantees of the correctness of the 
transcription. The authors' names are contracted, and a few 
abreviations are used as follows. All words not in palaeotype, 
with exception of the authors' names, are in Italics. 


Aust Australes ; Southern Eng- Occ Occidentals ; "Western 
lish Pronunciation. English Pronunciation. 

Bor Boreales; Northern Eng- Ori Orientates; Eastern Eng- 
lish Pronunciation. lisli Pronunciation. 

B Butler, 1633. P Palsgrave, 1530. 

Bull Bullokar, 1580. P oei poetic^ 

C Cheke, 1550. P r P™fatw, the preface to 
,, ... Gill, which is not paged. 

cor corrupte ; a pronunciation •' • 7 ., £. °„ 

r ., -, 1 ,, prov proiincialder ; any pro- 

considered as corrupt by * ^ Uncial pronunciation, 

the author cited. g Smith) ^ 68 . 

G Gill ,1621. ga Salesbury, 1547 & 1567. 

H Hart, 1569. ^ Sff Scoti; Scotch p ron uncia- 

Lin Lincolnienses, Lincolnshire tion. 

Pronunciation. Transtr Tramtrentani ; English 

Mops Gill's Mopsae, and Smith's Pronunciation North of 

mulierculae, supra, pp. 90, the river Trent. 

91; indicating an effemi- ? interpretation doubtful, or 
nate or thinner pronun- apparent error, or mis- 

ciation. print, in the original. 


Pronouncing Vocabulary of the Sixteenth Century. 


a a, G pr 

abandon abairdon G 133 

abbreviation abrevias'ion Bull 

abhor abhor- Bull, abhorred abbored 

G 106 
able aa-bl Sa, S, Bull, G 65, ab - l G 32 
abide = abijd C 2 
Abington Ab''q - tun see Trumpinaton 

abound abound - G 89 
about abuut - Bull, about- G 23 
above abuv Bull, abuv G 22 
abroad abrood - G 60, abroo-ad ? G 133, 

abroad C 6 
absence absens G 66 
absent ab-sent G 84 
absolve abzolv G 85 
abstain abstain - G 89 
abundance abun-dauns P, abmrdans G 

abundant abun-dant G 84 
abuse abyys - Bull 
ace as Bull 

acceptable aksept - abl G 84 
acceptance aksep'tans G pr 
according akoixWq G 21 
account akouut - G 89 
accuse akyyz - S, akyyz - G 45 
accustomed akus'tomed G 84 
ache aatsh Bull, Hart, see headache, 

aches =axess axes C 8 
acknowledge akknooudedzh G 32 
acquaint akK-aint - S, acquainted 

akw-ain-ted G 129 
acquaintance akwain'tans S 
acquit akwit' aut aktt'ait G 15, &kwit m 

acre aa - ker G 70 
add ad G 85 

addressed adres'ed G 133 
adjudge addzhudzk - G 32 
admonish admonish G 85 
adore adoor G 122 
adorn adorn* G 141 
adultery adult-erai G 85 
advance advAAns - G 143 
adventure adveirtyyr G 30 
adverb ad'verb Bull 
advise advaiz - G 87, 131 
adz addice addes adlres prov. Sa 
affairs afairz - G 37, afaairs- G 122 
affections afek'seons G 123 
affect afekt- G 103, affects afekts- G 141 
affirm afYrnr G 1 1 2 
affliction afltk'stbn G 125 
afford afuurd - B 
affray afrai - G 98 

afore afoor. G 80 

afraid efraid - per prothesin pro fraid 

after after G 79 

again again* G 24 

against agenst - frequentius, against - 
docti interdum G pr, against' G 20, 

age aadzh S, G 70 

agree agrii- Bull, G 118 

ague aa-gyy G 92 

a«'tf aidG 14, 113 

air ai-er G 106, aai-er G ? air aier C 6 

airy aerai aereus G 14. a'erifere tris- 
syllabum G 16 

ale aal Sa, G 37 

algate al-gat? G 109 

all aul S, a'l Bull, aal G 23, al G 39, 
aaI G 25 

allay alai- G 99 

allhail AAl'Haail* omnis salus G 64 

allure alyyr G 123 

alone aloon* G 45, 145 

aloud aluud- Bull, aloud- G 109 

a&o a'l-so Bull, AAS^or joroAAl-so G 17 

altar = aulter C 5 

although AAldhoklr G 65 

altogether AAl'togedh-er G 21 

alum al-um S 

am am G 52 

amain amaain- G 119, amain - G 110 

amate amaat* terreo G 32 

amaze amaaz- G 88 

ambitious ambeWus G 99 

amiss ami's - G 113 

among amoq - G 21 amooq- ? G 79. 
amuq - B 

an an G 10 

andiron a'nderr'n Bull 

angels aq - gelz ? see next word, G 24 

angelical andzheeWkal G 119 

anger aq - ger G 91 

angry aq - gr* G 84 

anguish aq - gwz'sh Bull 

anothers anodb - erz G 95 

answer an - swer non aun - suer G pr, 
answered answered G 119, answeerd 

answerable an*swerable G 84 

any an - *' Bull, G 45, prima naturd sua 

brevis G 133 
ape aap, Sa S 
apparel aparel G 38 

appear apiir - Bull B, appear C 6, ap- 
peared apiird G 94, appered appeared 
C 1, 2, appeareth apirreth Bull B, 
apieretk G 87, appearing apiirt'q 


appease apeez' G 123 

appertain apertaiir G 87 

apply aplor G 86 

appointed apuuint-ed G 24 

apprentice apreirfe's G 98 

are aar Bull, G 56, ar G 21 

areaps areeds- G 98 

aright araikht- G 135 

ariseth araiz-etk G 25 

armed arnred G 82 

arms armz G 37 

army arnrai G 106 

array arar S, araar G 128 

arse-smart ars-smart hydropiper G 38 

Arthur Artur G 107 

as az Bull G 13, 95 

ash aish Sa, ash S, ashes ashez G 

37, 128 
ask aks et ask S, ask G 88, asked askt 

aspen as - p?'n G 106 
aspiration aspiras-ton Bull 

aspire aspeir- G 111. 

ass as Bull, asses as-es G 24 

assay asai - , assay thereof zadrAAkh - 
Occ, G 18 

assist asj'st" G 141 

assoil asoil- G 85, 89 

assurance asyy-rans G 83, 117 

assure asyyr- G 128, assyyr - G 32 

astonied aston^'ed G 99, astoonied 19 

at at G 79 

attempered atenrpred G 1 19 

attend atend- G 133, attends atendz - 

attire She dierz ati-er ? cervi cornua G43 

attribute v. atn'b - yyt G 85 

auditor AA'd-'tor G 129 

auger AAU-ger G 14 

augment AAgnient- G 119, 142 

aunt AAnt ? G 1 

authors AA'torz G 143 

avail avail* G 87, availeth avail - eth 

avengement avendzlrment G 149 

avens avenz caryophyllatum G 37 

aver aver - G 32 

avoid avoid - G 131 

awe au aa Sa, au S, aau G 14 

awful aa-M G 150 

awry awm- = arwii ? P 

axe agz Sa, aks S, G 13 

aye ei S, eei G pr, 15, eei G 15, ai G 
113, aai G 116, ai C 6 

Baal Baal Bull 

babble s. baaM nugec G 26, v. babl in- 
fantum more balbutire G 26 
babbler babder infanticrepus G 26 
babbling babdi'q garrulitas G 26 

babe baab Sa, G 26, babes = baabs C 11 

baby baa^bai G 26 

back bak S 

backward bak"ward G 28 

bacon baa'k'n Bull, baak - n G 38 

bad bad malus S 

badge badzh G 12 

bag bag S, G 89 

bail bail Bull 

baily beede cor B 

bait bait G 14 

bake baak Sa, S 

balance bal-ans Bull, bal'ans G 21 

bald bauld Sa S, ba'ld Bull 

bale baal Bull 

ball baul Sa, S, ba'l Bull, bAAl G 14 

balm baul'm =ba'l'm BuLl,bAAlm^o<tM« 

quam bAAm G pr, bAAlm G 38 
bands bands ? G 116 
bar bar S, Bull 
barbarous barbarus Bull 
Barbary Barbari G 147 
barbs barbs P G 37 
bare baar S, Bidl 
bargain bar-gain G 93 
barley bardei G 37 
barn baar'n Bull 
baron baron Bull 
barren bar -en Bull 
base baas G 98 
basket bas - ket Bull 
&mbaaz? G119 
bat bat S 
bate baat S 
bath bath, S 
bathe baadh badh S 
battery bat-n G 123 
battles bat-ails G 104 (in Spenser) 
bawl bAAl, eodem sono proferimus, bAAl 

ball pila, et tu bAAl bawle vocife- 

rari G 14 
bay bai badius Bull 
bay -tree bai-trii Bull, bays baiz lauri 

be bi G 23 
beak beek B 
beams beemz G 23 
bean beane been P, Bull 
bean been G 37 
bear beer P, beer Sa, baar ursus Bull, 

bear bare bore born, beer baar boor 

born [without distinguishing 'borne') 

G 50, borne boor'n Bull 
beast beest P, Bull, G 12 
beat beet verberut, bet verberavit S, beet, 

bet verberabam dialectus est, G 48 
beauty beu-t* G 22, 98, beau-tt B 
because bikAAZ- G 91 
beck bek B 
become bikunv G 21, 67, became bikaanr 



bed bed S, G 47 

bedridden = bedreed C 9 

bee bii P, Sa 

beefbiii G 39 

£ee« biin G 56 100 

beer bier G 37 

beet biit S 

£ee£s biits blitum G 37 

6m>£* biivz G 39 

befalleth biiiAAl-eth G 87 

before bifoor S biifoor Bull, bifoor G 

21, 23, 80 
begging beg - «q Sa 
begin begnr 6 133, beginning begiiWq 

G. 123 
begone biigoon* ? G 81 
behave biHaav G 51 
behind beHaind- G 79 
behold biihooid Bull, beheld bmeld- 

G 100 
behoveth bimmvetb G 95 
being biWq G 25 
believe, beliiv, Sa, G 87, biliiv G 100, 

128, beleev C 24, believing biliivi'q 

G 133, 
bell bel vola S 
bellows bel'oouz G 37 
belongeth biloq-etb G 21, 86 
beloved biluved G 129 
Belphoebe Belfee'be G 101 
bend bend G 48 

beneath biineedlr Bull, bineth - G 79 
benefit ben- ef it G 133 
benign bem'g-n bem'q-n G 30 
bent bent S 

bereave bireev G 125, bereev G 48 
beseem bisiinr G 67 
beside bisaid* G 79 
besought bisooukhf G 127 
best best G 12, 34 
bestow bistoou - G 86 
bet bet pro beter G 135 
betake bitaak* G 32 
bethink birtn'qk' 32 
betid past tense bitaid* G 108 
betimes bitaimz - G 123 
betrayed bitraid- G 145 
better better G 34 

between biitwiin - Bull, bitwiin - G 79 
beyond bijond - G 79 
bid b^d S, bid G 88, bidden bt'd-n G 20 
bide beid S 
bier biir P, biir Sa, beer spelled beake 

rhyming with neare in the passage 

of Spenser (6, 2, 48) cited in G 103 
bill bi\ S 

billows bil'oouz G 99 
bind b^mb G 116, bijnd C 18 
bird bird S, G 24, burd G 88, birds 

burdz G 118 
bit bit S, bits bits G 37 

bitch bztsh, Sc et Transtr. bik S 
bitebzit S, bait mordeo, bit bit mordebam, 

have bitten Haav b»'t - n momordi G 48 
bitter bit-er G 40 
bladder blad-er Sa. 

blame blaamG 86, blamedblami? G 90 
blazed blaazed G 125 
bless bles G 21 
blind bteindG 119 
blithe bbidb G 107 
block blok G 99 
blood bluud S, blud Bull, G 4, 38, 

bloud C 27 
bloody blud-*' G 100 
blossoms blos - umz 144 
blow bloou Bull, blown blooun G 2 
blush blusb S, blushed blusbt G 1 1 7 
blue blyy S 
board buurd Sa, B, boord G 47, boards 

boordz G 118 
boast boost G 23, 89 
boat boot S, Bull, boot C 4 
body bod-» G 72, 133 
boil beil ulcus S, buuil coquo G 15 
bold boud prov Sa, bould S, boould G 

bombast bunrbast G 38 
bondmen bondmen G 41 
bone boon, Sc baan bean S 
book buuk Sa, Sm, Sc byyk S, buuk-s 

G 3, 41, byyks Bor G 122 
boot buut S, Bull 
booth buudh Bull 
bore boor P, G 50 
born boor'n natus, bor'n allatus the 

present use reversed Bull, born G 50, 

98 boom = natus C 2 
borrow boroouG 88, borroived borooued 

G. 98 
bot bot lumbricus equorum S, Bull 
botch botsb S 
both both G 39, 98, beadh Bor G 16, 

booth C 6 
bough bowh buuH Bull, bou G 15 
bought bouHt S, boouHt Bull, bokht 

G 12, booukht G 109 
bound bound G 15, 24 
bounty boun-tj G 29, 82 
bourn bur'n Bull, buurn B 
bow boo arcus Sa 34, 58, boou arcus bou 

jlectere S, boou arcus, buu flectere 

Bull, boou arcus G 15, bowing 

bou - «'q G 20, boxced—boud C 18 
bowels buuelz Bull, bouelz G 37, 94 
bowers bours G 114 
bowl booul sinum Sa, S, Bull, G 15, B, 

boul sphaera S, G 15, B, buul globus 

box boks S, G 107 
boy bui P, boi, fortasse bui, alii boe S. 

bwee H, boi Bull, buoi, wow bue G 


pr, buoi puer G 92, 136, boi Bor 
G 15, bwoe B 
brad brod claries sine capite S 
brag brag G 89 
brake brak ruptura, braak balista, filix 

&C, Bull, braak— rupit C 15 
bramble branrbl G 41 
bran bran G 38 
brandiron broncHrr'n Bull 
branches bransb^ez G 24, brantsb - ez G 

brass bras G 37 
brawada bravaa - da G 28 
bravely braav'lt G 123 
breach bretsb ? 8c et Transtr. brek S 
bread bred ? Sa, breed S, G 24, 37, 

breed C 4 
break breek Sa, breek, imp braak brook 

olim brast, occidentaliter briik G 51 
breath bretb Bull 

breathe breedb Bull, breetb ? G 121 
bred bred S 

breech briitsb Sc Transtr. et Bor briik 
S, breeches bvitsh'es, briiks Bor G 17 
breed briid S, G 124 
br mined bren - ed Bor G 122 
brethren brecUrren ant bredb-ern G 41, 

brew bryy S, brewed bnuWd ? S 
bride braid G 112 
bridegroom \ — brijdgroom C 25 
bridge bredzb, Bor brig S, bn'dzb G 1 2 
bridle bridd ? S broi-dl G 20, 123 
brightness braikbt-nes G 
Britain Bret-am {in Spenser) G 104 
broad brood S, G 70 
broil broil fortasse bruil S, broil bruuil, 

indijferenter G 15 
broken brook'n G 51 
brood bruud S, G 101 
brooks bruuks G 114 
broom bruum Bull 
brother brudb-er G 27, 41, 112, B, 

broyer C 4 
brotherhood brucUreriiuud G 27 
brought broukbt G 10 
brown bruun Bull 
bruised = broosed C 21 
bubble bub-1 B 
buck buk dama mas Sa, S, G 3, fago- 

triticum G 37 
buckler bukder Bull 
bud bud G 133 

budge budzb peregrinae ovis pellis S 
buildeth byyld-etb beild-etb biikbeth 
btld'etb, pro suoptc cujusque ingenio 
G 4, built =bylt C 7 
builder biild'er G 105 
building biibWq G 111, buildings = 

bijldings C 21 
bull bul, S, Bull, buu prov Sa 

bulwark bul*wark G pr 

bung buq B 

buoy bwei H, buui Bull, G 15 

burden burd'n Bull 

burn bur'n Bull, burn G 109, bumeth 

burn-etb G 23 
burr bur lappa S 
bury bir'i Sa, buri C 8 
bush busb G 73 
busied bez^'ed G 91 
business bez - nes G 81 
busy biz'i Sa 

but but S, Bull, G 20, 133 
butcher butsb'er, Mops btMrer G 18 
butt but Bull 
butter but-er G 38 
button but - 'n Bull 
buy bei S, G 89 
buyer berer H 
by hi S, bei H, G 20, 79, 136, by our 

lady bei-r laa^di Sa, by and bye, by 

and by, bit and hii P 


cage kaadzb S 

caitiff kartif miser S, kartiv G 111, 

calends kal*endz G 37 
calf ka'lf Bull, calves ka'lvz Bull 
call kaul Sa, S, ka'l Bull, kauprov Sa 
callet kal'et meretricula Bull 
calm kaulm Sa 4, ka'l'm Bull 
cambric kaanrbnk, Mops keenvbn'k 

G 17 
Cambridge Kaanrbridzb G 77 
cannot kanot G pr, kan'not G 45 
canoe kanoa ? G 28 
candle kan^dl G 98 
canvas kan'vas G 38 
cap kap Sa, S, G 12 
cape kaap hispanica chlamys S 
capers kap-erz G 37 
capon kaa*p'n Bull,kaa'pn, Mops keep n 

et fere kiip - n G 18 
captive kap-tiv G 116 
can kan S 
care kaar Bull 
careful kaarful G 84 
careless kaar des G 123 
carpenter karpenter G 129 
Carthage Kartbadzb G 66 
case kaas G 35, 100 
casement kaazTnent, G 27 
casket kasket G 35 

cast kast G pr, 48, kest kus-n Bor G 16 
cat kat S, G 35 
cates kaats G 37 
catch katsh S, G 149, see ' ketch', caught 

kouHt, S 
cattle kat-el Bull, G 24 
caul kaul = ka'l Bull 


cauldron kau-dor'n, Bull 

cause kauz Bull, Icaaz G 21, 103, 143 

causeway kairsi Bull 

cave kaav G 77 

cavil kavtl Bull 

ceased seest G 112, ccasest sees'est G 102 

cedars see'darz G 24, 105 

censor sen - sor G 66 

centre sent - er G 125 

certain sertain G 67 

chaff tskzi G 37 

chalk tshAAk G 38 

challenge tshaa - lendzh G 109 

chambers tshanrberz G 23 

chance tshans S, tshauns B, chanceth 

tshaans-eth G 66, tshans-eth G 86, 

chanced tshAAnst G 111, 119 
chancellor tshairsler G pr 
change tshandzh S, G 12, 20, tshandzh 

Bull, tshaindzh B 
changeable tsha'ndzlrab'l Bull 
chanter tshanter cantor S 
chap tshap findi per se aut vento S 
chape tshaap ferritin quod ambit unam 

vaginam S 
chapel tshap'el S 
char tshaar P 
charge tshavdzh Bull 
charity tshar - *te S 
charm tshar'm Bull 
charriot tsharet G 23 
chaste tshaast G 77. 100 
chasten tshas - t'n Bull 
chastity tshastv'tii G 101 
chaw tshAA G 14 
cheap tshiip ? licitari S, Cheapside 

Tsheep-seid Sa 
cheek tshiik P 
cheer tshir ? vultus S 
cheerful tsheerful G 118 
cheese tshiiz Sa, S 
cherish tsher/sh Bull, tsheerish et 

cherry tshert S, cherries tshert'z G 99 
Chesterton Tshes - tertun G 134 
chidden tshu'-d'n ? Bull 
chief tshiii Sa, Bull, G 77, cheef C 6 
child tsbild? S, tshaild G 42, child 

C 1, 2, children tsha-dren G 42 
childishness tslwVld'ishnes Bull 
chin tsbin P, G 80 
chisel tshirz'l Bull 
choler kol-er G 38 
cholic koWk G 38 
choose tshyyz G 101, chuse C 13 chose 

tshooz G 118, chosen tshocrz'n Bull, 

G 66, 152 
chop tshop scindere S, chopped tshopt 

Christian Kris'ttan G 150 
church tshi'rtsk Sa, tslu'rtsh tshurtsh 

vel tskyyrtsh, Sc et Transtr. kyyrk, 

kurk S, tshurtsh G 92 
churchyard tshurtsh - jard G 128 
churl tshurl P, tshur'l Bull 
cider s*d - er ? G 38 
Cimmerian Snnerian G 136 
citizen sj'Wzen G 85 
city sit-i Bull 
civet si'vet G 39 
clad klad G 123 

claim klaim S, claimed klainred G 110 
claw klau S 

clay klai G 38, klaai G 101 
clear klier G 147, khir B 
cleave kliiv ? S, kleev G 50 
chft kleft G 50 
clew klyy P 
c/yf kkfBull 
climb klaim, climbed klaimd, apud rus- 

tieos autempro imperfecto habes kloom 

klaam klum G 49 
climes klainiz G 141 
dive kleiv haerere S 
cloak klook G 46 
clod klod gleba S 
clooks klyyks Bor G 122 
close kloos G 141, closes klooz - ez G 98 
cloth kloth G 62, klooth Bor G 16, 

clooth C 6 
clothed kloodh-ed G 23 
clothier kloodlWer G 62 
clouds kloudz G 23, kloud-ez in Spenser 

G 121, 137 
cloven kloovn G 50 
cloy klwei, [klui ?] dare ad fastidium, 

aut equi unguium clavo vulnerare S 
coal kool G 12, 62 
coast koost B, coostes C 2 
coat koot S Bull 
cobble kob - l ruditer facer e S 
coif koif Bull 

coil koil, fortasse kuil, verberare S 
cold kould Sa, kould koould S, koo'ld 

Bull, koould G 103 et err. 
collier kol-ier G 62 
colour kulor Bull, G pr kul - er G 84, 

118, 129 
coll kol collum amplecti G 12 
colwort koohwurt B 
comb kooui et kem, combed kemt come- 

bam G 48 
come kura Bull, G 48, B, cometh kunreth 

G 20, came kam G 48 
comely kunrk" G 123 
comfort kum-fort Bull, G 105, 145 
comfortless kunrftirtles G 77 
command koniAAnd- G 87. koraaund 1 B 
commanders koniAAn-dcrz G 74 
commendation komendaa\s<'ou G 30 
committed komiVed G 118 
commodious komod'ois G 30 


commodities komocWtaiz G 39 
commodity komocWti G pr, 29 
common konron G pr. 
commonwealth konron welth G 43 
company kunrpangi G 110 
comparable konrparabl G 30 
compare kompaar G 86 
compared kompaard - G 116 
compassion kompas - s«on G pr, kompas - - 

«'onG 118 
competitor kompet - /tor G 129 
composition komposj'z'eon Bull 
concern konsenr G 87 
condemn kondemn 1 ? G 85 
condign kondj'g - n kond«q - n G 30 
condition condicyon kond«s - mn Sa 
coneys kom'z Bull, kmWz G 24 
confess konfes - G 112 
confidence kon-fVdens G 30 
confound konfound* G 116 
confounded konfound'ed G 23 
confused konfyyz-ed G 107 
conjurer kun'dzhurer, non kundzherer 

ut indoctus suas aures sequens, G pr 
consort konsort" G 48, consorted kon- 

sort-edG 118 
constancy kon-stansj G 30 129, kon- 

stansar poet G 130, supra p. 869, 

col. 2. 
constant kon'stant G 105 
Constantinople Kon-stantmopl G 129 
constrain konstranr G 129 
constraint konstraint - G 107 
consul kon - sul G 30 
consult konsult- G 21 
consumed konsunred ? G 25, consuming 

konsyynWq G 127 
contain kontein Bull, kontain- G 45 
content kontent - G 20 
continue kontnryy Bull 
cook kuuk S, G 17, Sc kyyk S, kyyk 

Bor G 17 
cool kuul S 
coot kuut genus anatis albam maculam 

in fronte gerens S, Bull, B 
copper kop-ei - G 39 
core koor P 
cork kork S 

com koor'n Bull, korn G 39 
corse koors G ] 28 
cosen kuz-n G 100 
cost kost G, 89 B 

costermonger kos - terdmuqger G 129 
costliest kost "best G 112 
cot kot involucrum, koot casa S 
cotton kot-'n Bull 
Cotswold Koots-woould G 70, Kot'sal 

vulgo G pr 
could kould S. kuuld Bull, G 56, B 
cough kooim S 
counsel komrsel G 30 

counterchange kountertshandzlr G 33 

counterfeit kunterfet Bull 

countess kouirtes G 42 

country kmrtrt G 43, contree C 14, 

countries kiurtmz Bull 
couple kou^l jungere S, coopled C 1 
courage kouradzb. G 105, kuu - radzh G 

123, kuradzh B 
course kours [kuurs ?] G 119 
court kuurt G 103, courts kuurts G 22 
courteous kurteus G 68 
courtesy kur"tezj G 82 
cover kuver, kj'ver Or G 17, coverest 

kuverest G 23 
covet kuvet G 90 
covetous kuvetus G 90 
cow kuu, P, kou Sa, G 41 
coward kou-Herd? G 107 
cowl koul S, B 
coy kui (?) P, \o\,fortasse kui, alii koe, 

ineptum, et a familiaritate alienumS 
crab krab S 
cracked kraakt ? G 99 
cradle kraa-dl G 101 
craggy krag'e G 146 
crazed kraazd G 99 
creanse kreenz ant kreanz, asturis aut 

fringillaris retinacula G 37 
created kreaafred G 25 
creatures kree'tyyrz G 118 
credit kred'tt G 43 
creep kriip G 24 
cresses kres'ez G 37 
cribble krt'bd cribulatus pa-nis S 
cried krgid G 78 
crooked kryyk-ed Bor G 122 
crow kroo Sa 
crown kroun G 70, crowned kround G 

cruel kryyel G 99 
cub kub, vulpecula parva S 
cuit kyyt kuit, defrulum vel vinum 

coctum S, cuited cyyted, a Gallico 

vocabulo cuire coquere G 4 
cuWkul S 

cumin kunrm G 37-38 
cunning kuiWq G 83 
cup kup S 

Cupid Kyyp-td G 136 
enr kur cants rusticus S 
curse kurs G 21, cursed kurs-ed G 105 
curtain kurtain G 23 
atrtaxe kurt-aks G 124 
cut kut S, G 48 
cypress sai'pres G 106. 


daffadowndillies dafadoundiWz G 104 
daily darloi G 35 

dainty daurto', deurtt delicatus S, 
dain-ti G 128, dainties daurtiz G 37 


dally daW ludere S 

dam dam bestia- cujusvis mater G 3 

damage dunraidzh ? Sa 

dame daam G 3, 116, 123 

dance dAAns G 143, dans, deans Or G 17, 

danced = da unsed C 14 
danger da'ndzh - er Bull, dahrdzher B 
B'Anvers DAAers vulgo G pr 
dare daar S, durst durst G 69 
dark=derk C 27 
darkness dark - nes G 23 
dart dart Sa 

D'Aubig>iey DAAb'nei vulgo G #r 
D'Aubridgi 'Court Dalrskot vulgo Gpr 
daughter dAAkht'er G 110, daughters 

dAAkht'erz G 23, some say daf - ter B 
daw dau P, S 
day dai, rustlci daai, Mops dee, Sc et 

Transtr daa S, dai G 22, 70 
daze daaz G 114? 

dead died ? mortuus S, deed G, deed C 9 
rf«a/deef S, efe*/C 11 
dear diir S, dier G 84 109, diier G 15, 

deer G 101, deer rightly, not diir, B 
dearling deerling, not darling B 
death deeth G 12, 109, 119, death's 

deetrrez in Spenser G 118 
debate debaat* G 97 
debt det S, debts =detts C 6 
decars dik-ars decades G 72 
decay dekai- G 124 
deceive deseev G 97, deceived deeseeved 

G 112, deceiving deeseeveq G 144 
declare deeklaar G 22, 23, 86 
dee dii nomen liter ae S 
deem diim G 32 
deep diip S, G 24, 70 
deer diier G 15, 41 
defence defens - G 20 
defend defend - G 31 
defer defer- G 133 
defiled M^M- G 118 
defraud defrAAd - G 31 
degree degrii Bull, G 21 
delight delmt" Bull, debit - G 21, delights 

debits - G 141 
delightful debit-ful G 114 
delivereth deh'vereth G 23 
demand deniAAnd - G 88, 116, demaund- 

demurely demyyrU' G 150 
den den S, dens denz G 25 
denials denai - AAlz G 150 
denying denaWq G 132 
depart depart - G 90 
deprive depraiv G 85 
deputy = debit te C 14 
derive deraiv G 48 
descended desend - ed G 83 
desert dezart - G 118, 141, dezert - G 116, 

121, dez - ert solitudo, dezert - meritum 

G pr, dezert* meritum, dez - ert deser- 

tum aut solitudo G 130 
deserve deserv G 89, deserves dezervz - 

desire dezair G 90 133, deezair ? G 111 
desirous dezarrus G 83 
despair despair - G 105 
destiny des - tem G 129, destihai G 97, 

destmar poet G 130, supra p. 869, 

col. 2. 
determined determined G 76 
Bevereux Deu - reuks ? G 42 
Devil Divyti. S, diil Bor G 122, devel 

devilishly = devillischli C 6 
devoid devoid G 83 
dew deu P, S, B 
dewy deu - i G 106 
diamond dramond G 79, 91 
dice deis aleae S 
Dick Dik S 

dictionary d«k - S!onan' Bull 
did see do 
dies deiz moritur S, died deid mortuus 

S, G 116 
differ defer G 90 
difference deferens G 119 
dilapidation d-'lap-daa-s-'on G 30 
diligently deWdzhentlai G 90 
dun d?'m S, dimmed dmid G 98 
din dm S 
dine dein S 
dip dtp G 48 
dirge derdzh G 117 
dirt durt G 38 
disallow d/salou* G 33 
disburden d«sburdh - en G 85 
discourteous di'skurteus G 118 
discovered dtskuvered G 106 
discrete deskriit - Bull, G 77 
disdain disdain* P, S, G 4, 98 
disease df'seez* Bull 

disfigure d - sf-g - yyr, prov disvig-yyr Sa 
disgraced desgraast - G 113 
dish disk S 

dishonest d/son - est Bull 
dishonesty d/son - estai G 89 
dishonour di'son - or G 89 
disloigned d'sloind - G 114 
disloyal d - sloi - AAl ? G 1 1 8 
disloyalty de'sloraltai G 118 
dismay d/smai - G 121 
dismayed d-'smaaid - 
disparted d-'sparfed G 106 
dispiteous d-'spe'feus G 32 
displaced d-'splaast - G 102 
displayed d/splaaid* G 98, 132 
disj)leasure d/splee - zyyr G 125 
distil distil- G 133 
dit d«t G 123 
ditches deitslWz, Sa 


divers divers- ? Bull, deverz ? G 93 

divide devwd' Bull, divided devarded 
G 133 

divine de'vanr potius quam devain ? G 
pr, de'vain' G 116 

divinely devaurlai G 133 

division, diviz-ion, devez - eon Bull 

divorced de'vors-ed G 114 

do duu Sa, S, du G 24, 50, 134, B, doo 
C 6, doest duust G 55, B, doost C 7, 
doth duth G 40, 55, don dmin plural 
G 102, did did G 50, 134, didst dulst 
G 55, doing diWq prima naturd sud 
brevis G 133, </o it dut pro du it G 
136, done dun G 50, duun Bor G 17, 
idmr Occ G 18, ^oow C 6 

doctor dok-tor G 30 

document dok-yyment G 30 

doe doo, Sa, S 

doleful dool-ful G 77 

dominion dom/iWon G 30 

doom duum G 32, 116 

door duur ostium S, door Bull, G 118, 
doors duurz G 95 

dorr dor ape's genus S 

doting doot-e'q G 144 

oJowife dub-1 doub-1 Sa, dubd Bull, G 
97, 112, B 

doubt duut Bull, dout G 109, B 

doubtful dout-ful G 83 

dough doou conspersio S 

dove dou columba S, clow doov C 3, 10 

dowcets dou - sets testiculi et tenera 
cornua G 37 

down doun G 21 

downward domrward G 103 

dozen duz - n G 72 

drachms dramz G 93 

draff draf G 38 

drank draqk G 50 

draws drAAz G 66, drawing drAA't'q G 
104, drawn drAAu G 146 

dread dreed S 

dream = dreem C 2 

dregs dregz G 37 

dress dres S 

drink driqk G pr drinking drtqk'tq Sa 

drive dreiv S, draiv G 49, driven drivn 

dross dros G 38 

drowned dround G 74 

drunk-en druqk-n G 50 

dry drai G 105, dri C 12 

duck duk anas S 

due dyy S G 22, 103 

dug dug mantilla S 

duke dyyk Sa, S 

rfw«dulS,G 125 

dumb—domb C 9 

dung duq G 12 

durst, see dare 

dust dust G 25, 38 
Dutch dutsh di'tsh B 
duty dyy-t* Bull, G 110 
dyer dei - er H 
tfywjr daWq G 134 


each eetsh G 99 

eagle eegd G 15 

ear eer, cor iir B, ears eerz G 103 

earl earl eta «2 a aliquantulum audiatur 

hie eerl, i'Wmj erl G 15 
earnestness eernestnes G 91 
earth erth Bull, eerth G 2 1 
ease jeez (?) Sa supra p. 80, eez S, Bull, 

G 15, 85, 123 
easement eezTiient G 27 
east = est eest C 2 
easy eez'i Bull 

eat eet G 15, eaten eet'n G 66 
eaves eevz G 37 
eeAo ek - o G 142 
egg eg Sa, S 
Egypt E-dztu'pt ? G 66 
eight aikht G 71 
eighteen aikht'iin G 71 
eighteenth eiirtiinth Bull 
eighth aikht G 71 
eighty aikhti G 71 
either eidlrer aut S, eeidlrer G 45. 

eidh-er G 101 
efc* iik Gill 
eleven elevn G 71 
eleventh elevnth G 71 
ell el G 70 

elm el'm Bull, elm G 105 
eloquence el'okwens G 43 
embellish erubeWsh G 29 
embowed emboud- G 107 
emmove emuuv G 135 
emperor enrperur Sa, em - perour G 1 1 7 
empire enrpair G 73 
empty emp - te G 83 
endeavour mdee - vor G 82 
endite endait* G 110 
endless end'les G 118 
endure mdyyr G 25, endyyr G 99 
enemy en - emoi G 82, enemies enemaiz 

enforce enfors 1 G 128 
Englands iq-glandz G 150 
English iiq'l/sh iiq-gle'sh eq-gl/sb ? Bull, 

Jq-gKsh G 141 
enjoy endzhoi - G 87 
enlightened mlaikht'ned G 23 
enough inukh* G 9, audies iuuf - et inukh- 

satis G 19 
entangle entaq"gl,g ab nratione sequentis 

liquidm quodammodo distrahitur G 10 
enter en'ter G 33 
entertain entertain - G 100 


entrails eirtralz G 37 

entreat intreet - G 87 

envy en - v« G pr, 38 

equal ee'kwal G 84 

ere eer G 104 

err er G 112 

errand erand pro eerand G 135 

error eror G 117 

essay esai" tentare S 

established estaM/shed G 22 

estate estaat - Bull, G 20 

esteem estiinr G 89 

eunuch =eunouch C 19 

even iivn G 22, 93 

evening iivm'q G 25 

ever ever G 40 

evermore evermoor Sa?, G 104 

every everai G 21, ever* G 30, evrai 

pro everai usitatissimus G 136 
evil evil ? S, iivl G 23, irvz'l B, evils 

iivlz G 118, 
ewe jeu H, yy Bull, eeu G 15, eu B 
ewer eau*er H, eeu - er aqualis G 10 
exalted eksalt-ed G 23 
examples eksanrplz G 68 
exceeding eksiid^'q G 84, 116 
excel eksel - Gill 
excellency ek - selensai G 21 
except eksept - G 65 
excess ekses - G 123 
exchange ekstshandzh* G 93 
excite eksait - G 110 
excuse ekskyyz - Bull 
exempt eksempt" G 89 
exercise ek-sersm Bull 
exhibition eksfluWun Sa 
exile ek^sail G 30, exiled eksaild* G 125 
expectation ekspekta - s«on G 21 
expert ekspert* G 83, 116 
explicate eks-ph'kaat G 31 
expone ekspoon* G 31 
extreme = extreem C 1 1 
extremity = extremitee C I 
eye ei S, G pr, 15, eyes eiz S, eyne ein, 

pro eiz Spenser, G 137 
eyebright ei-braikht, G 38 


fable faa bl S 

face faas Sa, G, faces, faa^sez Sa 

Faery Faa-eri G 97 

fail fail S, G 9, fails failz G 93 

fain fain P, faain S, fain Bull 

faint faint feint languidus S, faint G 149 

fair faai-er G 27, 98, faair fai-er G 74, 

fair G 99, fairest faairest G 101 
fairly faai'erlai G 27 
faith faith G 39, 104 
faithless faith ies G 145 
fall faul S, l'a'l Bull, fAAl G 40, fal ? 


false fa'ls Bull, faals G 97, falsest 

fAAls - est G 118 
falsely fAxh-hi G 139 
fame faain G 125, 135 
famous faa - mus G 30, 35, 100 
fan fan S 
fang faq arripe, Ocevaq; hefangedto 

me at the font, Occ mi vaqd tu mi at 

dhevant, in baplisterio pro me suscepit 

G \8,fanged faqd Bar G 122 
far far S, far G 23 34, far •= fur C 8 
farther fardcr Bull, fardher G 34, 

farthest far-dhest G 34 
farthing = frying C 5 
farewel faarwel - S 
fashioned fashioned G 101 
fat fat S, G 38, 74 
fate faat G 20 
father fedlrer prov Sa ? fadher G pr, 

112, fayer faat her G 3, 4, fathers 

faa-dherz G 75 
fault fa'lt Bull, fAAt frequentius, faalt 

docti inter dum G pr, f'AAlt fAAult G 

86, faults =fauts C 6 
favour favur Bull, favor G pr, 82 
faze faaz infila deducere S 
fear feer G 20, 22, 98 
fearful feerful G 99 
feast feest G 143, feasts feests G 118 
fed fed S 
fee fii P 

feeble fiibl G 99 
feed fiid Bull 

feel fiil S, feeling fiiWq G 119 
feetmt S, G 40,/e^C7 
feign fain fein S, fein Bull, feigned 

fain-edG 111 
fell MS, G47, 124 
fellow fel-oou, veloou Or G 17 
fen fen S 
fence fens S, G 20 
fents fents scissurae S 
fere feer socius G 101 
fern fer'n Bull, fern G 37, feern G 73 
fetch fetsh S, G, Aust vetsh G 17 
fett fet adporta S 
few feu P, S, G 100, feeu G 15 
fiants forants relicta vulpis G 37 
fickle fik-1 G 103 
fie IV P f»H' S 

field fiild Bull, G 22, 124 
fierce fcers G 99, fiers C 8 
fifteen ftftiin G 71 
fifth f /ft G 7 1 
fifty fif-t* G 71 

fig % s 

fight feit S, feikht G 80, 99 
figure f/g-yyr Bull 
file feil S 

filliil S, M, Aust \il G 17, filled aied. 



filthy MtlW G 104 

fin fm S 

final fai-nal G 30 

Finch Fmsh G 42 

find fund, Bull 

/«« fein S, fain G 12, 123 

finger fVq*ger ? G 70 

fir fix S 

fire feir S, fei-er, H, farer G 15, 23, ftr 

Or G 17, fei-er Bor G 16 
first first, S, G71, 34 
fish fish, prov vish Sa, fish. S, G 26, 47, 

fishing f/slWq, he is gone a-fishing 

Hai (?) iz goon avi'sht - Occ G 18 
fishmonger frsh-nruq - ger G 32 
fit fit S, G 84, fittest rVt-est G 118 
^w feiv Sa, S, ^?nw veiv Sa, faiv G 

70, fijv C 25 
/a; frks G 48 
fizz fiz, stridor igneus S 
flatter flat/er G 26 
flaming flaanWq G 24 
flax flaks Sa, G 38 
fled fled G 50 

fledge fh'dzh apta volare, Bor fleg S 
fleeced flii-sed G 99 
flesh flesh S, G 38 
flew flyy G 50 
/j'tfetf flrt-ed G 146 
float v. floot fliit, dialectics variat, Gpr 
flock flok G 99, flocks floks G 37 
>orffluud, 5c flyyd S, flud Bull, G 124, 

floods fludz G 119 
flourish flur/sh G 47, B 
flower flouur H, flowers flou'erz flores, 

flou'ers (?) menses G 39 
flown flooun G 50 
flute flyyt S 
fly s . =fiyeM ? =fiie&ii ? V,fly v.flai 

flii dialectics variat G ^r, flai G 50, 

116,/ewflyy G 50 
fodder fod-er G 38 
foe foo G 82, foen foon pro fooz Spenser 

G 137 
/o(7 foil, _/b> - f ffsse fail, bractea S 
foined fuuind punctim feriebat G 78 
/oM foould G errata 
folk foolk potius quam fook G pr 
/o#<w fol-oou G 90, 129, ful-a Bor 

G 16 
folly fol-t G 38 
/owfif fond stolidus S, G 114 
/corf fuud G 24, 38 

fool find Sa, S, G 21, fools fuulz G 89 
/oo&sA fuuWsh G 27, 103 
foot fuut Bull 
footsteps fdut'steps G 147 
for for S, G 21, B 
forbear forbecr GUI 
forced forst G 99, forcing foors-j'q S 139 
forces foorsez G 100 

forego forgoo - amitto, foorgoo 1 prcecedo 
G 65, foregoing foorgo'tq G 129, 133 

forest forest G 24, 62, 134 

forester, fos - ter nemoris custos, S 

forestaller foorstAAl'er G 129 

fore foor B 

foretell foortel- G 80 

forge fordzh G 118 

forget forget* G 55, forgat forgat* G 55, 
forgotten forgofn G 133 

forgive =f orgy v C 9, forgiving for- 
gj'viq G 133 

forgoing forgo^'q G 33 

forlorn forlorn - G 33 

forsake forsaak- G 103, 139 

forspeaking foorspeekv'q G 133 

forswear forsweer G 33 

forth fuurtk G 22, 24 

forthy fordhai- G 100 

forty fort* G 71 

forward foo'rward Bull 

fought, fauHt, foughten fauHt"il S 

foulfovl turpis S, G 74, 104 

found found G 136, fond in Spenser G 

foundations foundaa-s/onz G 24 

founded founded G 24 

fountains foun-tainz G 119 

four four, prov vour Sa, foou'r Bull, 
foour G 37, 70 

fourteen foourtiin G 71 feorteen fur- 
teen xiiij C 1 

fourth fouurth, H, foourth G 71 

fowl fold S, foivls foidz G 24 

fox foks Sa, S, prov voks Sa 

frail frail G 114, 123 

framed fraa-med G 123 

France, Fi - aans G 70, Frauns B 

fronton fran^'on G 129 

frankincense fraqk-msens G 38 

fray free cor B 

free frii G 83, 89 

freeze friiz G 47 

French Frensh G 70 

frensy fren - z» G 106 

friend fWnd G 1 1 7, friind B, freend C 
11, friends friiuflz Sa, Bull, frt'ndz 

friendless, friinddes B 

friendly fr/ndlai G 84 

friendship frmd - sk?'p G 82 

froise fruiz ? P 

from from S, G 20, 79 

fronts fronts G 99 

frost frost G 47 

frosty fros - t« G 146 

froth froth G 38 

frowardness fro-wardnes G 82 

frowning frouir/q G 20 

frozen frooz - n, Occ ifroor ivroor G 18. 

frugality fryygaWtai G 39 


fruit fryyt G 2i,fruut C 7 

fruition rhuWoon ? G 30 

fueliyyelG 125 

fugitive fyydzhrtaiv G 35 

full fill S, "Bull G 32 

fulness ful'nes G 22 

fulsome ful-sum G 28 

funeral fyyneral G 84, 106 

furlong fuvloq G 70 

furmety frunrenh' G 37 

furnace =furneis C 6 

furnish form'sh Bull 

furniture fur n/tyyr G 43 

further fardher furdber furder, dia- 
lectics variat, G pr, furdber G 34, 
furthest furdbest G 34 

furyfyj-ri G 141 


gain gain G 20, 79 

'gainst gainst G 124 

^fl^gaui S 

gallant gal -aunt Sa 

gangrel gaq-rel or gaq-grel Bor, homo 

ignavus, G 17 
gape gaap S, G 88 
garden gaard'n Bull 
garland gar-land G 103 
garlic garl/k G 38 
garment garment G 23 
gate gaat Bull 
gather gadhcr G 25, 112 
gay gai, gaei ? S 
gaze gaaz S, G 88, 114 
gelding geld -nig S 
general dzheireral G 133 
generous dzben-erus G 30 
genitive dzhen-?'tiv Bull 
gentle dzben-t«l ? S 
gentleicomen dzberrtljWinren, Mops 

dzhen-tl,;'nvm G 18 
gently dzbent lai Gill 
geometry dzbeonretrai G 38 
George Dzhordzh Sa, S 
gests dzhests G 107 
get get S, gat gat genuit S 
ghost =ghoost C 1 
giblets dzhrtrlets G 27 
gift gift S 

Gil Dzhi'l fcemina levis S, G 36 
Gilbert Gd-bert Sa 
Giles Dzlwilz G 42 
Gdinn DzbiKan G 36 
Gill Gil G 42, gtl bronchia piscis S 
Gillsland G/lz land G 136 
ginger dzh/irdzb/r Sa 
girdle gj'rd - l G 46 
give g/v S, G 18, giiv Bull, G 23, gii 

Mops G 18. gijv C 18, gave gav jaav 

jaaf S, gaav G 49, given gii-v'n Bull, 

givn G 67 

glad glad G 21 

glas glas G 42 

gloomy glmrnu G 147 

glorious glor - ius ? G 30, glocrn'us ? B 

glory gloo - ri G 21, gloori C 15 

glove gluv G 70 

glue glyy P, G 38 

glut glut G 89 

go go G 17, 24, goeth go-eth G 25, 
going go - ing prima syllaba natur& 
sua brevis G 133, gang gaq Bor G 
17, gone goon S, G 65, goon C 2, pro 
imperfect o patres nostri substituerunt 
9i jeed aid ei jood G 64, 65, pro 
xcent, jed aut rood ibam, Lincolni- 
enses ab antiquis etiamnum retinent 
G17, S 

goad good S 

goats goots G 24 

God God Sa, S, G 20, God be with you, 
God bii-wwo, Sa 3 

gold gould Sa, goould G 37 et errata 

golden goould'n G 98, et errata 

goldsmith goould'smrtb G 32, et errata 

good gnud gud ? Sa, gud, guud S, gud 
G 12, gyyd Bor G 17 

goodlihead gud - l»Hed G 98 

goodly gud'lai G 27 

goodness guudnes Sa 10 

goose guus G 38, geese giis G 40 

gorgeous gordzbeus G 107 

gosling goz-b'q G 35 

gout gout G 38 

govern govern G 21, 66 

government guver'nment Bull 

gown goun, gAAn geAAn Bor G 16 

grace graas Bull, G pr, 29, 83 

gracing graasv'q G 150 

gracious graa - s/,us Sa B 

graft graf Bull 

Grahams Gre'Hamz G 73 

grammar granrar G 38 

grange gra'ndzh Bull 

grant grAAnt G 86, 116 

grass gras Bull G 24, 37 

grave graav Bull G 1 25 

graven graavu G 23 

graze graz ? Bull 

grease grees G 38 

great greet magnus, greeet ingens G 35, 
greet C 7 

greatly greet'lsi G 20 

Grecian Gree - sian G 73 

greedy griid'i' G 83 

gran griin G 3 

greenish grtirishp G 35 

grew gryy G 110 

grey greei P 

grief griif G 

grieve griiv B 

grieved — greeved CIS 


grisvous griivus G 84 
grin grm laqueus G 3 
grind =grijnd C 24 
grisly graizdi G 110 
groan groon Bull 
groats =grooies C 18 
ground ground G 103 
grow groou G 24, 123 
gudgeon gudzlreon ? G 77 
guess ges Bull 
guests = geestes C 14 
guide giii Bull 
guild gild G 47 
guildhall geildHall ? G 4 
guile geil S 
guileful gaikful G 114 
guilty gilt'i G 4, 45 
^Mi'se giiz Bull 
^/ gulf Bull 
^m»2 gum S 
gut gut Sa, Bull 


habit abut Sa 

habitation abitaa - s»on P, Sa, Habitaa's- 

ion G 23, 136 
had Had S 

hair Heer Bull, heer C 5 
hail Haail ««&e G 64 
halberd HAAbberd Hal'berd Hool'berd 

G 19 
hale Haal G 3 
half 'Ha'lf Bull, haaW potius quam HAAf 

GF, HAAlf G 149 
halfpenny HAA-peni G 32 
hall Haul S, G 3, Hall Hal Heuriculus 

ham Haa'm or fod - er Bull 
ham Ham Bull, B 
hame Haam, dbe wud klip-ing abuut- a 

Hors-kol-er Bull 
hand Hand Sa, G 9, Hond in Spenser 

G 137, hands bandz Sa, band'es in 

Spenser G 137 
handful Hand-ful G 70 
handling nand'b'q G 114 in Spenser 

where the metre requires three syl- 
lables, as Han - dl,iq 
hanged Haqd G 122 
hanging naq'e'q G 99 
happeneih Hap-netb G 66 
happy bap- 1 G 124 
harbour Harbour P G 119 
hard Hard Sa 
harden Hardm G 47 
hardy Hard*' G 27 
harken Harkm G 86 
harmony Harmonii G 118 
Harry Hart G 149 
harshness Harslrnes, G 82 
hart Hart P, Sa 

harvest Harvest G 134 

hasted Haast-ed G 24 

hastened Haast - ned G 107 

hasty Has-U' G 147 

hat Hat S 

hatches Hatsh'ez G 37 

hate Haat S, G 23 

hatred Haa'tred P 

hateful Haat-ful G 84 

hath Hatb G 54, Hez Bor G 17 

have Haav P, Sa, S, G 21, Hav Bull 

haven Haavn G 99 

haw Hau P, unguis in oculo Bull 

hawthorn bau'thoor'n Bull 

hay bei fcenum Bull, haifcenum G 37, 

s&iplaga Bull 
he mi P, G 10, huu Aust G 17 
head bed S, Bull, Heed G 102 
headache hed-aatsb G 38, see Ache 
heal Heel Sa, S, Bull 
health neeltb G 21 
heap Heep Bull, heaps He«ps G 107 
Jiear Heer, cor niir B, heareth=lieereth 

heard Haard G 21, 23, Heerd, cor Hard 

B, hard C 6 
hearken Heerkm, cor narkm B 
heart Hart Sa, G 21, 23, 79, B 
heart-eating Hart - eeWq G 131 
hearth Hertb G 142 
heat = heet C 20 
heathen Heedb'en G 22 
Jieaven Hevn Bull, lieeven C 6, heavens 

Heevnz G 22, 23 
heavy Heevt G 119, B 
hedge Hedzb S 

heed mid G 112, heed hed C 16, 21 
heel Hiil Sa, S, Bull 
height Heikht G 64, 124, 141, haight 

heir = heier C 21 
held Held G 49 
hell Hel S, Bull, G 38 
he'll Hiil, mist Bor pro Hii wil, G 17 
helm Hel'm Bull 
hem Hem Sa, G 141 
hemp Hemp Bull, G 38 
hen Hen S, hem henz P, S 
hence Hens S 
henceforth Hensfortb- G 1 1 2, bensfuurth 

G 117 
her Her G 44, 76, m'r G 22, 76 
herb Herb G 24 
here mir sometimes Heer Bull, Hirer G 

75, Hiir B, heer C 15 
hereafter Heeraft - er G 57, beraft-er G 58 
heritage Heritaidzb Sa 
Herod = Heer ood 2 
heron Heer'n Bull 
hew hcu Bull, B 
hey .' Heei G 


hide Heid S, hidest Haid - est G 25, hid 

Htd S, G 130 
hideous md - eus G 78 
high haikh G 23, 99 
high Hei G 21, 74, 98, 105, higher 

Hei - er H, Haier G 34, highest narest 

G 34 
hill ml S, hills He'lz G 23 
him nim G 44, im Bor G 122 
himself Himself - G 128 
hindereth Hmdreth G 136, hindered 

H*'n - dered Bull 
hire Hair G 15, 114 
his uiz G 21 
hit H«'t G 48 

hither H«'dh - er G 66, Hedlrer B 
hoar Hoor S 
hoards — hoords C 6 
hoarse Hoors S 
hobby Hob'z P 

Hodge Hodzh Bogercuhts ritsticorum S 
hold Ho'ld Bull, Hoould G errata, holden 

Hoould'n G 49, et errata 
hole ~aoo\ foramen S 
holiness Hoodmes G 22 
hollow ho1 - oou G 103 
holly hoW aquifolium Sa, Bull 
holm Hool'm ilex Bull 
holy hooW satieties Sa ?, G 12 
honest on - est P, Sa, Bull, onest non 

Honest G pr, B 
honesty on - est« G 
honey Hun - t G 38 
honour on - ur P, on - or Sa 44, on'or non 

Honor nee oner G pr, 22, 87, onur B 
honourable on-orabl G 129, 139 
hood Hud Huud, 8c Hyyd S 
hoof huuv S 
hoop Huup Bull 

hop Hop S, Bull, hops Hops G 37 
hope hoop Sa, S, Bull 
hopeful Hoop - ful G 32 
hopeless Hooples G 32 
horehound Hoor-Hound G 38 
horizon Horai - zon G 29 
horror Horor G 98 
horse Hors S, Bull, G 10 
horseman Hors - man G 32, 128 
hose hooz G 41, Hooaz Bor, Hoozm 

Occ G 16 
hound Hound H 
hour ou*er, e interposito scribatur ou - er 

hora, id enim etprolatio ferre potest, 

et sensus hanc diffcrentiam (our 

noster, ou - er hora) requirit, G pr, 70 
horned Honred G 99 
house s. hous G 24, v. houz G 47 
household Hous-hoould G 81 et errata 
howled Hould G 109 
hoy's Hueiz ( = Hweiz=wheiz ?) H 
Ruberden Htberden Sa 

huge Hyydzh S, G 99, 121 
humanity Hyyman'&U' G 29 
Humber Hunrber G 40 
humble unrbl Sa, humbleness Hunrblnes 

G 135, humblesse Humbles - G 135 
hundred Hun-dred G 71 
hundredth Hun - dreth G 71 
hunger Huq-ger ? G 103 
hunt Hunt G 90 
hurt Hurt P, Sa, G 48, 87 
husband — housbond C 1 
hutch Hutsh S 
hy ! aeei G 15 
hypocrites = hypocrifts C 6 
hyssop ai - zop G 38 

i" ei Sa, S, ai non ei G pr, Aust ch ut 
cbara, chil, cbi voor ji pro ai am, ai 
wd, ai war-ant jou G 17 

ice eis S 

ides aidz G 37 

idle^idilQ 20 

idols aidolz G 22 

if it S 

ill AG 114 

I'll ail aist, ail aist Bor pro ai wd G 17 

illustrious dus - trms G 30 

images armadzhes ? G 23, jnraadzh 
G 30 

imagine nnadzh - m G 20 

immixing zm,nnks*£q G 110 

impair impair - empair - G 33 

impart z'mpart' G 31, 85 

implacable mrplaakabd G 109 

impossible mrpos'dd G 30 

importune importyyn G 31 

impotency enrpotensj G 30 

impotent enrpotent G 135 

impoverish impoverish G 29 

impregnable mipregmabl G 29 

impute t'mpyyt - G 85 

in m Sa 

incense v. msens* G 31, s. m'sens ? G 38 

inch msh G 70 

incivility insiwil'iti G 1 12 

included mklud - ed ? Bull 

increase enkrees - Bull, inkrees - G 21, 22 

incredible inkrcd - «bl G 30 

indeed mdiid - G 52 

indenture indeirtyyr G 30 

India ihd - j'a, sive ihd G 70 

Indian Jnd'tan G 70 

indure indyyr G 

infamy drfamai G 118 

inferior inferior Bull 

ingenious indzhen-ius G 148 

ingratitude mgraWtyyd G 30 

inlet mdet G 33 

innocency in - osensai G 73 

innumerable umunverabl ? G 25 


instead msteed 1 G 103 
instrument wrstryynient G 129, instru- 
ments m*stryyments G 118 
insult v. msult* G 86 
intangle see entangle 
interchange mtertshandzh" G 33 
interfere eirterfeer G 33 
intermeddle mtermedd G 33 
interpret interpret G 112 
intimate mU'maat G 31 
into t'n-tu G 79 
invade mvaad - G 117 
inwardly m-wardlai G 21 
iron arern G 94 

ironmonger arernmuq-ger G 129 
is tz Sa, G 20, is it ist pro iz it G 136 
isles ailz G 22, 148 
it it G 44 
itch itsh S 

ivory ivorai ? G 117 
iwis eiwis - certe S 

Jack Dzhak iaccus vel ioannidior S, 

jade dzhaad equus nihili S 
James Dzkaaniz Bull 
jape dzhaap ludere antiquis nunc ob- 

scmnius significat S 
jar dzhar G 133 
jaundice dzhAAirdif's G 38 
jawe dzhAA G 14 
jay dzhai graculus S 
jealousy dzhel'osi G 124 
jerk Azhivkjlagellare S 
jerkin dzherkin sagulum S 
jesse dzhes pedicce accipitrum S 
jesses dzes - ez G 37 
jesters dzhest-erz G 118 
Jesu Dzhee*zyy Sa 
Jesus Dzhee - zus Sa 
jet dzhet gagates S 
Jews Dzhyyes ? S 
Joan Dzhoon S 
John Dzhon false Shon, Sa, G, Djou 

"Wade apud G pr, Dzkon G 35, Joan 

join dzhuuiu G 86 
joint dzkoint Sa, Bull, dzhuuint G 15, 

joist dzhuist B 

Joseph Dzhoo-zef Bull, Dzhosef G pr 
journey dzhurnei G 92 
Jove Dzhoov G 110 
joy dzhoi G 10, 15, 21, 89 
joyful dzlioi-ful G 22 
joyous dzhorus G 118 
judge dzhudzh S, G 11, 112, judges 

dzhudzh-ez G 152 
judgement dzhudzlrment Bull, Gil 
judicious dzhyyd-iWus G 81 

jug dzhug S 

jugglers dzhugd,urz Bull 
juice dzhyys S, dzhuis ? Bull 
just dzhust S, Bull 

justice dzhus - U's G pr, dzjusWs Wade, 
apud G pr 


keen kiin G 12 

keep kiip S 

ken ken S 

Kent Kent Sa, S 

ketch ketsh rapere S 

kicked k«'kt G 78 

kill kil S 

kin km S, G 12 

kindness kaind-nes G 82 

kindred km-dred G 98, kindreds kt'n- 

dredz G 22 
kine kain G 12, 41 
king k«q Sa, S, kings ki'qz Sa 
kingdom = king doom C 2 
kinsman kmzruan G 40 
Ms kis Sa, G 42, kisseth k»Veth G 98 
kitchen ki'tslren Bull 
kitting kj't'ltq catulus G 35 
kite kiks myrrhis S 
knee knii Bull 
knew knyy G 116, 124, B 
knife knwf Bull, knaif G 100 
knight km'kht Sa, kuj'Ht Bull, knaikht 

G 111 
knit but Bull, G48, 146 
knobs knops bullis S 
knock knok Bull, knocks knoks S 
knot knot Sa, Bull 
knoweth knooireth G 24 known knooun 

non knoon G pr, 21 
knowledge knooudedzh Bull, G 77 
knuckle knukd Bull 

labour laa-bur Bull, laa-bor G 86, 100, 

141, laa-bur B 
labyrinths labyrinths G 114 
lack lak Bull, S 
lad lad Sa, S 
ladder lad-'r Sa 

lade laad, onerare S, laden laad*n S 
ladies' mantle laa - d;'z man-tl G 38 
lady laa-di Sa, G 107, lady-ladeela.a.i'i- 

ladii - ehoriambus G 133 
laid laid ponebat S, G 21, 111 
lake, laak, S 
lamb lam G 35 
lambkin, lanrkin G 35 
lament lament, Bull, lamented lamented 

G 90 
lamps— laampes C 25 
lance launs B 
land lond pro land in Spenser G 137 



language laq-gwaidzh, Sa, laq-gadzh, 

Bull, laq-guadzh G 146 
languish laq-guish G 125 
lap lap sinus S, laps laps S 
largesse lardzhis G 29 
lash laish Sa, lash perire S, lashed 

lasht G 77 
last last G 40, lasting lasWq G 74 
lastly lasH* G 110 
lat lat locavit S 
late laat G 100, S 
lath lath Bull 
lathe laath horreum Bull 
fowyA lauH, laf, S, lAAkh, si dialectis 

placet laf, pro ai lAAkhed audies ai 

luukh ««<£ ai lyykh G 49, laughed 

laukht G 109, 
laughter lauH-ter S 
Laura LAA'ra G 150 
law laau S, Iaau G 10 
lawful, lau-ful Bull, Iaa-M G 67 
lawn 1a an G 14 Mops leen G 17 
lawnds lAAndz in Spenser (4, 10, 24,) 

G 114 
lawyer lAA-jer G 81 
lax, laks proluvium ventris S 
lay lai pot/ere, rustici laai, Mops lee, 

iSc. e< Transtr laa S, £««/««< laist S, 

layeth lai-eth G 23 
Jays lais (laiz ?) terrce inculta et resti- 

biles, S 
lazy laa-zt G 12, 74 
lead leed ducere aut plumbum S, leed 

plumbum G 39, rf?W leed = dueebat C 2 
fca/ S, Bull, G 73, leaves leevz Bull 
leak leek Bull, S 
lean leen Bull, G 74 
leap leep S 
feam lem G 27, leera G 141, learning 

leenrt'q G 82, learned lerned G 

68, leern-ed G 69 
learner leernor Bull, lenrer G 27 
leas leez lez pascua S 
lease lees locatio aut locationis instru- 

mentum S 
leash lesh leesh, temio canum S 
least leest S, Bull, G 34, leest C 5 
leather ledlrer G 38 
leave ljeev ? supra, p. 80, Sa, leev G 38, 

48, Mops liiv G 18 
led led S 
lede Hid yewMS S 

leech leach liitsh leetsh, medicus S 
&## liik porrum S, Bull 
te< liit, dies juridicus S 
te/if v. left G 48 
leg leg Bull 
&/?rf lend G 48, 88 
lesest liist liis-/st perdis S 
tew les S, G 32, Mm<t les-er G 34 
lesses les-ez rclicta porci, G 37 

Zmow les - n G 101 

let let sinere etiam impedire, S 

letters let-eiz G 43 

leviathan lev /a than ? G 25 

lewed leud G 89 

lib lib castrare S 

Libyan Letr/an G 148 

lice leis S, lais G 41, lais or liis Ben 


lick b'k S, Bull 

lid lid S 

fo'e lai jacio mentior, lay lai jacebam, 

liedldvS. mentiebar, ai Haav Idin Jacui, 

laid mentitus sum G 51 
&/" liif carum S 
Wes leiz mendacia S, laiz G 21 
lieutenant liiften'ant G 66 
life laif G 68 
%Ai lmt leit, lux aut levis S, lm't 

Bull, laikht G 23, lighter laikht-er 

G 21 
lightnings laikht - n?'qz G 23 
lightsome laikht-suni G 148 
like b'k S, laik G 23, 32 
liken laikn G 85 

likewise laik-waiz G 32, lijkwijse C 21 
lily lil'i Sa 
limb lira. S 

lime leim S, laim G 38 
linch h'ntsh or stiip seid of a ml, Bull 
lines lainz G 37 
link leqk Bull 
linked liqk-ed G 101 
lions lai-onz G 24 
lips lips S 

/idlest S, l*st G 110 
lit lit tingere S 

literature h't-eratyyr G 30, 129 
little li't-1 parvus Bull, G 34, 74, liitT 

ralde parvus, G 35 
live v. liv G 20, 25, living h'vtq G 101 
liverwort liverwurt G 38 
load lood G 89 
loaf loof pants vulgato more rotundas 

f actus S, loaves = looves C 16 
loath loth Bull 
loathe loodh Bull 
loathsome loth-sum G 103 
lob lob stultus S 

lock lok S, Bull, look inclusum Bull 
lodge lodzh S 
lofty loft-? G 141 
log log S 

logik lodzh-ik G 38 
loiter lorter Bull 
London Londn S, Lmrdon G 70, Lon*- 

don? G 134, Lun-un Wade et tabel- 

larii apud G pr, Luu-un lintrarii 

G pr 
long loq G 20 
loof luni procul S 


look luuk S, Bull, looketh luuk-eth 

loose luus S, loo us lous loos G 18, 19 

lord loord S, Bull, lord G 21 

lordship lordsh/p G 27 

loseth=looseth C 10 

fo*s los S, G 20, 90 

&>< lot sors S 

loud loud G 74, B 

louse lous pedicultcs S, G 41, louzpedi- 
culos legere S 

lousy louz - i S 

fow luuv S, luv G 59 et passim, loov 
C 23, Jowrf hived G 35, 54, luvd 
usitatissimus est hie metaplasmus in 
verbalibus passivis in ed G 136, 
loved' st luvedst non luvedest G 53 

lovely luvlei G 101 

lovers luvers ? G 114 

loving luvj'q G 35 

low lou mug ire Sa, loou humilis G 21, 
40, 114, 119 

luck luk Sa, S, Bull, G 38 

lug lug auriculas vellere S 

Luke Lyyk ? Bull 

lukewarm leyyk-war'm ? Bull 

lull lul G 101 

lump lump Bull 

harden lur'den ignavus S 

lust lust Sa, G 118 

lustihead lus - tmed G 27 

lusty lus'tt G 27 

ffjflce maas clava vel sceptrum S, Bull, 

made maad G 22 
magnify mag'rofai G 31, 134 
wiat'rf maid, J/c^s meed G 18 
mainprise mauvpra Uull 
maintain maintein* Bull 
maintenance maurtenans G 28 
maize maiz G 28 
majesty madzlresta' Sa, maa'dzhestai 

G 22, madzlrestai G 23 
make maak Bull, maak C 3, maketh 

maak - eth G 23 
malady mahadai G 133 
Maiden MAAhlen G 91 
mul< maal (ill! 
malice maWs G pr 
mall uiaa\ marous G 12 
mallow mal'oou G 41 
malt malt G 37 
man man Sa, S, G 24 
manage mairadzh G 122 
maud ma'nd sporta Bull 
mane maan S 
manicle maiWkl G 30 
manifold manw'l'oould G 25, 105 

manners man-erz G 43, 94 
manqueller mairkjoel'er homicida S 
manure manyyr - G 132 
many man - * G 39, 101 
maple maa - p'l Bull 
mar mar corrumpere, S 
mare maar equa S 
margent mardzhent G 30 
marriageable marz'dzhabl G 129 
marry mar-j G 74, married marked G 

mark mark G 110 
marl marl G 38 
marvel marvail G 88, marvelled =mar- 

veild C 9 
mash mash aquam hordeo temperare, et 

macula retium S 
mass mas mes missa S, mas Bull 
master mas-ter G 75, 95 
mat mat S 
match matsh S 
matchable matsh'abl G 100 
material material G 30 
maw mau P, S 

may mai possum, rustici maai, Sc Transtr 
maa S, mai non me G pr, 24, maai 
G 21, mee cor B, may est maist non 
marest G 54 
maze maaz Sa, S, Bull 
me mii P, S, G 10, 44 
meal meel Sa 

mean miin intelligere S ( = mien=vul- 

tus ? see p. 112 n ) meen mediocre S, 

Bull, meen G 77, meaneth meen*eth 

G 109 

meat meet, miit Mops G 18, meat Bor 

G 16 
meditation med<'taa - sion G 25 
meek miik G 110 
meel miil se immiscere, Sa 
meet miit S, G 67 
melancholy melankolai place of accent 

not marked and uncertain G 38 
melted melt-ed G 23, melting mehWq 

men men Sa, S, G 21, 39 
merchandise mertsha'ndj'z Bull 
merchantable martshantabl G 129 
merchants niartshants G 93 
merciful mersiful G 21 
Mercury Merkurai ? G 84 
mercy mersi G pr 21, 116, 121, 

mersai G 149 
mere miir Bull 
meridional meridional G 30 
meriting meWtj'q G 114 
mess mes ferculum , S 
message mes - adzh G 118, 146 
mettle met'l d metallum G 30 
mew {for a hatch), myy P, S, meu vox 
catorum S, mieu H 


mice meis S, mais G 41, mais or miis 

Ben Jonson. 
Michael Mei-kel ? Sa 
Michaelmass Mei'kelmas ? Sa 
middes mtds ? medium S 
might nnkht Sa, mmt Bull, nu'kht 

G 52, maikkt G 38, 56 
mile mail G 70 
mitt nn'lk S, G 38 
mill mil G 86 
million im'Won G 71 
mind mund Bull, niaind G 33, 52, 90 
mine main G pr, 1 
minion mm* ion G 129 
ministers muWsterz G 24 
mint mmt G 41 
minute mm'yyt G 70 
mirrors m/rors G 101 
mirth merth G 38, m/rth G 145 
mischance nnstshans- G 116 
mischief mts'tshiif G 20, 106, 149 
misconceived nnskonseeved G 112 
miscreant mz's - kreant G 105 
mise meiz sumptus vel off<e cervisiu madi- 

factce, S 
miser marzer G 134 
miserable imz - erabl G 129, 184 
misery miz-eri G 129, 134, mizerai* 
poet G 130, miseries miz - eraiz G 125 
misgive mt'sgt'v G 33 
misplace mtsplaas* G 33 
miss mis careo S 
mistake nn'staak - G 32 

mixture nuks'tyyr Bull 

moan moon G 145 

moderator moderaa'tor G 30 

moist moist G 99, 119 

moisten moistn G 133 

molest molest - G 117 

Moll Mai Mariola G 12 

Monday Mmrdai B 

monster monaster G 124 

strus valde prodigiosan, moooon-strus 
prodigiosum adeo ut hominem stupidet 

moneys mmW-z G 41 

month munth G 144, B 

monument nioiryyment G 

mood muud S, Bull 

moon muun G 12, 24 

more moor S, G 25, moor C 5 

morning monWq G 106 

morrow moroou G 125 

mortal mor-tA.A.1? G 97, 116 

mortar morter cementum G 38 

Moses — Moosees C 19 

moss mos S 

most moost G 34 

?»o</wmudlrerBull, G 112, B,moother 
moyer C 2, mooyer C 12 

mould moould G 124 

mound mound B 

mountains moun'tainz G 24 

mourn muur'u Bull 

mouse mous mus, mouz derorare S, mous 

mus G 41 
mouth mouth G 21, B 
move muuv G 118 B, moved muuved 

mow muu P, mou met a fceni, moou 

metere aut irridere os distorquendo , S 
much mutsh S, much good do it you, 

DH'tslrgood-j'tJO, Sa, mutsh G 34, 89 
muck muk S, G 38 
mud mud S, G 38 
mule myyl mula S 
mulet myyiet mulus, S 
multipliable muH/plaiabl G 129 
multiply muHiplei G 31 
multitude mul-ti'tyyd G 22, 30, 129 
mum mum tace, S 
mumble monrbl senum edentulorum 

more mandere, aut inter denies mussi- 

tare S, mumbled niunrbled G 101 
murder murder, murdher dialectus 

variat G pr, murdher G 106 
murmur murmur G 119 
murr mur rancedo S 
murrain murain B 
muse myyz Sa, S 

music myyzt'k G 38, muu'ztk ? G 150 
must must G 64 
mustard mus-terd G 38 
mutton mut - n G 39 
my mai G pr N 


nag nag Sa, S 

nail nail, nails na;lz Sa 

nailed naild G 111 

name naam Bull, G 22, naam C 1 

narr nar ringere more canum S 

narrow naru Sa, narrower naroouer, 

Occ narg-er G 18 
nations nasionz Bull, naa'sions G 21 
nativity nativiti G pr 
nature naa'tyyi' Bull, natyyr ? G 98 
naught nAAkht vitiosum aut malum G 

naughty —noughti C 21 
nay nai S, nee cor B 
near niir S, neer H, neer G 34, 104, nier 

G 84, niir B, nearer nerer ? G 34 
neat neet G 7 
neb neb rostrum S 
necessary nes - esari Bull 
necessity neses-eti Bull, G 139 
neck nek S 
nectar nek*tar G 98 
need niid G 20, 87, 98 
needle =nedel C 19 


ne'er neer G 112 

neese niiz sternutamentum S 

neither neidh-er G 75, neeidlrer G 45, 

nother C 6 
Neptune Neptyyn G 121 
nesh nesh tener S 
nest nest S, weste nests G 24 
«e< net Sa, G 7, 77 
new ny nyy S, Bull, nyy G 22, news 

nj7z G 27 
next nekst G 34 
nibble m'M Sn 
niffles m'f ds m'/«7 S 
wj^A m'kh Sa, naikh G 79 
night nikht S, naikht G 92 
m'W ntl wofo G 32, 65 
««>n nim nem cape, Occ G 18 
nimble m'nrbl G 149 
nine nain G 71 
nineteen nahrtiin G 71 
ninety nahrtt G 71 
ninth nainth G 71 
no no S, G 20 

noble noo-bl Bull, G 148, no-bl ? G 83 
none noon G 9, 75 
nones noonz G 37 
noon nuun G 12 
north north Bull 
nose nooz, S 
not not S, G 20 
note noot S, G 123, 134, noted noo'ted 

G 113 
nothing nottWq Bull, G 32, 38 
nought nouHt nauHt S, noukht G 32 
n'ould nould? nolebam G 65 
nourish nur/sh B, nourishethmivisheth 

novice novts G 113 
noyous norus G 104 
now nou Sa, G 100 
number nunrber Bull, numbersnunvbeiz 

G 141 
numerous nunrerus ? G 141 
nymphs m'mfs G 114 

oak ook Bull 

oaken oo - k'n Bull 

oath ooth Bull, ooth C 26 

oaten ot - n ? G 146 

obey obeei- P, obei- Bull, obai* G 87 

occasion oka - ZH)ii Bull, okaa - zion tris- 

syllabus, usitatissimua G 131, 136 
occupy ok , yyp»?Bull,of£ , M^*« - ok - yj"paier 

o'clock a klok G 93 
odds odz G 4 1 
of of S, Bull, ov frequentius, of docti 

inter dum G pr, 20 
ryfof Bull, G 79, 103 
offal of -al G 39 

offence ofens* G 82 

o/«- of -er Bull, G 88 

offering of Tz'q G 22 

offspring of -spring G 76 

oft oft G 20 

oftentimes of-tentaimz G 142 

oil oil G 24 

ointment ointment Bull 

old o'ld Bull, ooidd G 70, et errata 

omnipotent omnip-otent G 135 

on on G 79 

once oons G 21, 93, 116 

one oon Bull, G 70, oon C 5 

only oondt G 20, oondai G 21, oonli 

C 19 
ooze uuz G 7, ooz ? G 37 
open oop - n G 20, openest oop'nest G 25, 

opened oop - ned G 47 
opinion opinion G 30, 129 
opposed opooz - ed G 133 
oppressed, opres - ed G 43 
oppression opres-e'on G 21 
oranges or eindzhe'z Sa 
order order G 30 
ornament ornament G 107 
orthography ortog'raft Bull 
other odirer out udlrer alii S, udh'er 

Bull, udh"er frequentius, odirer docti 

inter dum G pr, 45, udh'er B 
ought owht Bull, ooukht G 68, 80, 

ooukht Bor B 
our uur Bull, our G pr, 22, ou - er B 
Ouse Ouz Isis G 40 
ot^uut Bull, out G 23, 66 
outlet out'let G 33 
outpeaking out - peek - «q G 136 
outrage out'raadzh G 128 
outrun out-run G 128 
over over Bull, G 24 
overcome overkunr G 117, overcame 

overkaam- G 107 
overseer oversrer G 36 
overtake overtaak- G 33 
overthrow overthroou Bull 
over thwart overthwart Bull 
overture overtyp G 30 
owest=ouest C 18 
own ooun G 22 
ox oks Sa 60, oxen oks - n G, oks'n non 

oksen G 20, 42, 146 
Oxford Oks ford G 70 
oyez, Jii ctiam d pnrconibus plur alius 

effertur, oo jiiz, 6 vos omnes et singuli 


pace paas passus S, paas G 70 
packing pak'tq G 100 
page padzh vernula S 
pain pain P, S, G 20, 119, pained 
paind G 97 


paint paint peint S, paint G 52 

pair parer Bull 

pale paal Sa, G 91 

pap pap Sa, S 

paper paa - p?r Sa 

paradise paradais G 38 

pardon par-don G 88 

parentage parentadzk G 110 

parents paa - rents G 68, 102 

partaker partaadcer G 100 

pass pas S, G 24, 110 

passion pas'i'on G 110, in the following 
quotation from Sydney s Arcadia, 
3, 1, being the conclusion of an ac- 
centual hexameter, and the whole of 
an accentual pentameter, in each of 
which it for vis a dactyl, — reez - n tu 
mi pas - j"on iild-ed — Pasv'on un - tu mi 
raadzh, raadzh tu a HasW revendzh - . 

pat pat ictus S 

patient pas - ;'ent Bull 

patience paa si'ens G 109 

patronise pat - ronaiz G 141 

Paul's Pooulz in the French manner B 

pawn pAAn G 14, 93 

pay pai, rustici paai, Mops pee, Sc et 
Transtr paa S, pai G 88, Lin paa 
abjecto i ; Aust post diphthongum 
dialysin a odiose producunt, paai G 
17, paai G 86, pee cor B, pays paaiz 
G 117 

paynim parnnn G 111 

peace pees G 73, peas C 20 

pear peer P Sa 

pease peez pisa S, peez G 41, Occ peez - n 

peck pek S 

peel piil S, pd of an ap-'l, Bull 

peer piir P, Sa 

peerless pireiies G 110 

pen pen Sa, S 

pence pens G 42 

penny pen - *' G 42 

pennyroyal pen-arai-al G 38 

pent pent S 

Pentecost Pen-tekost G 134 

people piipd Bull, G 4, 41, B, peopil C 9 

pepper peper G 38 

perceive persev ? G 29 

perch peertsh G 70 

perfect perfet Bull, perfekt G 123, 
pfight C 5 

perform perfooT'm Bidl 

personal personal G pr 

personality personaWtt G pr 

persons pers-onz non pers - nz G pr, 72 

perspicuity perspikyyeti G 29 

perspicuous perspjk-yyus G 30 

pertain pertain- Bull 

perversely perversdt G 141 

pettitoes peWtooz G 37 

pewter peuder G 69, B 

Pharisees = Pharisais C 23 

pheasant fez-aunt ? Sa 

Philip FtNp Bull 

philosophers fdos - oferz G 74 

phlegm fleem G 38 

phoenix fee - mks B 

physician =phisition C 9 

pick pik S 

plckrel p«k - rel lupulus G 35 

picture p^k'tyyr Bull 

piece piis Bull 

pies peiz S 

pig p?g_S 

pike peik lucius S, paik G 35 

Pilate = Pilaat C 27 

pile peil Bull, pail G 28 

pill pj'l Bidl 

pillory pzTori Bull 

pin pm Bull 

pine pain emaciare S, Bull, pain G 105 

piss p/s S Bull, 

pit pat S 

pitch ps'tsh G 38 

pith pe'tk S 

pity ptti G pr, 83, 87, 129 

place plaas Bull, G 24, 98, 100, 125 

plague plaag Sa 

plaice plais passer piscis Bull 

plain plain G 85 

plaint plaint G 130 

planted plant-ed G 24 

plate plaat rasa argentea G 38 

Plato Plat-o G 74 

play plai S, G 18, Mops plee G 18, 

plee cor B, plays plaiz Bull 
pleasant pleez - ant G 142 
please pleez S, pleaseth pleez - eth G, 

pleasing plees'jq ? G 118 
pleasure plee'zyyr G 144 
pledge pledzh G 88, 101 
plentiful plentiful G 84 
pock pok scabies grandis S 
poesy po - ess G 141 
point point, fortasse puint, mucro, indice 

monstrare, et ligula S, puuint G 88 
poke pook S 
pole pool pertica G 7 
poll pol capitulum lepidissi?num G 7 
pool puul S 

poor puur Sa, S, G 141 
pop pop, bulla, aut popismus, et irri- 

dendi nota, S 
pope poop papa, S 
poplar popdar G 105 
porch poortsh G 123 
pore poor proprius intueri tit lusciosi 

faciunt S 
Portugal Poorttqgal cor Sa 
pot pot S 
potager pot'andzker Sa 


potent poo-tent G 134 

pottage pot - adzh G 37 

poundage pound adzh G 27 

pour puur \>o\\xfunde ; pour out cffunde 

S, pouur H, pour G 21, pou'er B 
power pou - er S, H, pour G 21, 79, 125, 

praise praiz G 21 
praiseworthy praiz - wurdlrei G 32 
pray prai non pre Q pr, prai, Mops pree 

G 18 
prayers prarerz G 110 
preach preetsh G 13 
precious pres'ms Bull 
prepare =prepaar C 2 
presence prez-ens G 23 
present preez'ent G 69, 84 
preserveth prezerveth G 23 
president prez - ident G 110 
press— pr ease pr esse C 21 
presumed prezyynid* G 99 
prevent preevent* ? G 87, .pm^wterf pre- 
vented G 133 
prey prai G 24 
price v. pnYs Bull, prais G 89 
prick prik S, Bull 
pricket pn'lret G 100 

pride preid G 43, 99 

priest priist Bull 
prime preim G 112 

prince prins G 107, princes pn'ns'es G 

prism priz'm S 

prisoner priz'ner G 1 05 

private privat ? Bull 

privily pr*v*1t G 79 

privities prtvitais G 39 

proceeded prosiid-ed Bull 

prodigal proo'digAAl ? G 148 

profane, profaan" G 134 

profanely profaandai G 134 

profit prof- it G pr 31, profited proNted 

profitable prof-itabl G 31, 84 

prohibition, prooibis - iun Sa 

prolong proloq- G 133 

promise pronWs G 83 

proper prop-er G 84 

prophets =p'pheets C 1 1 

propone propoon - G 31 

propose propooz- G 86 

prosperous pros'perus B 

prostrate pros-traat G 1 49 

proud proud B, G 74, 105 

prove pruuv B 

provide proviid - Bull, provaid* G 86 

prowess prou-es G 116 
prudent prudent ? G 30 

puissance pyyis'ans Gill 

pull pul S 

pulley puW Bull 

punish punish G 89 punished =po- 

nisched C 10 
pure pyyr S, pyyer H 
pureness pyyrnes Sa 
purge purdzh B 
purity pyyritai G 39 
purple purpl G 106 
purpose purpooz G 104 ' 
purslain purslain portulaca G 38 
pursue pursyy G 90 
push push G 88 
put put pono G 48 


quail kwail G pr 

quake kwaak G pr, 103 

qualities kwal'itiz G 136 

quarrel kwarel S 

quassy (?) kw:as - i insalubris S 

quarter kwarter Sa, S, H 

quash kwash G pr 

quean k?#een, scortum S, Bull 

queen kwiin Sa, S, G pr, 110, kwia ? 

quench kwentsh Bull, G 24, 124 
quern, kwaar'n mola trusatilis Bull 
quest, kwest consilium S 
question kwesWon G 88 
quick kwik S 
quickly hwik'li G 34 
quicken kwik'n Bull 
quiet kweit quietus S, kwi - et ? G 38 
quill \.ioi\ S, quills kwilz G pr 
quilt kwilt tapetis suffulti lana genus 

quince kw>ms S, G 12 
quit, kwit, quietum aut liberatum, S, 

kwit G pr 
quite v. kweit liberare aut acceptum 

ferre S, kwdit G 121, adv. kwait G 

quoit koit, fortasse knit, jacere discum, S 
qvoth koth vel kwoth G 64 


race raas soboles G 39 

rag rag S 

rageth raa'dzeth G 99 

rail rail Sa, rails, railz Sa 

rain rain P, G 66, rain C 5 

raising raa'Ztq ? G 99 

Ralph Kaaf Bull 

ram ram S, rams ramz G 99 

rancorous raq - kerus G 106 

range raindzh B 

rank a. raqk, Aust roqk G 17 

rare raar Bull, G 101 

rat rat S 

rate v. raat G 89 

ratlines ratdiqz G 37 

rather raadher G 103 


raving raavj'q G 148 

raw rail S 

reach reetsh Bull 

read reed lego Bull, G 48, red ledum S, 
G 48, 134, reading reed^'q non 
riid-i'q, G pr, 95 

ready red - * G 84 

realm reelm G 122 

reap reep S 

rear reer S, G 105, ra?ra?ree - red G 114 

reason reez - n Bull, reasons reez - nz G 

rebuke rebyyk - G 24, rebuuh C 11 

receive reseiv Bull, reseev G 89 

reck riik ? curare S 

reckoning rek - m'q G 100 

recount rekount - G 86 

red red S 


redeem rediim - G 102 

redoubt redyyit ? munimentum pro tem- 
pore aut oceasione factum G 29 

redound redound- G 86 

redress redres - G 149 

reduce redyys - G 31 

reeds riidz G 146 

reek riik B 

reft reft G 100 

refuge ref "yydzb G 21 

refuse v. refyyz - G 101, 132 

register redzlr/ster G 129 

regrater regraa-ter G 129 

reign rein Hull, reigneth reeureth G 22, 
reigns rainz G 99 

rejoice redzbois - G 22 

release relees - G 89 

relief xftliif- G 38, 99 

religious reh'dzrWus G 81 

remaineth renmhreth G 87 

remember remenrber G 40 

remembrance remenrbrans G 23 

removed remuuved G 24 

rend rend G 48 

render render G 21 

renewest renyy'est G 25 

renowned renounced G 100 

rent rent Sa 

repine repiin - ? invideo G 88 

reported reported G 67 

reproach reprootsb - G 118 

requite rekwait - G 87 

resist resist- G 87 

resort rezort - G 142 

resound rezound - G 142 

respondence respon'dens G 119 

restore restoor G 122 

restrain restrain - G 89 

retain retain - G 103 

retire retail" G 99 

retrieve retriiv reindagari S 

return return - G 33 

revenge revendzb - G 110 

revive revaiv G 141 

rew reu B 

reward reward - G 89, 122 

rhyme raim G 141 

rib rtb S 

rich n'tsb, Bor raitsb G 17 

riches n'tsbez G 21 

rick r«k B 

rid red G 89 

ride reid H, Bull, ridden n'd - n S 

ridge redzb S 

rife raif G 99 

right rikh.t Sa 

righteous raikh - teus G 27 

righteously raikbt - euslai G 21 

righteousness raikh'teusnes G 27, righ- 
tuousnes C 5 

ring re'q G 93, ringing riq'iq Sa 

rip rip dissuere S 

ripe reip S 

rice rais G 37 

rise v. = rijs C 12 

river river Bull 

roach rootsb S 

roam rooum Bull 

roar roor G 22 

rob rob S, G 85 

robe roob S, G 106 

robbery rob»erai G 21 

rock rok colus vel rupes S, rok rupes 
G 20, 99 

rod rod S 

roe roo Sa 

rolling roouWq G 121 

Rome Euu'm Bull 

rook ruuk S 

room ruum Bull 

root ruut B 

rope roop S 

ropp rop intestinum S 

rose rooz ? Sa, roose C 2, roses roo - zez 

rosecheeked rooz - tsbiikt G 150 

rosy-fingered roo - z«'iVq - gred G 106 

rote root Bull 

roused rouzd G 107 

rove roov S 

row roou remigare Bull 

royal roi'al G 104 

rub rub S 

rubies ryy - b*'z G 99 

7-uek ruk acerrus, rucks ruks S 

rue rj7 P, ryy ruta S, ryy se posnitere 
G 145 

rueful ryy -fill G 100 

rujfxwi piscis percce similis S 

ruin ryyain - ? in an accentual penta- 
meter from Sydney's Arcadia 3, 1, 
O ju, alas ! so ai found, kAAz of htr 
on - li ryyain - G 146 


rule ryyl Bull, G 68 

rump rump, Lin strunt runt eauda G 17 

rumbling rum bh'q G 114 

run run, ran ran G 1 3, 49 

runners ruirerz G 114 

rural ryyral G 146 

rush riiih juncus S 

rust rust G 118 

rusty rust - * G 106 

ruth ryyth G 39 

rye rai G 37 


sable saabd Sa 

sackcloth sakklotb G 128 

sacred saakred G 98 

saddle Sa, sad-'l Bull, sadd G 133 

safeguard saaf -gard G 73 

safely — saafii C 27 

saffron saf-ern G 106 

said zed rustice, said non sed G pr, 67, 

sed Bor pro said G 17 
sailedsaild G 146, sailing saiWq G 105 
saints saints G 23 
sake = saa k C 5 
salable saadabl G 32 
sale saal Sa 
Sallusl Sal-ust G 84 
salmon sanvon G 77 
salt salt S, SAAlt G 27, 81 ■ 
saltish SAAl'ti'sh G 
salutation salutaa's^'on ? G 30 
salvation salvaa - s>'on G 20 
same saam Bull, G 45, saam C 5 
sanctuary saqlrtuarai G 22 
sanders san - derz santalum G 37 
sanicle san - «kl G 30 

sap sap G 24 

sat sat S 

satisfaction sati'sfak - s?on a Latino in io, 
proprium tamen accentum retinet in 
antepenultima G 129, shewing that 
-sion was regarded as txoo syllables. 

satisfy sat'tsfai G 87, satisfied saWsfaied 

Saturn Saa-turn G 100 

Saul Saul S 

save saav S, saving saav«q G 21 

saw sau S, saa G 1 4 

sax saks aratrvm Occ, G 

say sai non se G pr, saai G 22, saa Bor 
abjeclo i G 17, zai Or G 17, see cor 
B, sai ( ! 5 

scale skaal G 99 

'scapal skaapt <r 105 

scathe skatli G 106 

sceptre Bep't'r Bull 

science Bt'en Hull 

scissar.\ Btz'erz G 37 

scholar skolar potiu* quam skoler G ^?r, 
scholars skol'ars Mops skal'ers G 18 

school skuul Sa 

schoolmaster skuul'mas-ter G 86 

scolding skoould'iq G 95 

score skoor G 71 

scorn skorn G98, 141, scorned =scoorned 

scour skour B 
scourge skurdzh B 
scowl skoul B 

screech art skreik-uul Bull 
scribble skn'bd scribillare 
scripture scrip'tur ? see literature G 30 
scull skul S 

scurrility skuriHti G 112 
sea see Sa, G 22, see C 4, seas seez G 13 
seaJ seel S 

seam seem ff<&#s G 38 
search sertsh G 90 

season seez - «n Sa, seasons seez - nz G 24 
seats =seets C 23 
second sek - ond G 35, 71 
secure sekyyr G 147 
sedge sedzh, S 

see, sir Sa, S, G 23, seen siin G 7 
seeds siids Bull 
seek S, siik G 20 
seldom siil-dum Bull 
self self Bull, self sel-n Bor G 17, selves 

selvz Bull 
sell sel S, G 89 
semblance senrblans G 107 
Sempringham Senrpr/q-am media syllaba 

producitur [see Trumpington] G 134 
send send G 48, sendeth send-eth G 24, 

sent sent G 43 
senseless sensdes G 99 
set set G 48 

sergeant serdzhant G 82 
servant servant G 46 
serve serv G 23 
service serves G 24 
set set plantavit S 
seven sevn G 71, seaven C 16 
seventeen sevntiin G 71 
seventh scvnth G 71 
seventy sevnti G 71 
Severn Severn G 40 
sew seu B 
sewed sooud G 

sewer seirer Bull, seeu - er dapifer G 15 
shade shaad G 118 
shadows shadoouz G 114, 144 
shale sbaal S 
shake shaak S 
shall sbal sbaul S, sha'l Bull, shal G 

20, 22, shall sba'lt Bull, Lin -st vt 

oi-st aul ai-st dhou-st mi-st jou-st 

dhci-st aut dhei sal, G 17 
shambles slianrblz G 37 
shame sbaam G 13, 38 
shape shap Sa 


share shaar ? P 

sharp sharp Bull 

shave shaav G 

Shaw ShAA G 14 

she shii P, S, G 44 

shears sherz G 37 

shed shed S, G 106 

sheep shiip Sa, S, Bull, G 41 

shell shel S 

shepherd = scheepherd C 9, shepherd's 

purse shep-herdz-purs G 38 
shew sheu S, G 22, 98, B, schew C 12, 

shews shoouz G 130, shewed sheu'ed 

Bull, sheud G 107 
shield ^oSM. G 103, 124 
shillings shiWqz G 89 
shin sh/n P, S 
shine shein S, shain G 21, 24, 116, 

schijn C 5 
ship snip- Bull, ships sh/ps G 25 
shiphook sh/p-miuk G 128 
shire, see Worcestershire 
shirt sh/rt P, sh/rt camiscia, Lin sark 

shittel sh/t - el levis S 
shoal shool S 
shock shok G 99 
shoe, spelled shoo, shuu P 
shook shuuk G 93 
shop shop S 
short short G 47 
shorten shorten G 47 
should shuuld G 24, Lin sud G 17 
shovel shuul Bull 
shout shout G 109 
shrew shreu P 
shrewd shreud G 75 
shrieked shriikt G 109 
shrill shril S, Bull, G 123 
shroud shroud G 114, shrouds shroudz 

shuffle shuf-'l or sleid oon th/q upon - 

shun shun S, G 147 
shut=sehit C 23 
side seid S, said G 99 
siege siidzh obsidio et sedes, S 
sift s/ft S 
sigh sin seiH S 
sight s/kht Sa, s/H't Bull 
sign sein S, sain G 4, 7, signs seinz Sa, 

sainz G 107 
silence s/l-ens? G 48, silent sarlent G 

150, sel-ent? G 143 
silk silk Sa 
silly s/W G 100 
silver stl'ver G 37, 91 
simony s/m on/ G 133 
simple s/m pi G 98 
sin sin Sa, S, G 7, 82 
sinners sarerz G 25 

sinful szirfnl G 118 

sing s/q, ^4?«£ z/q G 17, singing s/q/q 

sjjos s/ps G 98 
sir six Sa 
sister s/ster Bull 
s# s/t S, Occ z/t am se(& G 18 
six s/ks S, G 71 
sixth s/kst G 71 
sixteen s/ks - tiin G 71 
sixty s/ks - t/ G 71 
sire sair G 110 
skips sk/ps S 
slacked slakt G 120 
slay = slee C 5, s/«m slain G 20, slain 

jtec sliiv S 
slave slaav G 141 
slender slend'er G 99 
slew slyy S 

sley sleei P, a weaver's reed "Wright 
slime slaim G 39 
slipper sl/p-er G 116 
sluice slyys Bull 

slumber slunrber G 101, slomber C 25 
sluttish sluWsh G 74 
small smaul S, sma*l Bull, shiaaI G 25 
smart smart G 119 
smelt smelt G 77 
smiling smaiWq G 143 
smite smait G 1 24 
smock smok S 
smoke smook fumus S, G 25, it smokes 

it smuuks S 
smother smudh-er B 
smug smug levis politus S 
snaffle snat'-'l Bull 
snag snag G 89 
snatch snatsh G 107 
snew snyy ningebat S 
snuff snuf irasci aul agre ferre prce- 

sertim dum iram exsufflando naribus 

ostendit quis S 
so soo Sa 
soap soop S 

sober so-ber ? G 91, soo'ber G 149 
sock sok, socks soks S 
soft soft S, G 34, 111 
soil soil fortasse suil S, soil suuil «'/*- 

differenter G 15, suuil G 39, soil s. 

soil G 146 
solace sol - as G 1 14 
so/d soould Bull 
solder sod - er G 146 
soldierlike sool-dierlaik G 35 
soldiers sool-dieis G 74, souldiars C 27 
sole sool G 77, 117 
soles soolz G 102 
some sum G 4->, H 
somewhat sunrwhat G 45 
son sun S, G 13, 112, B, son Bull 


song soq G 10 

sonnet soiret G 146 

soon suun S, B, G 34, 123 

soot suut G 39 

soothe suudh Bull 

sop sop offa S 

sophisms sofv'zmz G 97 

sore soor P, G 98, 103 

sorrow soroou G 74, soro G 148, sorrows 

soroouz G 149 
sorrowful soroouful, Occ zorg - er pro 

moor soroouful G 18 
sought souH't S, sowht Bull 
soulsoovl G 20, 136, B 
sound suund Hull, sound G 15 
sour suur Bull, sower C 25 
souse sous G 98 
south smith Bull 
sovereign soverain G 110 
sow suu sus P, sou sus B, soou sero suo, 

sowed sooud serebam suebam, ai Haav 

soouu sevi, sooud sui G 51, sown sooun 

satum G 23, sooived = serebam C 25 
sower soou'or seminator Bull 
Spain Spain G 70 
spake spaak G 49 
span span G 70 
spangle spaq-gl, g ab n ratione sequentis 

liquids quodammodo distrahitur G 10 
Spanish Spamish G 70 
spared spaared G 75, sparing spaaWq 

sparks sparks G 124 
sparrow sparu Sa 
speak speek G 49, speek C 26, spoken 

spoo - kn G 21, 49, spok'n Lin G 6 
spear speer G 124 
special spes - m'l Bull 
speech spiitsh Bull 
spend spend G 48 
spice speis S, spits Bull 
spies speiz S, sp/;'z Bull 
spirit spiv it G 24, 133, sprite C 3, 

sprites spraits G 141 
spit spit, spat spuebam dialectus est 

spleen spliin G 106 
spoil spoil Bull, spuuil G 85 
spoon spuun G 13 
sport sport G 109 

sprainta spraints relicta lutrm G 37 
spread spired G 106, spreed C 9 
spMM spun G 13 
spy spu ? P 
squire skwoir G 124 
stable staab-1 S, staa-b'l Bull 
stack stak congeries S 
staff sM S 
stake staak S 
staZA stAAk G 73 
stand stand S, G 49, 89, standing 

stand" aiq G 93 

star star G 119, «£«•>• C 2 

store stAAr ? G 88 

starve starv G 119 

state staat G 97 

stately staaHi G 111 

staves staavz G 106 

stag stee cor, B, staged staid G 118 

steak steek o/« earn is S 

steal = steel O 6, stolen stool - n G 82 

steerf stiid B 

steek steke steik (?) stiik difficilem pro- 

dere S 
sta?j» stiip S, G 114 
steeple stiip-1 G 134 
stem stern S, G 141 ster'n Bull, 
stick sttk, sticks sU'ks S, st«k G 139 
stiff stif S 

stirs sti'rz G 82, stirred st?rd G 99 
s<oe& stok tr uncus aut sois S 
stafo stool S 
stone stoon, Sc staan stean S, stoon Bull, 

stoon G 38, stones— stoons C 3 
stony stoon - ? G 35 
stood stuud G 24, 49 
stool stuul S 
stork stork G 24 
stormy storm? G 99 
stout stout G 124 
stound stound G 1 20 
straight straikht G 105, streight C 7 
Strange Strandzh G 42 
stranger straindzlrer B 
straw strau S, strAAU G 10 
stray straai G 102 
strength streqth G 21 
strengtheneth streqtlrneth G 24 
stretchest stretslrest G 23 
strew, streu S, B, strAA G 104 
strife streif S, straif G 39 
strike v. straik G, imperf straak stn'k 

strook struk G 51, v. pres. straik, 

pret. stn'k G 134 
strive streiv S 
stroke strook G 120 
stubborn, stubborn G 120 
study stud* « G pr 
stuff stuf S 
stumble stunrbl S 
subject subxizhekt subditus, subdzhekt' 

subjicio G pr, 116 
subscribe subskrailv G 48 
substitute sub'stityyt G 30 
subtle sut-1 G 30, 97 
succour suk'ur B 
such sutsli G 118 
sucklings =soukl)nges C 21 
sudden sud'ain Gill 
suer BJJ'OT Bull 
suet syy-et Bull 
suffer suf - er Sa, G 87 
sufferance suf'eraus G 123 


suffice sufYz- ? G 87 

sufficient, sufiWent Bull 

sugar syy g-ar Bull 

suit syyt G 4 

sulking sulk'/q G 146 

sum sum Bull 

sh« sun S, G 13, B 

Sunday Smrdai G 92 

sundry smrdn G 39 

sunning sunvq G 91 

sunny siuW G 114, 141 

sunset suirset G 92 

superfluous syyperflyyus Bull 

superior super /or ? G 30 

supper sup-er G 93 

suppliant gap'ltant Gill 

supplicate supdikaat G 31 

suppose supooz' Bull, G 31 

surceaseth sursees - eth G 131 

sure svyr Sa, syyer H, Bull, syyr G 

13, 73 
surely syyrlai G 21, suerli C 3 
surety syyrtt G 86 
sustenance sus - tenans G 28 
swaddle swad'el S 
strain swaain G 98 
swallow swal'oou G 99 
swam swam G 50 
sicart swart livid us S 
swear sweer S, Bull, G 50, 101, sware 

swaar, swore swoor, sworn swoorn 

sweal sweel adurere crines Bull 
sioeat sweet S, swet Bull, sweat sudo, 

swet sadabam G 48, 134 
sweep swiip Bull 
sweet swiit S, Bull, G 25, 105 
swell swel Bull, swelling sweWq G 106 
swerve swarv G 119, swerr G 122 
swim sw«m G 50 
swine swim ? P, swgin G 41 
swink swtqk G 116 
swinktr sw/qk-er G 146 
sword swuurd swurd B 
swum swum G 50 
synagogues— synagoogs C 10 

tackling tak'ling G 43 

tail tail S 

Taillebois Tal-bois G 42 

take taak S, Bull, G 51 

taken taa'k'n Bull, taak-n G 51 

Talbot Tal bot G 73 

tale taal G 7 

talk ta'lk Bull, tAAlk potius quam tAAk 

Qpr, 103 
tall tAAl S, G 7, 105 
tallow taloou G 7 
tar tar S, G 39 
tare taar S 

taught tauHt S, tAAkht G 49, 59 

teach teetsh G 27 

teal teel anatis genus S 

tear teer rumpere aut lacryma S, teer 

lacerare, tiir lacryma B, v. teer C 7, 

tears 8. teerz G 100, 142 
teeth tiith G 41 
tell tel S 

temperance tenrperans G 30, 129 
temperate tenrperat G 30 
tempestuous tempest-eus G 99 
ten ten S, G 71 
tenderly ten-derlai G 120 
tenor ten -or G 120 
Tenterden Ten-terden G 133 
tenth tenth G 71 
tents tents Sa 
terms terms G 97, 103 
terror teror G 99 
tew teu emollire fricando S 
tewly tyyh' valetudinarius S 
Thame Taam Tama G 40 
Thames Temz G 74 
than dben G 79 
£/w«& tbaqk Sa, G 9 
that dhat Sa, Bull, G 45 
Thavies' Inn Davt'z /n Sa 
thaw thoou S 

£Ae dhe Sa, the evil dhi evil, ? S 
<Aee dbii ^ P, S, Bull, tbii valere Bull 
their dheeir G 21, theer yeer C 1, theirs 

dheeirz G 45 
them dhem G 44 themselves dhemselvz* 

then dhen S 
thence dbens G 98 
there dhaar, dheer S, dheer, dhoor Bor, 

G 17, theer C 1 
therefore dheerfor, Bull therfoor C 1 
thereof dheerof- Bull, G 22 
these dheez G 13, 4o, B 
<Aey dhei non dhe G /;>-, 10, dhei dhai 

G 19, dheei G 20, 23, dheei aut 

dhaai G 44, dhei, Aust in dhaai 

post diphthongi dialysin a odiose 

prodncunt G l7. the} C 1 
thick thi'k Sa, Bull, densum, mesosax- 

onice, dhdk Tra,<str, S, thi'k G 70, 

thief thiif G 92, thieves thiivz G, 

theeves C 6 
^('^ th/H, Bull 
thimble th('mb'l Bidl 
thin thm Sa, S, Bull, qxibusdam dhm, 

thine dhein Sa, S, dhoin G pr, 10 
<A(«^7 tliHj G /;;-, 9 
^/;a;/- thi'qk G 9 
</»'r^ th/rd G 35, 71 
thirst thirst G 24, 119 
thirsty thtrs'tt G 83, t hurst i C 5 



thirteen tlu'rtin, thirtihr, Occ tkroHin 

G 18, 70 
thirteenth tke'rtentk (?) Bull, tk«'rtiintk 

thirtieth tinrttth Bull 
thirty tki'rti G 71 
this dh?s Sa, Bull, G 9, 45 
thistle thi'sH Sa, tinst*'! Bull, tkt'stl G 

thither dliMhVer B 
Thomas Tonvas Sa, G 73 
Thor ? Thoor nomen proprium, S 
thorns = thoorns C 7 
thorough thorou (?) Sa, tkuroou, 
thruuH, Bull, tkuro aut tkroukk 
those dhooz Bull G 45 
thou dhou Sa, S, G 23, dkuu Bull 

thoiv C 1 
though dhoo, dhoou quamvis et quibus- 
dam tunc S, dhooiiH dhowk Bull, 
dkokk G 12, 65, 114 
thought tkowkt Bull, tliooukht G 49, 

54, 144 
thou' 11 dkoul, dkoust Bor pro dkou 

wilt, dkou shalt G 17 
thousand tkmrzand Bull, tkouz*and 

thousandth tkuu - zandtk, Bull, tkou - - 

zantk G 71 
thrall thral ? G 111 
thread tkreed, S 
threaten tkret-'n Bull, threatning 

tkreet-ning, G 
threuting tkreeWq G 99 
three tkrii Sa, G 28, 70 
thresher thresk'or Bull 
threw tkryy G 99, 110 
thrice tkrais G 93, thries C 26 
thrift thrift G 39 
thrive threiv S 

throne truun Sa, tkroon G 23, 104 
throng tkroq G 99 

through tkruukk Sa, tkruwk tkruuH 
Bull, tkrukk G 91, 102, tkroukk ? 
G 123 
throughout tkrmiH-UUt - Bull 
throw tkroou Bull, G 40, thrown 

tkrooun Bull, G 15, throown C 6 
thrust thrust G 88 
thy dhui G pr 

thunder thun-d'r Sa 40, tkund-er G 24 
tick ttk riciuus, S 
tickle t./k-l G 97 
till toil S 
till til donee S 
tillage ttl-adzh G 27 
timber ttm'ber G 39 
time ti/in Bull, teim, Lin tuum G 17, 

times l.iiniz G 21 
tin tin S, G 37 

tinder turder G 39 

tine tein perdere S 

tiny tornt G 35 

Titho?i's Tai-tkoonz G 106 

title tei-tl G 20 

to tu Sa, S, Bull, tu G 21, 79, 44, to 

G 45, to me tu mii S 
toe too Sa, S, Bull, toes tooz S, G 16, 

Lin toaz, G 16 
together tugedk-er G 25, togeedlrer 

G 98, together C 1, tog it her C 2 
toil toil, fortasse tuil S, tuuil Bull, 

toil tuuil indifferenter, G 15, tuuil 

G 106, B 
toilsome tvil # sum ? G 28 
token — tooken C 16 
toll tooul Sa, S, tooul illicere, too'l 

vectigal, Bull 
ton tun dolium S 
tongs toqz G 37 
tongue tuq G 14, 103 
too tuu S, too too tu tu nimium S 
took tuuk S, took ? Bull, tuuk G 51, 

took C 1 
tool tuul Bull 

tooth tuutk Bull, G 41, toth C 5 
top top Sa, tops tops S 
torn — toorn C 27 
tose tooz mollire lanas S 
toss tos S, tossed tos - ed G 99 
to to to to sonus cornuum S 
tottering tot - eriq G 20 
touch tutsk G 114, toucheth toutslretk ? 

tough tou touH lentum durum S 
£owse touz G 58 
tow toou S, Bull, G 39 
toward toward* G 28, tuward - ? B 
toivard-s toward-z* G 79 
towel tuu-el Bull 
tower tour Sa, touur H 
town toun S 
toy toi, fortasse tui, alii toe, ludicrum 

S, toys toiz G 15, 144 
^ratfe traad G 147 
tragedies tradzlredaiz G 141 
traitor traitor G 149 
transpose transpooz* G 120 
travail t raved cor B 
tread treed S, Bull, treed C 7, trodden 

= trooden C 6 
treason trcez - n G 83 
treasure tree - zyyr S, trez'yyr G 77, 

treasur C 6 
treatise tree't/s Bull 
trees triWz Sa, triiz G 22 
trembled trenvbled G 23, trembling 

trenvbltqG 119 
trentals tmrtalz G 117 
trick trik G 100 
trim trim elegans S, G 68 


trinkets tr/qk'ets instrumenta doliario- 
rum quibus vinum ab uno vase ex- 
haurittir in aliud G 37 

triumph trarumf G 66 

Trojan Trodzh-an G 74 

trouble trub-1 B, troub-1 G 69, 153, 
B, troubled trubded G 25, trobled 

trout trout B 

trow troo Sa, troou G 27 

truce tryys G 39 

true tr)7 P, Sa, S, Bull, G 27, B ? 

trueseeming tryysiinrq G 32 

true-turn = trutorn [i.e., true rendering 
or translation] C 10 

truly tryyli G 20 

Trumpington Trunrp/q-tun adeo elarus 
est accentus in primo trissyllabo, licet 
positione non eleuetur. Hie tamen 
cautelu opus, nam si ad positionem 
1. n. vel q. concurrat, media syllaba 
producitur G 134, [compare Abington 
Sempringham, Wymondham, wilful- 

trust trie* Sa, trust G 21, 27, 39 

trusty trust - ?' G 27 

truth truth ? G 39, tryyth G 22 

try trei purqare Bull, trai G 111 

tuft tuf Bull 

tumultuous tyymuKyyus G 106 

tun tun G 14 

tune tyyn S 

tunicle tyyntkl G 30 

turf turf S 

Turkey Turk? G 147 

turmoil tormoil, fortasse tormuil labo- 
rare S 

turn turn G 24, 93, 104 

tush tush dens exertus et interjectio con- 
temptus S 

twain twain G 99 

twelfth tuelfth G 71 

twelve tuelv G 71 

twentieth twen-t/th Bull, tuen'ttth G 71 

twenty tuen't? G 70, 71 

twice twais G 21, 89 

twine twim ? P, twein S 

twinkle tw^qk'l Sa 

twist twi'st S 

twizzle twc'z-'l or fork in a duuh of a 
trii, Bull 

two tuu Sa, S, G 13, 70, twuu Bull, 
tivoo C 4, two men tuu men S 

tympany tmrpanai G 38 


udder ud - er S 

ugly uglai G 118 

umbles um-blz intestina cervi G 37 

unabU uniiabl G 105 

unbid uub/d- G 32 

unblamed = vnblaamd C 12 

uncle nuqkd Sa, uqkd G 10 

uncleanness = vncleenes C 23 

under under Bull, G 34, 79 

underneath underneetlr G 121 

understand understand - G 28, understood 
understuud* Bull 

uneasy uneez - ?' Bull, G 77 

tmhonest unon-est Bull 

universities yym'versj'taiz G 77 

unknown unknooun - G 20 

unlucky unluW G 100 

unmoved unmuuved G 99 

until until- G 25, 107 

unto un-to G 21, 24 

univitting unwirti'q G 102, [in a quota- 
tion from Sjienser, answering to the 
orthography '• univeeting'] 

unworthy unvrardlri G 83 

up up G 79 

upon upon 1 G 20 

upright upraikht' G 23 

us us G 7, 21, 44 

use yyz uti, yys usus S, Bull, yyz non 
iuz G pr, 7, 87, used yyz*ed G 124 

utterly uteri* Bull 

vain vain Sa, Bull 

valleys val-eiz G 24 

valour val'or G 43 

value val-yy G 89, valew C 6 

vane faan, amussium venti index S 

vanity vaiWtj G 21 

vanquished yan-kivisht G 105 

varlet verlat Bull 

varnish vern/sh G 98 

vault vault insilire equo, vaut fornicare, 

Bull, voout camera S, vaut B. 
vaunt vAAnt G 89 
veal veel G 39 
veil vail G 9 
vein vain Sa, vein Bull 
velvet vel'vet Sa, G 28 
vengeance veu-dzhans G 103 
venger vendzlrer G 1 35 
vent vent S 
verily verth' S 
verses vers - ez G 112 
very vert S, G 23 
vetch fttsh G 37 

vicar vtk-ar S, G 17, Aust frk-ar G 17 
ytC«T9is G 113, v ices vaises ? G pr 
victory vtk'torai G 99, v»k*tor* G 100 
view vyy G 114, viewed vyyed S 
viewer vyyer H 
vigilant v/g"/lant ? G 30 
vigilancy Wdzh'ilanst G 129 
vile veil S, vail G 105 
villain vt'l'an G 105 
villanous vil-enus G 121 


vine vein Sa 

vinegar vnWger S, v/ireger, Aust fm 1 - 

eger G 17 
vine-prop vein-prop G 105 
vineyard = rijneyard vij'niard C 20 
virago v?'raa - go G 30 
virgin vtrdzntn G 30 
virtue vertyy Sa, vn-ryy, G pr, 73 
virtuous vj'rtuus ? G 77 
viscount vwkuunt Bull 
vital xvtal ? G 125 
vitrifiable mirum dixeris si tonum in 

quint a repereris, tamen sic lege, 

Wt-nfoiabl G 129 
voice vois Bull, G 24 
void void S 
vouchsafe voutshsaaf • G 110, voutsaaf' 

G 116 
vowed voired S 
vowel vo",el H, vuu*el Bull 


waded waad-ed G 80 

waggons wag'onz G 146 

wail wail S, G pr 

wait wait S, G, 20, 25 

wake waak G pr 

Walden Wald'n Waldinam S 

walk waaIIc potius quam, WAAk G pr, 

walketh walk-eth G 23, walked 

WAAlkt G 70 
wall waul Sa, waal ? S, wal Gr pr, waaI 

G 20, walls waaIz G 98 
wallow wallou ? G pr 
wan wan pallidas S, G 123 
wand wand S 
wander wand-er S, Bull, wandered ■wan-- 

dred G 102 
wane waan imminutio luminis hum S 
want want Bull, G 87, wanting wanWq 

war war S, Bull, G 100, warr war 

warbling warbliq G 119 
wards wardz G 1 1 7 
wan waar S, Bull, G 50 
warlike warlaik G 32 
warm war'm Bull 
warn waar'n Bull, warns warnz G 147, 

warning wanri'q G 100 
war;/ waa'ri G 149 
warren warden Bull 
was was S, H, <ras wast were waz 

wast weer, G 56, were weer G 56, 

weer, Bull, B, weer C 
wash waish ? Sa, wash G jsr, 58, washed 

washt G 113 
t/v/.w was]) G j»r 
uwtfe waast S, G 10, «'«ffs< C 26, 

wast nl waasted G 66, 112 

Wat "Wat, lepics S, H, {for Walter, 

name of the hare, as chanticleer, 

Reynard are names of the cock and 

watch waitsh Sa, watched watsht G 113 
water waa'ter, H, Bull, wat - er G 10, 

38, WAA-ter G 81, watereth waa-ter- 

eth G 24, waters waa-terz G 23, 24 

Waterdoicn "Waa-terdoun G 124 
waves waavz G 117 
waw wau unde, Sa 
wax waaks S, waks G 23 
way wai, rustici waai, Mops wee, Sc et 

Transtr waa, S, wai non ue G pr 

15, waai G 21 
we wii P, Sa, we ourselves wii uurselvz 1 

Bull, wii non uii G pr, 44 
weak week S, G 
wealth welth Bull, G 39 
wean ween ablactare S 
wear weer G 50, 98, ware—waar C 3, 

worn worn G 50 
wearling weerling not warling B 
weary weeri G 84, 100, B, wiira' cor B 
weasel, wiis'l B 
weather =weyer C 16 
wed wed S 
weed wiid S, Bull 
week wiik S 
weel wiil nassa Gil 
ween wiin opinari S, G pr 
weetpot wiit-pot farcimen Occ, G 18 
weesway wuz'waiframwn Occ, G 18 
weighs waiz G 93 
weight waikht G 9, 131, weights = 

waites [the sign Libra] C 20 
weir weer Sa 
welcome wehkurn G 33 
well wel bene S, H, G pr, 10 
we'll wiil Bor pro wii w«l G 17 
wen wen S 
wend wend G 65 
wench wentsh Bull 
went went G 65, jed, jood Lin, G 16 
were [see ' was '] 
weren—were weern G 124 
wet wet S, G 13 
wevil wii'T*l B 

whale Huaal imaal ( = whaal ?) S 
what Huat UHat S, what G pr, 11, 44 
w7i«?/HueeliiHeel (=wheel ?)pnstulaS 
wheat wheet triticum S, Hueet ( = 

wheet) H, wheet G 37 
wheaten whee't'n Bull 
wheel Huiil, uniil (=whiil) S, whiil 

G 11 
where mieer ( = wheer) H, B, wheer 

G 24, B, wher C 2 
wherry wher't B 
whet whet G 13, S 


whether whedlrer G 11, 45 
which whi'tsh Bull G 14, 44 
while Hueil imeil ( = wheil) S, whail 

G 112, whiles Huils (nueilz ?) or 

wheils S, Hiieilz H 
whiter e whaileer G 105 
whilom whail -urn G 113 
whirl wher'l, Bull 
whirlpool wherl-ptral, Bull 
whirlwind wln'rl'wmd G 149 
whistled whist'ld G 146 
white wh(Yt Bull, whait G 74 
whither whedlrer, Bull, B 
whittle wluVl w«th a kmYf Bull 
wAo whuu Bull, G 44, whom Huom 

(huooui ?), UHom (=whoom P) S, 

whoom G 105, whuum G 44, whoom 

C 3, whose whuuz G 44, wuuz ? G 

whoever whuuever G 135 
whole whool Bull, G 23, hoole C 4 
wholesome Hoobsum G 
whoop whuup Bull 
whore huut, Sc Hyyr S 
whoredom =whooredoome C 19 
whosoever whuu'soever G 33 
why huj (Huei ?), uh« (=whei ?) S 

whai G 99 whi C 26 
wick = week C 12 
wicked w/clred G 23 
wide weid Sa, waid G 70 
wield wiild G 110 
ividmv wMoou ? G ^r 
wt/fe weVf, «wes wzYvz, Bull 
wight waikht G 105 
wild waild G 24 
wile weil G 
wilfulness W8l*rul - ness, see Trumpington 

G 134 
m>«7£ wil S, H, wel G pr, Lin -1 w£ 

ei-1, dhou-1, mi-1, wii-1, jou-1' dhei-1, 

G 17, wilt w»lt G 54 
William Wd'tam G 77 
Wimbledon "WVnrbldun G 134 
win win Sa, S, Bull, G 7 
winch wmtsh Bull 
wind wnnd ventus Bull, waind ventus 

G 10, 23, winds — wijnds C 7 
winder wu'nd'er Bull 
windlas wund-las Bull 
window wtmcboor Bull, wmd^oou G 81 
windy wmihH Bull 

wine wein Sa, S, Bull, -wain G pr, 7, 38 
winge weindzh, see supra p. 763, n. 2, Sa 
wings w?qz G 23 
winking w/qWq Sa 
wipe WiVp Bull, waip G 124 
wise weis S, weiz H, vfiiz Bull, waiz 

G 105, wijs C 6 
wisdom \mz'dum Bull, w/z'dum G 25 

wisdoom C 11 

wish wish Sa 10, S, wish Sa, G 48 

wished wiisht ? G 48 
wist wist sciebam G 64 
wit wit S, Bull, wit G.p»-, 91 110, v. 

wit seio G 64 
wifc/j witsh Bull, G 14 
w«Ye f. wait vitupero, fere evanuit G 64 

[the pronunciation assigned was there- 
fore probably conjectural] 
with with Sa, Bull, widh frequentius, 

with docti interdum, G pr, w?th G 

20 et passim 
withdraw wrthdrAA* G 128, withdrew 

withdryy- G 91 
Without Wz'dh-am G 70 
withhold withnoould* G 33, 104 
within -within- G 79, B 
without without - G 33, 79 
withstand withstand" G 128 
withy widh'i salix Bull 
witness wit*nes G 42 
wizard = wisard wiseards C 2, 3 
woad wod ? glastum S 
woe woo S, G 81, 142 
woeful wooful G 102 
wolf wulf S, B 
womb womb S, wuum B 
woman wunran G 41, wuu-man B, 

women winven G 41, wiinren G 77 
won wun S 
wonder mrder (=wun*der) Sa, wiurder 

G 88, B, wonders, wuirderz G 22 
wondrous wuirdrus G 122 
wont wuntG 111, 142, B 
woo uu (=wuu?) Sa, wooed uoed ( = 

woo - ed ?) a procis ambita S 
wood wud S, G 10, 22, woods wudz G 

woof wuuf B 
wool u-ul (=wul?) lana S, wul G 

Worcestershire "Wus - tershiir G 70, 8 
word wurd Bull, G 10, word G 114, 

wuurd wxrrd B 
wore v. woor G 50 
work wurk Bull, G 21, works wurks 

workman wurk - man G 28, workmen = 

woorkmen C 20 
wwWworl'd Bull, world G 10, 23, 110 

worm wuur'ra Bull, wurm G pr, B 
worse wurs G 34 
worship worship Sa, G 22 
worst wurst G 34 
worth wurtb Bull, G 110 
worthy wurdlW G 83 
wost wust scis B 
wot v. wot Sa, G 64 
would wuuld S, Bull, B 
would' st wuuldst G 54 



wound wound vulnus S, wuund, Bor 
WAAnd [perhaps here to be read 
(waund)] G 16, wounds wuund-es in 
Spenser G 137 

wox woks G 123 

woxen woks-en crevisse S 

wrangler wraq-'lor (rwaqdor) Bull 

wrath wrath (nt'ath) G 99 

wrathful wratrrful (watb/ful) G 103 

wreak wreek (rweek) Sa 

wrest wrest (rwest) Sa 

wrestle wrest-'l (rwest - 'l) Bull 

wretch wretsh (™etsh) Bull, G 146, 
wretched wretslred (recetslred) G 117 

wrinkle wn'qk -, l (rMnqk-'l) Sa 

write wrait (rwoit), wr«'t (twit) scribe- 
bam, wroot (rwoot) imperfection com- 
mune, wraat (rwaat) Bor, ai Haav 
writ - n (rwn't-n) scripsi G 49, written 
wmt-'n (rwu't-'n) Bull supra, p. 114, 
writin C 2 

wrong wroq (rwoq) G 95, wronged wraqd 
(rwaqd) Bor G 122 

wroth wroth (rwoth) Bull, wrooth 
(rwooth) G 123 

wrought wroouH't, (rit'OUH't ?) wrowht 
(raowht) Bull, wroouHt wrowht 
(rit'oouHt rwowht) Bull, wrooukht 
(rwooukht) G 48 

Wymondham 'Winrund-ara media syl- 
laba producitur [see Trumpingtoti] 


yard jard Sa, jard virga aut area, S, 

jeerd G 70 
yark behind jark bemhd - posterioribus 

pedibus incutere, et proprie equorum S 
yarn jaar'n Bull, jam G 10 
yarrow jarou millifolium S 
yate jaat quod nunc L gate' gaat dicimus 

et scribimus S 

yawn jaun ? Sa 

Yaxley Jaksdei nomen proprium S 

ye jii Bull, G 20, 44, ji G 141 

yea see Sa 35 

year jiir Sa, Bull, B, jeer G 70 

yeast jiist {meant for jeest ?) cervisicc 

spuma quod alii barm vocant S 
yehl jeld ? Sa 
yell jel Sa 
yellow jel - ou Sa, S 
yeoman jenvan ? S, ju-man Bull 
yes sis alii sonant jes S, j«s G 10 
yesterday jes'terdai S, j?'sterdai G 77 
yet sit, alii sonant jet S G 102 
yew yy taxus arbor S 
yield jiild ? Sa, jiild S, Bull, G 22, 86, 
jeld concessit S, yielded iilded G 110, 
jiild-edG 117, ielded G 13 
yode jod G 106, see Went 
yoke jook G 10, 43, iook C 11 
yolk sookjugum S, jelk vitellum G 10 
yonder jon - der jen-der S, jon'der H 
York Jork Sa 

you jou vos S, juu H, Bull, jou juu 
observa jou sic scribi solere, et ab 
aliquibus pronunciari at a plerisque 
juu, tamen quia hoc nondum ubique 
obtinuit paulisper in medio relinquetw 
G 46, juu non iu G, pr, juu G 45, 
jou G 44, jou Mops ja G IS, yow C 
6, iou you C 10 
young juq, Sa, S, Bull, B, G 24, 112 
your juur, Bull, juur G 21, 95, yours 

juurz G 45, yoivrs C 6 
yunker juqk'er adolescens generosior S 
youth juuth ? Sa, juth Bull, jyyth G 
13, 46, juuth B, youths jyyths G 40 
zeal zeel G 13, 105 
zed zed litera z, S 
zodiak zo'deak ? G 29 
Zouch Zoutsh G 42 

Extracts from Kichard Mulcaster's Elementarie, 1582. 

Gill says in the preface to his Logonomia, " Occurrere quidem 
huic vitio [cacographise] viri boni et literati, sed irrito conatu ; 
ex equestri ordine Thomas Smithius ; cui volumen bene magnum op- 
posuit Rich. Mulcasterus : qui post magnam temporis et bonse charts; 
perditionem, omnia Consuetudini tanquam tyranno permittenda 
censet." Mulcaster's object in short was to teach, not the spelling 
of sounds, but what he considered the neatest style of spelling as 
derived from custom, in order to avoid the great confusion which 
then prevailed. He succeeded to the extent of largely influencing 
subsequent authorities. In Ben Jonson's Grammar, the Chapters 
on orthography are little more than abridgements of Mulcaster's. 
Sometimes the same examples are used, and the veiy faults of 
description are followed. It would have been difficult to make 



anything out of Mulcaster without the help of contemporary ortho- 
epists, and it appeared useless to quote him as an authority in Chap. 
III. But an account of the xvi th century pronunciation would be 
incomplete without some notice of his hook, and the value of his 
remarks has been insisted on by Messrs. Noyes and Peirce (infra 
p. 917, note). A few extracts are therefore given, with bracketted 
remarks. Chronologically, Mulcaster's book should have been 
noticed before Gill's, p. 845. But as he was a pure orthographer 
who only incidentally and obscurely noticed orthoepy, these 
extracts rightly form a postscript to the preceding vocabulary. 
The title of the book, which will be found in the Grenville collec- 
tion at the British Museum, is : — 

The first part of the elementarie which entreateth 

chefelie of the right writing of our English tung, set 

furth. by Richard Mvlcaster. Imprinted at London 

by Thomas Vautroullier dwelling in the blak-friers 

by Lud-gate, 1582. 

In Herbert's Ames, 2, 1073, it is said that no other part was ever 

published. In the following account, all is Mulcaster's except the 

passages inclosed in brackets, and the headings. The numbers at 

the end of each quotation refer to the page of Mulcaster's book. 

seuer, seue're." 151. — "Where the grave 
accent seems to mark absence of stress, 
the quality of the vowel changing or not.] 
Which diuersitie in sound, where occa- 
sion doth require it, is noted with the 
distinctions of time [meaning stress in 
reality, which he indicates by " ", be- 
cause in English versification imitating 
the classical, quantity was replaced by 
stress], and tune [meaning length, which 
he indicates by accent marks, and hence 
confuses with tune], tho generallie it 
nede not, considering our daielie cus- 
tom, which is both our best, and our 
commonest gide in such cases, is our 
ordinarie leader [and hence unfortu- 
nately he says as little as possible 
about it].— 110. 

The Towels Generally. , 

The vowells generallie sound either 
long as, comparing, reuenged, endlting, 
enclosure, presuming : or short as, ran- 
saking, reutlling, penitent, omnipotent, 
fortuned : [here the example revenged, 
which had certainly a short vowel, 
shews that by length and brevity, 
Mulcaster meant presence and absence 
of stress, which applies to every case ;] 
either sharp, as mate, mete, ripe, hope, 
duke, or flat as : mat, met, rip, hop, 
diik. [Here he only means long or 
short, and does not necessarily, or in- 
deed always, imply a difference of 
quality, as will appear under E. Oc- 
casionally, however, he certainly does 
denote a difference of quality by these 
accents, as will be seen under 0. In 
his "general table" of spelling, these 
accents seem frequently used to differ- 
entiate words, which only differed in 
their consonants, and it is impossible 
from his use of them to determine the 
sounds he perhaps meant to express. 
Thus in his chapter on Distinction, he 
says : " That the sharp and flat accents 
ar onelie to be set vpon the last syllab, 
where the sharp hath nianie causes to 
present it self : the flat onlie vpon som 
rare difference, as refuse, refuse, preshtt, 
present , record, record, differ, difftr, 


I call that proportion, when a num- 
ber of words of like sound ar writen 
with like letters, or if the like sound 
haue not the like letters, the cause why 
is shewed, as in hear, fear, dear, gear, 
wear [where the last word, which was 
certainly (weer), should determine the 
value of ea in the others to have been 
(ee) in Mulcaster's pronunciation, 
though, as others said (mir, fiir, diir) 
even in his day, this may be too hasty 
a conclusion]. — 124. 



A Besides this generall note for the 
time and tune, hath no particular thing 
worth the ohseruation in this place, as 
a letter, but it hath afterward in pro- 
portion, as a syllab. All the other 
vowells haue manie pretie notes. [This 
might mean that a always preserved its 
sound, and the other vowels did not. 
It is possible that the " pretie notes " 
only refer to his observations on them, 
and not to diversity of sound.] — 111. 

Ache, brac/ie, with the qualifying e, 
for without the e, t, goeth before ch. 
as patch, snatch, catch, smatch, watch. 
The stroHg ch. is mere foren, and 
therefor endeth no word with vs, but 
is turned into k, as stomak, monarjc. 
[This contest makes a long and ch = 
(tsh) in ache =(&&tsh). Yet in his 
general table p. 170, he spells both 
ache and ahe. See the illustrations of 
ache in Shakspere, infra § 8.] — 127. 

AI, EI. 

Ai, is the mans dip thong, and 
soundeth full : ei, the womans, and 
soundeth finish [= rather fine] in the 
same both sense, and vse ; a woman is 
deintie, and feinteth soon, the man 
fainteth not by cause he is nothing 
daintie. [Whether any really phonetic 
difference was meant, and if so of what 
kind, is problematical. Smith had 
said the same thing, supra p. 120, but 
with Smith the word diphthong had a, 
phonetic meaning, with Mulcaster it 
was simply a digraph, and he may 
have at most alluded to such differ- 
ences as (rese, ee) or (ee, ee ) . Compare 
the following paragraph.] — 119. 

No English word ewdeth in a, but 
in aie, as decaie, assaie, which writing 
and sound our vse hath won. [Does 
this confuse or distinguish the sounds 
of a, ai ? It might do both. It ought 
to distinguish, because the writing of 
ai being different from the writing of 
a, the mention of its sound should 
imply that that sound was also dif- 
ferent. But we cannot tell. See what 
follows.]— 125. 

Gate, (/rail, traie. And maid, said, 
quaif, English for coif, quail, sail, rail, 
mail, onelesse it were better to write 
these with the qualifying, e, quale, fale, 
rale, male. [If any phonetic consistency 
were predicable of an orthographical 
reformer,- — which, however, wc are not 
justified in assuming,— this ought to in- 

dicate a similarity of pronounciation 
between ai and a. To the same con- 
clusion tend :] Howbeit both the ter- 
minations be in vse to diuerse ends. 
Gain, pain, if not, Pane, gane, remane, 
and such as these terminations, be also 
vsed to diuerse ends, [these " diverse 
ends " being ; of course not to indicate 
diversity of sound, but diversity of 
sense ; it would be quite enough for 
Mulcaster to feel that the vowel was 
long, and that a final e, and not an in- 
serted i, was the "proper" way of 
marking length.] . . . Fair, pair, air, if 
not Fare, pare, are, both terminations 
also be vsed to diuerse ends. Wait, 
strait, if not Wate, strate. Straight or 
streight, bycause ai and ei, do enter- 
change vses. Aim, or ame, maim. 
Faint, restraint, faint, or feint, quaint, 
or queint . . . Ete, eight, sleight, height, 
weight, feild, yeild, sheild, the kinred 
between ei, and ai, maketh ei, not 
anie where so ordinarie, as in these 
terminations. [If we were incon- 
siderate enough to suppose that Mul- 
caster had any thought of representing 
the different sounds, as distinguished 
from the length, of vowels, all these 
cases, would be explicable by assuming 
ai = ei = (ee), and a long = (asae). 
But this would be somewhat opposed 
to other parts of Mulcaster, and to 
the writings of contemporaries, and is 
founded upon the groundless assumption 
just mentioned. As to the similarity 
of ai, a, see supra p. 867, col. 2, and 
Mr. "White's account of Elizabethan 
pronunciation, infra,.] — 136-7. 


Whensoeuer E, is the last letter, and 
soundeth, it soundeth sharp, as mi, se, 
we. agre. sailing in the, the article, ye 
the pronown, and in Latin words, or of 
a Latin form, when theie be vsed Eng- 
lish like, as certiorare, quandare, where 
e, soundeth full and erode after the 
originall Latin. [Here, as we know 
that the sounds were (mii, sii, wii, 
agrii", dhe), though (je) is not so cer- 
tain from other sources, we might sup- 
pose e = (ii), e = (e). Ben Jonson, 
however, in abstracting and adapting 
this passage, distinctly makes the sound 
(ii), saying (Gram. chap, iii.), " When 
it is the last letter, and soundeth, the 
sound is sharp, as in the French i. Ex- 
ample in me. se. agre. ye. she. in all, 
saving the article thi." Observe that 
ye is now (jii) and not (je). Observe 



also that quandary is referred to a 
Latin origin, quam dare, as if they 
were the first words of a writ.] When- 
soeuer e, is the last, and soundeth not, 
it either qualitieth som letter going 
before, or it is mere silent, and yet in 
neither kinde encreaseth it the number 
of syllabs. I call that E, qualifying, 
whose absence or presence, somtime 
altereth the vowell, somtime the con- 
sonant going next before it. It altereth 
the sound [length] of all the vowells, 
euen quite thorough one or mo conso- 
nants, as made, steme, eche, kinde, 
stripe, ore, cure, toste sound sharp 
with the qualifying E in their end : 
wheras, mad, stem, ech, frind, strip, or 
cur, tost, contract of tossed, sound flat 
without the same E. [Now as we 
know that steam, each, were (steem, 
eech), it follows that e represented 
either (ii) or (ee), that is, that the 
acute accent only represented length, 
independently of alteration in quality of 
tone ; there was such an alteration in 
cure, cur, certainly, and in stripe, strip, 
according to the current pronunciation; 
but there was or was not in se, steme, 
compared with stem, and hence we 
have no reason to infer that there was 
any in made, mad, &re, or. Ben Jonson 
alters the passage thus : ""Where it [E] 
endeth, and soundeth obscure, and 
faintly, it serves as an accent, to pro- 
duce the Vowell preceding: as in made, 
steme. stripe, ore. cure, which else 
would sound, mad. stem, strip, dr. cur." 
It is tolerably clear that by using 
"produce" in place of Mulcaster's 
"alter the sound," he intended to 
avoid the difficulty of considering steme 
= steam as (stiim), unless, indeed, he 
meant it to be a contraction for esteem. 
He omits the example each for a simi- 
lar reason.] — 111. 

Pert, desert, the most of these sorts 
be bissyllabs or aboue : besides that, 
a, dealeth verie much before the r, 
[meaning probably that er was often 
sounded (ar)]. By deserue, preserve, 
conserue, it should appear that either 
we strain the Latin s to our sound, or 
that theie had som sound of the z, ex- 
pressed by s, as well as we, [did he say 
(konzerv) ?] —132. 

I, in the same proportion [supra p. 
911] soundeth now sharp, as giuc, 
thriae, aline, wine, title, bible, now 
quik, as giue, Hue, sine, title, bible, 

which sounds ar to be distinguished by 
accent, if acquaintance will not seme 
in much reading. [As Ben Jonson 
uses the same words and notation, and 
we know that he must have distin- 
guished his i, i, as (ai, i) there is no 
reason for supposing that Mulcaster's / 
was anything but (ei) or (ai). But at 
the same time there is nothing to mili- 
tate against the contemporary Bullo- 
kar's (ii). And Mulcaster's pronunci- 
ation of ou as (uu), infra, p. 914, which 
is about the only certain result that 
can be elicited from his book, renders 
the (ii) probable.] — 115. 

I, besides the time and tune thereof 
noted before, hath a form somtime 
vowellish, somtime consonantish. In 
the vowellish sound either it endeth a 
former syllab or the verie last. When 
it endeth the last, and is it self the last 
letter, if it sound gentlie, it is qualified 
by the e, as manie, merle, tarie, carie, 
where the verie pen, will rather end in 
e, than in the naked i. If it sound 
sharp and loud, it is to be written y, 
having no, e, after it. as neding no quali- 
fication, deny, cry, defy. [This at any 
rate goes against Gill's use of final (ai), 
supra, p. 281, which, however, he only 
attributes to " numerus poeticus," Log. 
p. 130, in his Chap. 25, quoted at 
length, infra § 8.]— 113. 

If it [I] end the last syllab, with 
one or mo consonants after it, it is 
shrill [long] when the qualifying e, 
followeth, and if it be shrill [long] the 
qualifying e, must follow, as, repine, 
vnwise, minde, kinde, fiste [foist?]. If 
it be flat and quik, the qualifying e, 
must not follow, as, examin, behind, 
mist, Jist. [Observe (beHmd-) with a 
short vowel, and hence certainly not 
(beHeind - ) .] — 114. 

The quik i, and the gentle passant e, 
ar so near of kin, as theie enterchange 
places with pardon, as in descryed, or 
descryid, jindeth, or findith, hir, or her, 
the error is no heresie. — 115. 

If it [I] light somwhat quiklie vpon 
the s, then the s is single, as promts 
tretis, amis, aducrtis, enfranchis, etc. 
[This seems to establish (advert/s, en- 
frairclw's) as the common pronunci- 
ation.]— 133. 


is a letter of as great vncertaintie 
in our tung, as e, is of direction both 
alone in vowell, and combined in diph- 
thong. The cause is, for that in vowell 



it soundeth as much vpoa the u, which 
is his cosia, as upon the 6, which is his 
naturall, as in cbsen, dbsen, mother, 
which o, is still naturallie short, and, 
hosen, frosen, mother, which o, is na- 
turallie lowg. In the diphthong it 
soundeth more vpon the, u, then vpon 
the, o, as in found, tvound, cow, sow, 
bow, how, note, and bow, soiv, wrought, 
ought, mow, trough. Notwithstanding 
this varietie, yet our custom is so ac- 
quainted with the vse thereof, as it wil- 
be more difficultie to alter a known 
confusion, then profitable to bring in 
an vnknown reformation, in such an 
argument, where acquaintance makes 
iustice, and vse doth no man wrong. 
And yet where difference by note shall 
seem to be necessarie the titles of pro- 
portion and distinction will not omit 
the help. In the mean time thus much 
is to be noted of o : besides his time 
long and short, besides his tune with or 
without the qualifying e, sharp or flat, 
that when it is the last letter in the word, 
it soundeth sharp and loud, as ago, to, 
so, no. saue in to the preposition, two 
the numerall, do the verb : his com- 
pounds as. vndb,\x\s deriuatiues as doing. 
In the midle syllabs, for tune, it is 
sharp, as here, or flat if a consonant 
end the syllab after o. For time the 
polysyllab will bewraie it self in our 
dailie pronouncing : considering tho 
children and learners be ignorant, yet 
he is a verie simple teacher, that know- 
eth not the tuning of our ordinarie 
words, yea tho theie be enfranchised, as 
ignorant, impudent, impotent. va- 
rieth the sound in the same proportion, 
naie oftimes in the same letters, as loue, 
gloue, done, shoue, rembue, and loue, 
groue, shroue, none. This duble sound 
of o, in the vowell is Latinish, where 
o, and u, be great cosens, as in voltus, 
voltis, colo. And vultus, vultis, occulo : 
in the diphthong it is Grekish, for theie 
sound their ov, still vpon the u, tho it 
be contract of oo, or o 8 [there is some 
misprint in these oo, o e which is imi- 
tated here], wherein as their president 
[precedent] is our warrant against ob- 
lection in these, so must acquaintance 
be the mean to discern the duble force 
of this letter, where we finde it, and he 
that will learn our tung, must learn 
the writing of it to, being no more 
strange then other tungs be eucn in the 
writing. [It would seem by the general 
tenor of these remarks, that the two 
sounds of o were (oo, u), and even that 

the diphthong ou, in those words where 
it is said to " sound more upon, the, u 
then vpon the, o," had, as with Bullo- 
kar and Palsgrave, the sound of (uu). 
It is in fact difficult to conceive that 
Mulcaster pronounced otherwise. And 
this sounding of ou as (uu), leads, as 
before mentioned, p, 913, to the sus- 
picion of sounding i long as («).] — 115. 

0, in the end is said to sound lowd, 
as go, shro [shrew ?],fro, sauing to, do, 
tied, etc. ... before, 1, sounding like 
a dipthong causeth the 11, be dubbled, 
as troll. And if a consonant follow, 1, 
o, commonlie hath the same force, tho 
the 1, be but single, told, cold, bold, 
colt, dolt, coif, rolf, holt, holm, scold, 
dissolue. [The last example is pecu- 
liar.] 0, before m, in the beginning, 
or midle of a word, leading the syl- 
labs soundeth flat vpon the o, as om- 
nipotent, commend, but in the end it 
soundeth still vpon, the u, as som, com, 
dom, [hence the first is (o), the second 
(u)] and therfor in their deriuatiues, 
and compounds as welcom, truhlesom, 
newcom, cumbersom, kingdom. With e, 
after the m, as home, mome, rome 
[roam ?], and yet whom, from, haue 
no, e, by prerogatiue of vse, tho theie 
haue it in sound and seniing [that is 
are called (Hoom froom), which is 
strange, especially as regards from.'] . . . 
Or is a termination of som truble, when 
a consonant followeth, bycause it sound- 
eth so much vpon theu, as worm, form, 
[(furm) ?] sword, word, and yet the 
qualifying e, after wil bewraie an o, as 
the absence thereof will bewraie an u, 
storme, o, worm, u, lorde o, hord, u. — 

Good, stood, good. Hoof, roof. Look, 
took, book, hook. School, tool. Groom, 
bloom. Hoop, coop. If custom had 
not won this, why not ou ? Bycause of 
the sound which these diphthongs haue 
somtimes vpon the o, sometimes vpon 
the, u. I will note the o, sounding vpon 
himself, with the streight accent, by- 
cause that o, leadeth the lesse number. 
Bow, know, sow, and Bow, sow, cow, 
mow. [That is (buu, suu, kuu, muu), 
but there seem to be some misprints in 
what follows, compare the wrought, 
ought, mow, trough, given above.] 
Outch, croutch, slowtch. Lowde, lowdle. 
Houf, alouf. Gouge, bouge. Cough, 
ought, owght, of 6w, with, w, from the 
primitiue. Fought, nought, cbught, 
wrought, sought. again, Bought, 
mought, dought. Plough, rough, slough, 



enough. Soul, coul, skou/. Why not 
as well as with oo ? JRoum, brown, 
loum. Noun, croun, eloun, dawn. Own, 
grown, vpon the deriuatiue. Stoop, 
hup, droup, coup. Sound, ground, found. 
Our cowinonlie abreuationlike as our, 
the termination for enfranckisme;/ts, 
as autour, procuratour, as, er is for our 
our, as suter, writer : Boar, lour, flour, 
four, alone vpon the, 6. Mourn, ad- 
iourn. Howse, lowse, mowse, the verbes 
and deriuatiues vpon the, z, as House, 
louse, mouse, the nouns vpon the, s, 
Ous, our English cadence for Latin 
words in osus, as notorious, famous, 
populous, riotous, gorgeous, being as it 
were the vniting of the chefe letters in 
the two syllabs, o, and u, osus. Clout, 
lout, dout. [These instances are strong- 
ly confirmatiue of the close ou having 
been (uu) to Mulcaster, and his only 
knowing the open ou or (oou).] — 136. 


Thirdlie, oi, the diphthong sounding 
vpon the o, for difference sake, from 
the other, which soundeth vpon the u, 
wold be written with a y, as ioy, anoy, 
toy, boy, whereas anoint, appoint, foil, 
and such seme to have an u. And yet 
when, i, goeth before the diphthong, 
tho it sound upon the u, it were better 
oy then oi, as ioynt, ioyn, which theie 
shall soon perceiue, when theie mark 
the spede of their pen : likewise if oi 
with i, sound upon the o, it maie be 
noted for difference from the other 
sound, with the streight accent, as bote, 
enioie. — 117-8. 


V besides the notes of his form, be- 
sides his time and tune, is to be noted 
also not to end anie English word, 
which if it did it should sound sharp, 
as nu, trii, vert it. But to auoid the 

nakednesse of the small u, in the end 
we vse to write those terminations with 
ew the diphthong, as new, trew, vertew. 
[Whether this implies that u was 
called (iu), or that eiv was called (yy) 
occasionally, as in Smith and Pals- 
grave, it is hard to say. ] — 116. ' 


I call that a bissyllab, wherein there 
be two seuerall sounding vowells, as 
Asur, rasur, masur, and why not lasur ? 
[Are these words azure, rasure, mea- 
sure, leisure ? If so the orthography, 
or the confusion of a, ea, ei, into one 
sound, is very remarkable. Further on 
he writes :] Natur, statur, Measur, 
treasur. [Probably this settles the 
question of measure ; but the spelling 
would indicate that the final -ture, 
•sure, were (-tur, -sur,) which would 
have immediately generated the xvn th 
century (-tar, -sar), and not Gill's 
(-tyyr, -syyr). Probably both were in 
use at that time.] -137. This shortnesse 
or lewgth of time in the deriuatiues is 
a great leader, where to write or not 
to write the qualifying, e, in the end of 
simple words. For who will write, 
natur, perflt, measur, treasur, with an, 
e, in the end knowing their deriuatiues 
to be short, naturall, perfltlie, mea- 
sured, treasurer ? . . . . And again, 
fortun profit, comfort, must haue no, e, 
bycause fortunate, profiting, comforter, 
haue the last saue one short. [It will 
be seen in Chapter IX. § 2, in Hodges' s 
list of like and unlike words, after the 
vocabulary, that the pronunciation (-ter) 
or (-tar) prevailed at least as early as 
1643. See also the remarks in Mr. 
White's Elizabethan Pronunciation, 
infra. The examples fortun, fortu- 
nate, point to the early origin of the 
modern vulgarism (fAAt - n, fAAt'nj't.)] — 

Remarks from an Anonymous Black-letter Book, probably of the 
xvi th Century. 

As these pages were passing through the press, I met with 
an 8vo. black-letter book, without date or place, the date of 
which is supposed to be 1602 in the British Museum Catalogue, 
press-mark 828, f. 7, entitled : 

" Certaine grammar questions for the exercise of young 
Schollers in the learning of the Accidence." 
In the enumeration of the diphthongs, occur the following remarks 
which clearly point out ea as (ee), and distinguish /short aud i long- 
as having characteristically different sounds, probably (* ei) or (oi) : — 


*' ea fore full great 

ee or ie for i smal greefe 

ui for i Iroade guyde." 
The following curious passage shews that si- was hy error occa- 
sionally pronounced (sh) in reading Latin words, and hence had most 
probably the same unrecognized English sound at the close of the 
xvi th century. It is unfortunate that the book is of unknown date, 
and that there is nothing which suggests the date with certainty. 
The type and spelling have the appearance of the xvr th century, 
and there is a written note "happening byforhond," appended to 
Accidents on the last page of sig. B, which is apparently of that 
date, but there are other words on the next page in a much later 
hand. The information then must be taken for what it is worth, 
but it seems to be of Shakspere's time, and is important as the 
oldest notice of such a usage. 

" Q. Nowe what thinges doe yee obserue in reading i 

-r, mi , , . 1. ( Cleane sounding. 

E. These two thinges. n t, . * 

& 2. ( Dewe pawsmg. 

Q,. Wherein standeth cleane sounding '. 

E. In giuing to euery letter his iust and full sounde. In break- 
ing or diuiding euery worde duely into his seuerall syllables, so 
that euery syllable may bee hearde by himselfe and none drownd, 
nor slubbered 1)y ill fauouredly. In the right pronouncing of ti, 
whiche of vs is commonly sounded ci when any vowel doeth follow 
next after him or els not. And finally in avoyding all such vices 
as are of many foolishly vsed by euill custome. 

Q,. "What vices be those ' 

E. lotacismus. sounding i too broade. 

2. Labdacismus. sounding I too full. 

3. Ischnotes. mincing of a letter as feather for father. 

4. Traulismus. stammering or stutting. 

5. Plateasmus. too much mouthing of letters. 

6. Cheilostomia. marling or fumbling wordes in the mouth. 

7. Abusing of letters, as v for /. vat for fat. s for s as muza 
for musa. sh for ci. as fasho fovfacio dosham for doceam foclishum 
for felicium and such like. 

Q. "Wherein standeth due pawsing ? 

E. In right obseruation of the markes and prickes before 

Here the lotacismus may be considered to reprobate the pronunci- 
ation of Latin i as (ei). The Lambdacismus alludes to the intro- 
duction of (u) before (1). For both errors, see supra p. 744, note 1. 
The ischnotes (supra p. 90, n. 1) of feather for father, either means 
the actual use of the sound (feedh'cr) for (faadlrer), in which case 
this would be the earliest notice of the pronunciation of a long as 
(ee), but still as a reprobated vulgarism, antedating its recognition 
by nearly a century, — or else it means merely thinning a from (aa) 
to (oea)), which was no doubt sporadically existent at this early 
period. The enigmatical fedder of Salesbury may, as we have seen, 
also refer to father (supra, p. 750, n. 8), and both may indicate an 

Chap. VIII. § 8. 



anomalous pronunciation confined to that single word. The abusing 
of letters reminds one of Hart, supra p. 794, note 1. It is observable 
that the use of (z) for (s), in musa, is reprobated, although pro- 
bably universal, as at present, and is placed in the same category 
with (v) for (f ), a mere provincialism, and (sh) for ci-, which we 
here meet with for the first time, and notably in terms of reproba- 
tion, and after the distinct mention of the " right pronouncing of ti " 
as "of vs commonly sounded ci," meaning (s») "when any vowel 
doth follow next after him or els not." As late as 1673, E. Coote 
writes in his English Schoolmaster, p. 31 : " Rob. How many ways 
can you express this sound si? Joh. Only three; si, ci, aud sci 
or xi, which is csi. Rob. Now have you erred as well as I ; for ti 
before a vowel doth commonly sound si." So that (sh) was not 
even then acknowledged. It is curious that there is no reference to 
the use of (th) for t and d final, see supra, p. 844, under D and T. 

§ 8. On the Pronunciation of Shakspere. 

Our sources of information respecting the pronunciation of Shak- 
spere are twofold, external and internal. The external comprises 
those writers which have been examined in Chap. III., and illus- 
trated in the preceding sections of the present chapter. 1 Of these, 

1 The first published attempt to 
gather the pronunciation of Shakspere 
from the writings of preceding orthoe- 
pists is, so far as I know, an article in 
the " North American Review" for 
April, 1864, pp. 342-369, jointly writ- 
ten by Messrs. John B. Noyes and 
Charles S. Peirce. Unfortunately these 

fentlemen were not acquainted with 
alesbury, whose works are the key to 
all the others. Had they known this or- 
thoepist, the researches in my third and 
eighth chapters might have been unne- 
cessary. Salesbury's Welsh Dictionary 
first fell under my notice on 14 Feb. 
1859 ; his account of "Welsh pronunci- 
ation was apparently not then in the 
British Museum, and seems not to have 
been acquired till some years afterwards, 
during which time I vainly sought a 
copy, as it was necessary to establish 
the value of his Welsh transcriptions. 
I had finished my first examination of 
Salesburv. Smith, Hart, Bullokar, Gill, 
Butler, Wallis, Wilkins, Price, Miege, 
Jones, Buchanan, and Franklin, and 
sent the results for publication in the 
Appendix to the 3rd edition of my Plea 
(supra p. 631, note) in I860, but the 
printing of that work having been in- 
terrupted by the outbreak of the Civil 
War in America, they have not yet 
appeared. My attention was directed 

to Messrs. Noyes and Peirce' s article 
in March, 1865, and I noted all the 
works they quoted, some of which I 
have unfortunately not been able to 
see ; and others, especially R. Mulcas- 
ter's Elementarie, 1582 (supra p. 910), 
and Edward Coote's Scboole- Master, 
1624 (supra p. 47, 1. 19), which Mr. 
Noyes considers as only inferior to Gill 
and Wallis, I have scarcely found of 
any value. When I re-commenced my 
investigations at the close of 1866, 
since which time I have been engaged 
upon them with scarcely any inter- 
mission, I determined to conduct them 
independently of Messrs. Noyes and 
Peirce's labours, with the intention to 
compare our results. It will be found 
that we do not much differ, and the 
points of difference seem to be chiefly 
due to the larger field here covered 
(those gentlemen almost confined them- 
selves to Elizabethan times), aud per- 
haps to my long previous phonetic 
training, the following are the old 
writers cited by Messrs. Noyes and 
Peirce :— Palsgrave, Giles du Guez, Sir 
T. Smith, Bullokar, "JEsops Fables in 
true Ortography, with Grammar Notz, 
8vo., 1585 " (which I have not seen), 
P. Bales, 1590 (not seen). Gill, Butler, 
B. Jonson, Wallis, Baret, Gataker, 
Coote, Percival's Spanish Grammar, 


however, Palsgrave, Salesbury, Smith, and Hart, wrote before 
Shakspere's birth or when he was a baby (see table p. 50), and 
although Bullokar published his book when Shakspere was sixteen, 
it represents a much more archaic form of language than Hart's, 
of which the first draft (supra, p. 794, note) was written six years 
before Shakspere's birth. Gill, who was born the same year as 
Shakspere, should naturally be the best authority for the pronun- 
ciation of the time. He was head master of St. Paul's School 
during the last eight years of Shakspere's life, and he published the 
first edition of his book only three years after Shakspere's death. 
But Gill was a favourer of old habits. We have on record his 
contempt of the modern thinness of utterance then affected by the 
ladies (pp. 90, 91) and his objections to Hart's propensities in that 
direction (p. 122). Gill was a Lincolnshire man, of East Midland 
habits. Shakspere was a Staffordshire man, more inclined to West 
Midland. Hence, although Gill no doubt represented a recognized 
pronunciation, which would have been allowed on the stage, it is 
possible that Shakspere's individual habits may have tended in the 
direction which Gill reprobated. The pronunciation of the stage 
itself in the time of the Kembles used to be archaic, and our tra- 
gedians (or such of them as remain) still seem to affect similar 
habits. But it is possible that in Shakspere's time a different cus- 
tom prevailed, and that dramatic authors and actors rather affected 
the newest habits of the court. Hence the necessity for proving 
the indications of Gill and other writers by an examination of Shak- 
spere's own usage, so far as it can be determined from the very 
unsatisfactory condit